The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) / (EIA) involves coating (binding) of an antigen (Protein) to a solid support such as a membrane (as used in immunoblotting/western blotting) or a 96-well micro plate (ELISA Plate). The coating is done using bicarbonate / carbonate coating buffer. Proteins which have not been separated by electrophoresis can be bound to membranes and analyzed with primary and secondary antibodies as in the immunoblotting procedure. Such analysis are often called dot blots. The more common format is to absorb the antigen to the wells of a 96-well microplate and to use substrates that produce a colored product. The ELISA is suitable for the analysis of large numbers of samples and most of the procedure can be automated.