Ch01 2
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  • 1700’s Cottage Industry.... Machine power for human power.... factory system which resulted in greater productivity. 1790 Eli Whitney invented concept of interchangeable parts. Forced consistent production of parts. Variation evil. 1865 -1900 Joint stock companies formed changing capital structure of companies. Expansion into West created demand for products, development of rail lines provided quick, cheap transportation of goods. Also influx of labor from farm to urban centers. Early 1900’s Frederick Taylor developed the concept of Shop System. Henry Ford put concepts into practice with assembly lines that utilized modern scientific management concepts..... Standardized product design, mass production for low mfg. costs, mechanized the lines, specialization of labor, & interchangeable parts. 1927 -32 Hawtorne studies at Western Electric plant demonstrated human factors also impacted production. World War II required enormous qty’s of supplies, people, etc. Operations Research teams formed to develop models to manage the complex logistics. Linear programming, PERT/CPM, forecasting developed/refined. Accelerated after WWII, 2/3’s workforce in service and 2/3’s GNP generated by service industry.
  • Table 1.5 discusses the concepts, Figure 1.2 shows the model of inputs, conversion, and outputs, and Table 1.6 shows the diversity of production systems. Table 1.7 shows various jobs available in OM. Highly paid, active market right now. More companies recognize strategic importance of OM. E.G.. Assets management..... inventory. Millions of $ tied up that could be applied to NPI, process improvement, R&D. Strategic ... what kind of product, process, and facility... location.. LONG-TERM Operating .... Planning production to meet demand Control .... Day-to-day activity of workers, product, process

Ch01 2 Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Chapter 1
    • Introduction to Operations Management
  • 3. Overview
    • Introduction
    • Historical Milestones in OM
    • Factors Affecting OM Today
    • Different Ways of Studying OM
    • Wrap-Up: What World-Class Producers Do
  • 4. Introduction
    • Operations management is the management of an organization’s productive resources or its production system.
    • A production system takes inputs and converts them into outputs.
    • The conversion process is the predominant activity of a production system.
    • The primary concern of an operations manager is the activities of the conversion process.
  • 5. Organizational Model Marketing MIS Engineering HRM QA Accounting Sales Finance OM
  • 6. Entry-Level Jobs in OM
    • Purchasing planner/buyer
    • Production (or operations) supervisor
    • Production (or operations) scheduler/controller
    • Production (or operations) analyst
    • Inventory analyst
    • Quality specialist
  • 7. Historical Milestones in OM
    • The Industrial Revolution
    • Post-Civil War Period
    • Scientific Management
    • Human Relations and Behaviorism
    • Operations Research
    • The Service Revolution
  • 8. The Industrial Revolution
    • The industrial revolution developed in England in the 1700s.
    • The steam engine, invented by James Watt in 1764, largely replaced human and water power for factories.
    • Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations in 1776 touted the economic benefits of the specialization of labor .
    • Thus the late-1700s factories had not only machine power but also ways of planning and controlling the tasks of workers.
  • 9. The Industrial Revolution
    • The industrial revolution spread from England to other European countries and to the United Sates.
    • In 1790 an American, Eli Whitney, developed the concept of interchangeable parts .
    • The first great industry in the US was the textile industry.
    • In the 1800s the development of the gasoline engine and electricity further advanced the revolution.
    • By the mid-1800s, the old cottage system of production had been replaced by the factory system .
    • . . . more
  • 10. Post-Civil War Period
    • During the post-Civil War period great expansion of production capacity occurred.
    • By post-Civil War the following developments set the stage for the great production explosion of the 20th century:
      • increased capital and production capacity
      • the expanded urban workforce
      • new Western US markets
      • an effective national transportation system
  • 11. Scientific Management
    • Frederick Taylor is known as the father of scientific management . His shop system employed these steps:
      • Each worker’s skill, strength, and learning ability were determined.
      • Stopwatch studies were conducted to precisely set standard output per worker on each task.
      • Material specifications, work methods, and routing sequences were used to organize the shop.
      • Supervisors were carefully selected and trained.
      • Incentive pay systems were initiated.
  • 12. Scientific Management
    • In the 1920s, Ford Motor Company’s operation embodied the key elements of scientific management:
      • standardized product designs
      • mass production
      • low manufacturing costs
      • mechanized assembly lines
      • specialization of labor
      • interchangeable parts
  • 13. Human Relations and Behavioralism
    • In the 1927-1932 period, researchers in the Hawthorne Studies realized that human factors were affecting production.
    • Researchers and managers alike were recognizing that psychological and sociological factors affected production.
    • From the work of behavioralists came a gradual change in the way managers thought about and treated workers.
  • 14. Operations Research
    • During World War II, enormous quantities of resources (personnel, supplies, equipment, …) had to be deployed.
    • Military operations research (OR) teams were formed to deal with the complexity of the deployment.
    • After the war, operations researchers found their way back to universities, industry, government, and consulting firms.
    • OR helps operations managers make decisions when problems are complex and wrong decisions are costly.
  • 15. The Service Revolution
    • The creation of services organizations accelerated sharply after World War II.
    • Today, more than two-thirds of the US workforce is employed in services.
    • About two-thirds of the US GDP is from services.
    • There is a huge trade surplus in services.
    • Investment per office worker now exceeds the investment per factory worker.
    • Thus there is a growing need for service operations management.
  • 16. The Computer Revolution
    • Explosive growth of computer and communication technologies
    • Easy access to information and the availability of more information
    • Advances in software applications such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software
    • Widespread use of email
    • More and more firms becoming involved in E-Business using the Internet
    • Result: faster, better decisions over greater distances
  • 17. Today's Factors Affecting OM
    • Global Competition
    • Quality, Customer Service, and Cost Challenges
    • Rapid Expansion of Advanced Technologies
    • Continued Growth of the Service Sector
    • Scarcity of Operations Resources
    • Social-Responsibility Issues
  • 18. Studying Operations Management
    • Operations as a System
    • Decision Making in OM
  • 19. Operations as a System Inputs Outputs Conversion Subsystem Production System Control Subsystem
  • 20. Inputs of an Operations System
    • External
      • Legal, Economic, Social, Technological
    • Market
      • Competition, Customer Desires, Product Info.
    • Primary Resources
      • Materials, Personnel, Capital, Utilities
  • 21. Conversion Subsystem
    • Physical (Manufacturing)
    • Locational Services (Transportation)
    • Exchange Services (Retailing)
    • Storage Services (Warehousing)
    • Other Private Services (Insurance)
    • Government Services (Federal)
  • 22. Outputs of an Operations System
    • Direct
      • Products
      • Services
    • Indirect
      • Waste
      • Pollution
      • Technological Advances
  • 23. Production as an Organization Function
    • US companies cannot compete with marketing, finance, accounting, and engineering alone.
    • We focus on OM as we think of global competitiveness, because that is where the vast majority of a firm’s workers, capital assets, and expenses reside.
    • To succeed, a firm must have a strong operations function teaming with the other organization functions.
  • 24. Decision Making in OM
    • Strategic Decisions
    • Operating Decisions
    • Control Decisions
  • 25. Strategic Decisions
    • These decisions are of strategic importance and have long-term significance for the organization.
    • Examples include deciding:
      • the design for a new product’s production process
      • where to locate a new factory
      • whether to launch a new-product development plan
  • 26. Operating Decisions
    • These decisions are necessary if the ongoing production of goods and services is to satisfy market demands and provide profits.
    • Examples include deciding:
      • how much finished-goods inventory to carry
      • the amount of overtime to use next week
      • the details for purchasing raw material next month
  • 27. Control Decisions
    • These decisions concern the day-to-day activities of workers, quality of products and services, production and overhead costs, and machine maintenance.
    • Examples include deciding:
      • labor cost standards for a new product
      • frequency of preventive maintenance
      • new quality control acceptance criteria
  • 28. What Controls the Operations System?
    • Information about the outputs, the conversions, and the inputs is fed back to management.
    • This information is matched with management’s expectations
    • When there is a difference, management must take corrective action to maintain control of the system
  • 29. Wrap-Up: World Class Practice
    • OM important in any organization
    • Global competition forces rapid evolution of OM
    • Decision based framework focus of course
      • Strategic, Operating, and Control
  • 30. End of Chapter 1