Harapa Civilization

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This presentation provide information about Harappa Civilization. Its discovery, town planning, subsistence strategies of the people, major findings and theories of decline.

This presentation provide information about Harappa Civilization. Its discovery, town planning, subsistence strategies of the people, major findings and theories of decline.

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  • 1. HISTORY Harappa Civilization
  • 2. Concepts GLOBAL MANIA
  • 3. Concepts Introduction Discovery of Harappa Artifacts Subsistence Strategies Mohenjodaro Religion Decline
  • 4. Introduction Continuous efforts of archaeologists help us to know Letabout ancient people. They brought to surface the us study about one such river valley civilisation that flourished in Indian subcontinent. The civilisation that achievements of these people. has dated back Indian history for almost 5000 years, i.e., Harappa Civilisation. Fertile river valleys hadthese ancient of human The traces of been the cradle civilisation since time immemorial. cultures have been explored by the archaeologists across the world.
  • 5. Discovery of Harappa
  • 6. Initial Discovery By Cunningham Text and inscriptions used as guide to investigations Accounts left by Chinese Buddhist pilgrims used as reference Recovering artifacts of cultural value
  • 7. Harappa Discovered • In 1924 by John Marshall (Director-General of the ASI) • Formally announced to the world
  • 8. John Marshall • Stint as Director General of ASI • First professional archaeologist to work in India • Brought his experience of working in Greece and Crete to the field • Keen to excavate patterns of everyday life
  • 9. Style of Working • • • • • Excavated along different horizontal units Measured uniformly throughout the mound Ignored stratigraphy of the site Artifacts found from same unit grouped together Belonged to different strata of soil
  • 10. R.E.M. Wheeler • Became Director of ASI in 1944 • Rectified the problem of stratigraphy • Brought a military-like precision to excavation • Did not dig along uniform horizontal lines
  • 11. Phases of the Civilisation • • • • • Civilisation dated between c. 2600 and 1900 BCE Called the Mature Harappan Culture Earlier and later cultures existed Called Early Harappan and Late Harappan Existed in the same area
  • 12. Effects of Partition • Resulted in major sites being located in Pakistan • Spurred Indian archaeologists to locate Indian sites • Settlements recovered in Kutch and Punjab • Kalibangan, Lothal, Rakhi Garhi and Dholavira added to list
  • 13. Growing Interest • International interest in Harappan archaeology • Specialists working on the subcontinent • Use of modern scientific techniques including surface exploration • Trying to recover traces of clay, stone, metal and plant and animal remains • Available evidence minutely analysed
  • 14. Discovered Evidence Found fairly early in nineteenth century Reached Cunningham Importance not realised Missed significance of Harappa Sketch of seal given to Cunningham
  • 15. Significance Realised Harappa Seals • • • • Mohenjo-Daro Seals By discovery of more seals Recovered by Daya Ram Sahni More found at Mohenjodaro by R D Banerji Led to the decision that they belonged to a common culture
  • 16. Subsistence Strategies
  • 17. Dietary Habits • • • • • Wide range of plants and animals (including fish) eaten Charred grains found, reconstruct dietary habits Grains found include lentils, chickpeas and sesame Millets found from sites in Gujarat Finds of rice relatively rare
  • 18. Use of Animals • Animal bones found (include those of cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig) • Were domesticated • Bones of wild species (like boar, deer and gharial) also found • Were probably hunted
  • 19. Agriculture • Representations on seals and terracotta sculpture indicate that bull was known • Oxen used to plough field • Models of plough found – Cholistan and Banawali (Haryana) sites • Evidence of a ploughed field at Kalibangan (Rajasthan)
  • 20. Using Water • • • • Harappan sites located in semi-arid lands. Irrigation was probably required for agriculture. Traces of canals found at Shortughai in Afghanistan. Water reservoirs were found in Dholavira (Gujarat).
  • 21. Mohenjodaro
  • 22. Mohenjo-Daro • Most well known site • A planned urban centre • Better preserved than Harappa (which was destroyed unintentionally by brick robbers)
  • 23. Layout • Settlement divided into two sections: Layout of Mohenjo-Daro
  • 24. Citadel • Walled citadel • Was higher and smaller • Physically separated from lower town
  • 25. • Buildings constructed on mud brick platforms • Reason for unusual height • Had prominent structures like Warehouse, Granary and the Great bath
  • 26. Warehouse • • • • • Massive structure Probably used for special public purposes Lower brick portions remain Upper portions probably of wood Decayed now
  • 27. Great Bath • • • • • Large rectangular tank Surrounded by corridor on all sides Two flights of steps leading to water Tank made water-tight using mortar of gypsum Water flowed into large drain
  • 28. Length – 54 mts Breadth – 33 mts Thickness of outer wall – 3 mts Situated in rectangular verandah Surrounded by gallery and rooms Great bath centrally situated
  • 29. Distinctive Structure • • • • To the north lay a smaller building with eight bathrooms. Four on each side Drains from each bathroom connected to a drain. Scholars suggest that it was meant for some kind of a special ritual bath.
  • 30. Lower Town
  • 31. Features : Lower Town • • • • Was fortified Several buildings built on platforms Building activity restricted to a fixed area on the platforms. Settlement planned and implemented accordingly
  • 32. Houses • Rooms centred around a courtyard • Centre of activity like cooking and weaving
  • 33. Construction materials were used in Harappan houses. Grass and husk Door Mud plaster Window Reeds Bricks
  • 34. Layout of Harappan House No windows in the walls along ground level. Main entrance did not give view of inner courtyard.
  • 35. Other Rooms • • • • Bathrooms were paved with bricks in every house. Staircases were used to go to next floor. Evidence of wells discovered from some houses. Every house had one wall on the street.
  • 36. Waste Water • Eliminated through well planned drainage system • Drains were laid alongside streets in grid like arrangement. • Domestic waste water flowed into street drains. • Larger drains were lined in the centre of streets.
  • 37. Artifacts
  • 38. Classification of Artifacts Two Simple Methods • First: In terms of materials such as stone, clay, metal, bone and ivory • Second: In terms of function (more complicated ) – whether tool or ornament or both or meant for ritual use
  • 39. Function of the Artifact • Often shaped by its resemblance to present-day things • Beads, querns, stone blades and pots • Functions also identified by investigating the context in which it was found. • Artifacts found in a house, drain, grave or in a kiln.
  • 40. Classifying Artifacts • As (a) Utilitarian (b) Luxury • Utilitarian includes objects of daily use made of stone and clay. • Also includes querns, pottery, needles, flesh-rubbers (body scrubbers) • Found distributed throughout the settlement
  • 41. Artifacts of Luxury • If found rarely, classified by archaeologists as luxury • Pots of faience considered rare • Found only in large settlements • Artifacts made by raw material not available locally, considered luxury item
  • 42. Design of Beads • Some made of two or more stones cemented together • Some of stone with gold caps • Some decorated by incising or painting • Some had designs etched onto them • Shapes numerous – disc shaped, cylindrical, spherical, barrel-shaped, segmented
  • 43. Material for Beads Copper and Bronze Carnelian Jasper Steatite Quartz Crystal
  • 44. Material for Production • • • • Materials like clay available locally Stone, timber and metal procured from alluvial plains Models of bullock cart suggest transportation of material Riverine routes along Indus used for transportation
  • 45. Procuring Material • Shells from Nageshwar and Balakot • Lapis lazuli, a blue stone from Shortughai in Afghanistan • Carnelian from Lothal • Steatite from Gujarat and Rajasthan • Copper from Rajasthan • Gold from South India
  • 46. Burials • • • • • Dead laid out in pits Hollowed out burial pits lined with bricks Belief in afterlife prevalent Proved by existence of pottery and ornaments in graves Some dead buried with copper mirrors
  • 47. Identifying Centres of Production • By archaeologists • Looked for raw materials such as stone nodules, whole shells, copper ore, tools, unfinished objects, rejects and waste material • Waste best indicator of craft work at site
  • 48. Balakot • Harappan settlement near sea coast • Specialised centre for making shell objects including bangles, ladles and inlays • Taken to other settlements
  • 49. Chanhudaro • Small settlement (7 hectares) • Mohenjo-Daro (125 hectares) • Exclusively devoted to craft production like bead-making, shellcutting, metal-working, seal-making and weightmaking
  • 50. Contact with Distant Lands • Copper probably brought from Oman. • Omani copper and Harappan artifacts have traces of nickel suggesting a common origin. • Sea contact with Bahrain • Mentioned in Mesopotamian texts
  • 51. Sealings in Harappa • • • • Facilitated long distance communication Seals pressed on bags of goods Bag reaching intact meant not tampered with Sealing conveyed identity of sender
  • 52. Process of Sealing • • • • Goods were packed properly. Wet clay applied on it Impression of seal made on it Left it to become dry
  • 53. Harappan Script • • • • • Writing present on seals Most inscriptions short, longest with 26 signs Script not deciphered till date Not alphabetical, had too many signs – 375 to 400 Written from right to left
  • 54. Style of Writing Cramping Wider spacing Cramping Wider spacing • Scripts were probably written right to left. • It is proved by seals that show wider spacing on right and cramping on left. • The writer ran out of space while writing right to left.
  • 55. Script Found • On a variety of objects • On copper tools, rims of jars, copper and terracotta tablets, jewellery and bone rods
  • 56. Harappan Weights • • • • Very precise stones called Chert Usually cubical Had no markings Used to regulate exchanges
  • 57. • Lower denominations were Binary (1, 2, 4, 8,16, 32 etc. up to 12,800) • Higher denominations followed decimal system • Smaller weights used for weighing jewellery • Metal pans also found
  • 58. Authority in Harappa • Indications of complex decisions taken by higher authority • Uniformity in pottery, seals and weights across settlements • Uniformity in ratio of bricks • Settlements in specific locations Priest King
  • 59. Differing Opinions on Authority • • • • • As understood by some archaeologists Harappan society had no rulers. Equal status enjoyed by all citizens. Others feel that Mohenjo-Daro had a separate ruler. Some feel that there was a common state.
  • 60. Religion in Harappa • Seen by structures that may have been assigned ritual significance • Includes the Great Bath • Also fire altars found at Kalibangan and Lothal • Terracotta figurines of women who are heavily jewelled have been found. • Some had elaborate head-dresses. • Names like Mother Goddess signify a religious bent. Mother Goddess?
  • 61. Religious Beliefs and Practices • • • • Reconstructed by examining seals Some depict ritualistic scenes Some with plant motifs indicate nature worship Others with the ‘Unicorn’ indicate mythical creatures.
  • 62. Proto Shiva Seal • Shows a figure seated cross-legged in a “yogic” posture surrounded by animals • Regarded as depiction of “proto-Shiva”
  • 63. Decline of the Civilisation
  • 64. Signs of Decline Seen around c.1800 BCE Mature Harappan sites abandoned Transformation of material culture witnessed while distinctive artifacts disappeared
  • 65. • Sites located in Gujarat, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh witnessed simultaneous increase in population • House construction techniques show decline
  • 66. Factors for Decline • Historians not unanimous over causes of decline • Propounded many theories for decline  Ecological imbalance  Shifting of river beds  Frequent flooding  Aryan invasion
  • 67. Listing the Factors • Ecological imbalance: Increased human interference led to ecological changes and subsequent decline in land and agriculture. Shifts in monsoon pattern and changes in temperature left the area more arid. • Shifting of river beds: Changes in the drainage patterns and correspondent widespread flooding would have disrupted agricultural base. •Harappa: River Indus is at present flowing 4 km away from the present site.
  • 68. • Frequent flooding: It has been opined by historians that many Harappan sites were destroyed due to frequent flooding. •Mohenjodaro: Evidence has been found that it was devastated 7 times by floods. • Aryan invasion: Mortimer Wheeler presented the view that Aryans invasion may have led to the decline of Harappan civilisation. •Discovery of skeletons at Mohenjodaro without proper cremation. (Mohenjodaro = Mound of dead) Back to List Go to Map
  • 69. Now, on your FINGER TIPS… • Citadel: It was a fortress for protecting a town in the Harappan civilisation. This was built on a higher level in comparison to the town. Citadel was located on the western side of the settlement. • ASI: It stands for the Archaeological Survey of India. The department works under the Ministry of Culture. It is a premier organisation for archaeological research and protection of cultural heritage sites in India. • Stratigraphy: It is the study of strata or layers. It refers to the application of the Law of Superposition to soil and geological strata containing archaeological materials in order to determine the relative ages of layers.
  • 70. Continuing slides are supportive slides, need not to be seen individually.
  • 71. Excavation of Harappa Civilisation Charles Masson John Marshall R.D Banerjee 1853-56 1828 Alexander Cunningham 1946 1921 1920 1922 Mortimer Wheeler D.R Sahni
  • 72. Charles Masson • A deserter of EEIC’s Bengal artillery • 1827 – Left regiment at Agra, reached Indus lands • Territory not the part of EEIC’s Indian possession • First European to narrate about Harappan ruins • Wrote – “Narratives of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan and the Punjab” Back to Timeline
  • 73. Alexander Cunningham • Regarded as father of Indian Archaeology • Influenced by James Princep • His collection of rare Indian coins is on display at British Museum. • His most important contribution lies in identifying the lost cities of India. • He actively contributed in the excavation of Sarnath, Sanchi and Mahabodhi temple. Back to Timeline
  • 74. John Marshall • Director General of ASI from 1902 to 1928 • Involved native Indians to contribute in excavation of their own country • 1913: Excavated Taxila • Revealed Harappan civilisation to the world Back to Timeline
  • 75. D. R Sahni • Discovered and excavated Harappa • Aware of presence of ancient monument but never assumed of a city • Found some seals and considered it to be of pre- Aryan period • Excavation of 50 mts depth made Back to Timeline
  • 76. R.D Bannerjee • Discovered and excavated Mohenjodaro • Adopted stratigraphy method for excavating the site Back to Timeline
  • 77. Mortimer Wheeler • Became Director General of ASI in 1943 • Explored details of Indus Valley Civilisation at Mohenjodaro • Returned in 1948, became professor of Archaeology • 1949-50 – Archaeological Adviser to the Government of Pakistan Back to Timeline
  • 78. Amazing Facts • Harappans were the first cotton producers of the world. • Chnahudaro was the only site that had no citadel. • A weighing scale made up of ivory has been found from Lothal and Mohenjodaro. • The doors of houses in Lothal opened on main street. • The evidence of fortification of lower town found in Kalibangan. • The evidence of mummy found in Lothal testifies relations with Egypt.
  • 79. Global Mania
  • 80. Mesopotamia
  • 81. Geography of Mesopotamia Unpredictable rivers (Tigris and Euphrates) Flat land open to invasion Situated in semi-arid climatic zone Centre of the civilisation Steppes Plains Mountain of Iran Desert Inhabitable region Desert Desert
  • 82. In the north, lies a stretch of upland called a steppe where the north-east lies In animal herding is done. undulating plains green, with enough rainfall to grow crops. To the east, Locating Mesopotamia tributaries of the Tigris provide routes of communication into the mountains of Iran. The south is a desert - the first cities and writing emerged here. The Rivers Euphrates and Tigris Land of Diverse Environments made the regions fertile.
  • 83. • Mesopotamia was a succession of societies. Sumerian (Sumer) Akkad First Babylon Assyria Second Babylon
  • 84. Sumerian Society • • • • • Based on city-states Geography influenced development Theocratic form of government Divided into classes Class System Monarch/nobility Priests/scribes Commoners Slaves
  • 85. Ziggurats – stepped towers topped by temples
  • 86. Ziggurats were the focal point of the city-state.
  • 87. Cuneiform – First system of writing
  • 88. Cuneiform tablet with envelope
  • 89. Cuneiform – Developed to keep record of business transactions and taxes Later used for literature The first work of literature was the Epic of Gilgamesh – a Sumerian flood story
  • 90. Deciphered letters in Cuneiform and their equivalent English Alphabets Writing was reserved for the wealthy classes
  • 91. Sumerian Trade • Trade links with Egypt and Harappa • Sumerian mathematics based on 60 (clock and circle) • Sumerian astronomical charts basis for modern astronomy • Sumerians invented quadratic expressions
  • 92. Akkad Conquered Sumer – Akkad first empire Attempted to centralise power Sargon I – First emperor Absorbed Sumerian culture
  • 93. Babylon Conquered Akkad Continued Sumerian culture Code of Hammurabi  282 laws  Based on Lex Talonis (eye for an eye) and social class
  • 94. Assyria Conquered Babylon Highly organised military Ruthless and hated Largest of Mesopotamian empires
  • 95. Neo Babylon Founded by king Nebuchadnezzar Introduced hanging gardens Continued Sumerian culture Conquered by Persians Back to List Back to Map
  • 96. Egyptian Civilisation • Developed along river Nile • Also known as ‘Gift of Nile’ • Geography – Natural barriers  Desert  Mediterranean and Red seas • Form of government – Theocracy • Bureaucracy – vizier • Three major periods – Old, Middle and New Kingdoms
  • 97. The Old Kingdom Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt – King Menes (Narmer) Pharaoh (a God) – separated from population Era of peace Some trade with Mesopotamia/Africa
  • 98. The first pyramid Construction of Pyramids began Slavery not existed or was on less scale Kingdom fell due to power struggles with nobility
  • 99. The pyramids at Giza
  • 100. Contrary to popular belief, the pyramids were not built with slave labor but by the Egyptian people. How was it done?
  • 101. The Middle Kingdom • Pharaohs were more accessible. • They derived support from middle class. • Extensive trade links with Mesopotamia, Mediterranean, and Africa • Fell to Hyksos, supposed to be of Asiatic origin
  • 102. The New Kingdom Egyptians gained knowledge of war from Hyksos. Era of war and expansion Large slave population First female ruler: Hatshepsut
  • 103. Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) Established monotheism Aton: Sun God Shifted capital from Thebes to el-Amarna Akhenaton and his wife, Nefertiti Queen Nefertiti Had very short reign
  • 104. Tutankhamen Succeeded throne at the age of 9 yrs Polytheism restored by Tutankhamen Restored traditional privileges to priesthood Tried to restore relations with neighbours Quite successful, suggested by gifts recovered from his tomb Forensic experts have created the real Tutankhamen
  • 105. Tomb of Tutankhamen
  • 106. Ramses II Prolific ruler, fought to reclaim territories in Africa and West Asia 5th year of reign fought battle of Kadesh Won territories, later lost to Hittites Conquered by nomadic sea people Last real independent kingdom
  • 107. The Treaty of Kadesh
  • 108. Ramses the Great today Back to List Back to Map
  • 109. The Chinese Civilisation
  • 110. Geography of the Civilisation Flourished on banks of river Huang He River popularly known as “China‟s Sorrow” because of its devastating floods Northern borders vulnerable Western borders mostly covered by desert South-west frontier: Mighty Himalayas Eastern frontier: Pacific Ocean Civilisation centred around Arable land
  • 111. People and Rulers • Yangshao/Longshan People • Xia Dynasty – mythical? • Shang Dynasty: 3,000 states – Fragmented King – Head shaman Dynasty based on divine rule Technologically advanced Bureaucracy increasingly sophisticated
  • 112. Writing and Script Writing found on: Oracle Bones Prominently ideographic symbols Primarily for religious purpose
  • 113. Bronze Craft Bronze Sophisticated metallurgy skills Controlled by elites Used for religious rituals and weapons Back to List Back to Map
  • 114. Learning through Maps
  • 115. Four Great Civilisations Mesopotamian Civilisation Egyptian Civilisation Harappan Civilisation Chinese Civilisation
  • 116. Early Harappan Settlements Damb Sadaat Siswal culture Kot Diji Amri-Nal cultures
  • 117. Mature Harappan Settlements Sites located in India Manda Harappa Mitathal Ganeriwala Mohenjodaro Chanhudaro Banawali Kalibangan Dholavira Lothal Rangpur Sites located in Pakistan Back to List
  • 118. Harappa Trade Silver Harappa Copper & Steatite Copper Carnelian Gold
  • 119. Amri-Nal Culture Situated in Sindh province of modern Pakistan Excavated by N.G Majumdar First site to provide evidence of pre-Harappan artifacts No evidence of fortification Created artificial gulf for defence Evidence of reindeer found Back to List Back to Map
  • 120. Kot Diji Culture Situated on the left bank of river Indus in the Sindh province of Pakistan Excavated by Fazl Ahmad Khan (1955) Major discovery: Arrows made of stone Back to List Back to Map
  • 121. Damb Sadaat Culture Located in Baluchistan, outside Indus Valley Similarities evident in ceramic form and design Shows – these areas were in contact during middle and late third millennium B.C. Back to List Back to Map
  • 122. Siswal Culture • • • Located in Hissar district of Haryana Three stages of Harappan culture revealed Brought to light early Harappan ceramic culture with super imposition of late Siswal ceramic culture Back to List Back to Map
  • 123. Mix „n‟ Match Identify the Site
  • 124. Group these archaeological sites on the basis of their distribution in India and Pakistan. Ganeriwala Manda Harappa Mitathal Dholavira Banawali Mohenjodaro Chanhudaro Rangpur Lothal Back to List Solution
  • 125. Identify the Site • Located in Khadir Byet of Rann of Kutch • Stone slab having largest letters of Harappan script found • Located in Gujarat • Only site having three lines of fortifications Ans: Dholavira
  • 126. • Situated on left bank of river Ravi • First description provided by Charles Masson • Railway contractors used bricks of this settlement • Excavation began in 1921 under D.R Sahni Ans: Harappa
  • 127. • Situated on bank of River Bhogava • One of the production centres of the civilisation • A bead factory discovered from the site • Contributed in Harappan trade with distant lands Ans: Lothal
  • 128. Thanks for watching…