IMPACT OF RELIGIONON ARCHITECTURESUBMITTED BY:L.AjithaCLASS-3
INTRODUCTION WHAT IS A RELIGION DIFFERENT RELIGIONS:THEIR TRADITIONS AND BELIEFSo HINDUISMo CHRISTIANITYo ISLAM ANALYSIS OF ARCHITECTURE IN RELATION TORELIGION:o HINDU ARCHITECTUREo CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTUREo ISLAM ARCHITECTUREo COMBINED EFFECT OF RELIGIONS OVER STRUCTURES CONCLUSIONLEGEND
•Histories of the role played by religions onarchitecture can be stretch back thousands ofyears ago.•Religious teachings have shaped the lives of peoplesince prehistoric times.•Architecture is both the process and product ofplanning, designing and construction.INTRODUCTION•Building first evolved out of the dynamics betweenneeds and means. As human cultures developed buildingbecame a highly formalized and respected versioncraft, this was named as “architecture”•The religion indirectly impacts each and every aspect oflife of it’s followers architecture is no exemption.
•Belief in something sacred•A distinction between sacred and profane objects.•Ritual acts focused on sacred objects.•A moral code believed to have a sacred or supernaturalbasis.•Characteristically religious feelings•Prayer and other forms of communication with thesupernatural.•A social group bound together by the above.RELIGION MEANSWorld’s 3 most practiced religions are of our concernhere, namelyHinduism - the oldest religion still practicedIslam - most practiced religion in the worldChristianity - modified form of Judaism
DHARMAKARMASAMSKARAMOKSHADIFFERENT RELIGIONS:THEIR TRADITIONS, BELIEFSHINDUISMThe term "Hinduism" refers to a wide variety ofreligious traditions and philosophiesProminent themes in Hinduism are: Hindus believe,•SANATHANA DHARMA,•Supreme Being and other divine beings.•KARMA,.•SAMSKARA ,•Soul reincarnates until all karmas have resolved andthen•MOKSHA,Hindu society has traditionally been categorized intofour classes, called VarnasThe Brahmins: teachers and priests;The Kshatriyas: warriors, nobles, and kings;The Vaishyas: farmers, merchants, and businessmen;
•God created all that is seen and unseen•Jesus is the Son of God and one with God•Jesus died and was buried•Jesus rose again (the Resurrection) andascended into Heaven•Jesus will return to judge the living and the dead•People who repent of their sins will be forgiven.•All believers should attend a local church.•Trinity is a basic Christian belief that one Godhas three aspects, the father (creator ofeverything), the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit(Gods presence in the world).•BaptismCHRISTIANITY
•Islam is the monotheistic religion and QURAN is theirholy book•Allah, the God is all-powerful, all-knowing and thecreator, sustainer, judge of the universe who ismerciful & compassionate.•The Qur’an teaches that Muslims are God’s servants.•The Holy Scripture also stresses that all individualsare equal before Allah and also stresses pluralism andtolerance.•Day of Resurrection &angels are fundamental beilefs.• Ritual prayers, must be performed five times a day.•Fasting, called "Sawm" during the month of Ramadhan•Giving a fixed portion of accumulated wealth by thoseISLAM
NALYSIS OF ARCHITECTURE IN RELATION TO RELIGION•The branch of Hindu which attempts to align theenergies is called Vaastu Shastra,. “vaastu” -abuilding or structure and “shastra” -study•Thus “vaastu shastra” is the science ofstructure, according to this1. It says there are forces, some positive and somenegative and it is in man’s interest to arrange hislife to take advantage of these positive forcesand avoid the effects of the negative forces.HINDUISM2. Hindu architecture always begins by laying MandalaPurusha ,the cosmic body of God (purusha) overevery building site (mandala).3. The site-square or rectangular4. The site-higher in the west than in the east5. Lawns and gardens with small plants-northern andeastern side. Large trees-south and western sides6. Main doors-open to the east, north or west7. The staircase-south, west or south-west corner8. Kitchen-south-east corner, north-west corner &cooking area facing east9. The treasury-never be located in the west or south-west10. The meditation area- north-east11. Garbage disposal and toilets-south-west corner
Hindu temple architecture is based onSthapatya Veda1. Temple also represents the subtle body withthe seven psychic centres or cakras2. The temple is always at a higher elevation thanthe others in a town signifying god is supreme.3. All temples have east facing or north eastfacing allowing God in as it is the direction ofhead of cosmic God4. A basic Hindu temple consists of an innersanctum, the garbhagriha or womb-chamber.The interior of garbhagriha is darkwith passages around.5. The sanctum is crowned by a tower-likeśikhara6. The exterior walls of the sanctum housesculpted images that portray various aspects.7. The most prominent features of South Indiantemples were enclosures around the templesand the Gopurams, main one at the veryentrance is called as Raja gopuram8. There are high-raised pillars called Dwajastambam usually present to locate a temple.9. The part of the temple just before the garbhagruha is called Maha mandapam and this is
Unlike the other two religions Christianity has nospecific rules or norms.A church meant a gathering place . By building achurch in a village or town, the citizens were benefitedCHRISTIANITY•A common architecture for churches isthe shape of a cross also include acircle, an octagon &star shape.•Majority of cathedrals have the westfront, normally the main entranceinternal emphasis upon the eastern endso that the congregation faces thedirection of the coming of Christ•Prominent external features are a domeor a central tower, facade or "westfront" ornate part of the exterior, aspire•The external decoration devices includecolumns, pilasters, arcading, cornices, moldings, finials and tracery most common•The architectural design of the church had several keyelements are to praise the glory of god, to incorporatereligious symbolism, toportray the stories of the bible and therefore educate the masses, andto show the wealth of the church and the supportingmonastery, merchants, and nobility
•The main body making the longer arm of the cross is called the nave.The naveis braced on either side by lower aisles•Naves have 3 elements:•Transept intersects the nave marked externally bytower or dome and internally by the piers andarches•Beyond the transept, the "choir normally containschoir stalls, the "sanctuary”, the"cathedra”•Further area beyond the choir the Presbytery ispresent where the priests make their privatedevotions•Altar is a table on which is laid the BlessedSacrament of bread and wine located in adesignated space called the sanctuary.•Sanctuary is often separated from the body ofthe font pulpit or rostruma lectern
Architecture is one of the greatest Islamic art forms. An Islamic style is seen inmosques but also in Muslim houses and gardens.Islamic architecture has been called the "architecture of the veil" because the beauty liesin the inner spaces which are not visible from the outsideMasjid has always been an integral elementManara Mihra &QiblawallMusallaFinaa’Minbar (mihrab) Wudhuw’ SabilSalah (interior of mosque)tends to have simplified decoration mihrab the exception to thisDIFFERENT ELEMENTS OF A MASJIDISLAM
•A traditional Islamic house isbuilt around a courtyard•Another key idea, is of asequence of spaces•Concentration is on theinterior•Large traditional houses havea complex double structure•Buildings are often highlydecorated and colour is oftena key featureQubba, or dome has calligraphy of HolyQuran•Decoration of the interior create the illusionspace is unlimited and application ofgeometric naturalistic calligraphic patterningis observed.
•The medieval period Indo-Islamic Architecturedeveloped.two main categories. They are-Delhi or the Imperial Style:The Imperial StyleSultans of Delhi.-The Mughal Architecture:Mughal architecture, an amalgam of Islamic•The main characteristic features of Mughalarchitecture are the bulbous domes, the slenderminarets with cupolas at the four corners, largehalls, massive vaulted gateways and delicate•The Indo-Islamic style hasspaciousness, massiveness,breadth .chief means of decoration are the use of geometryarabesque and calligraphyMuslims borrowed the design of kalash on the topof tomb or the mausoleum which is most importantsymbolMughal gardens are a group of gardens built by theMughals in the Indo-islamic style of architecture.Qutub minar a well-known imperial constructionwas once dhruv sthamab a hindu monument but it isCOMBINED EFFECT OF HINDUISM ANDISLAM
The churches in India particularly inMalabar had these three strickingfeatures:•the open-air granite (rock) cross•Kodimaram (Dwajasthamba•the rock Deepasthamba or lampstandApart from this,some of thechristian constructions erectedduring colonised as templesCOMBINED EFFECT OF CHRISTIANITY ANDHINDUISM
Christianity and islam have same origin and sohave many aspects in common, even architecture.COMBINED EFFECT OF ISLAM ANDCHRISTIANITYThe structures haveqabba, domes of Islamicmosques and large windowslike that of churches.The elongatedstructures are also presentin the mosque whichrepresent both spires andmanaras.
Religion arises out of the necessity to understand a universe .Religion has acted to complement our scientific understanding and answeredto questions too difficult for scienceBy presenting a set of guidelines and rituals as a balance against thedestructive side of human nature and key aspect of religion is trying torecreate this orderAs the religion has its mark on its followers, it indirectly impactseach and every aspect of life of it’s followers architecture is no exemption.Religion has been a major source of inspiration for the arts also.In all societies, architecture concretizes religion. The edificespeople erect and the spaces they shape support and reflect spiritualpractices and religious beliefs. thus the abstract religion is concretized bythe architecture.The two mediums order the relationships individuals developamongst themselves and towards nature and the supernatural world, thusproviding a framework for daily life.A transformation in religious practice alters the meaning of areligious environment thus in architecture.Thus both religion and architecture are inseparable from eachother and religion has its impact on architecture.CONCLUSION