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Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
Recent advances in arch wires
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Recent advances in arch wires

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  • 1. PRESENTED BY Dr. Ajinkya A Patel Pg StudentDept of ORTHODONTICS
  • 2. INTRODUCTIONORTHODONTIC ARCH WIRE : “Generate the biomechanical forces transmitted through the brackets to effect tooth movement”
  • 3. Factors to be considered Amount of force  Need to weld or solder required  Corrosion resistance Stiffness  Biocompatibility Strength  Aesthetics Elastic working range or spring back  Frictional resistance Ease of manipulation  Load deflection rate or formability
  • 4. Purpose of Archwires1. Exert the force to move the teeth2. Maintain the arch form3. Acts as a track along which the teeth move4. Provides a pattern for the shape of the arch5. joins the brackets together from the distal of one side to the distal of the other6. Exerts force by being engaged in archwire slot
  • 5. ARCHWIRES1. Titanium Niobium wire2. Timolium titanium wire3. Super cable4. Combined archwire5. Bio force archwire6. Optiflex archwire7. Fiber reinforced composite archwire
  • 6. References:1. Titanium-niobium, a new finishing wire alloy. By Michel dalstra, Gabriella denes, birte melsen J.Clin orthod res. 2000 feb;3(1):6-142. A comparative evaluation of metallurgical properties of stainless steel and tma wires with Tiolium and titanium niobium archwires by r devaki vijayalakshmi,ks nagachandran, pradeep kummi, p jayakumar (indian j dent res,20(4),2009
  • 7. Titanium Niobium Wire It was introduced in early 1995 by DR ROHIT SACHDEVA &Manufactured by OrmcoPROPERTIES: Ti- nb is soft and easy to form, yet it has the same working range of stainless steel. Its stiffness is 20% lower than TMA and 70% lower than stainless steel. Ti-nb wire have a larger plastic range, similar activation and deactivation curves and relatively low spring back.
  • 8. TITANIUM NIOBIUM WIRE Its bending stiffness corresponding to 48% lower than that of stainless steel and a spring back 14% lower than that of stainless steel. We can easily make creative bends and avoid excessive force levels of a steel wire. The stiffness of ti-nb in torsion is only 36% of steel, yet the spring back of ti-nb in torsional mode is Slightly higher than stainless steel This property makes it possible to utilize the ti-nb wire for even the major third order corrections.
  • 9. TITANIUM NIOBIUM WIREClinical applicationsThe low spring back and high formability of the titanium- niobium archwire allows creation of finishing bendsHence, this wire can be used as an finishing archwire. ( J. Clin orthod res. 2000 feb;3(1):6-14).
  • 10. References:1. A comparative evaluation of metallurgical properties of stainless steel and tma wires with Tiolium and titanium niobium archwires by r devaki vijayalakshmi, ks nagachandran, pradeep kummi, p jayakumar (indian j dent res,20(4),20092. Mechanical Properties and Surface Characteristics of Three Archwire Vinod Krishnan, MDSa; K. Jyothindra Kumar, MDS, M. Orth RCS, MDO RCPS, FDS RCS Alloys (Angle Orthod 2004;74:825–831.)
  • 11. TIMOLIUM TITANIUM WIREIt is manufactured by TP ORTHODONTICSTimolium archwires combinesThe flexibility, continuous force and spring back of nickel titanium with the high stiffness and bendability of stainless steel wire.When compared to nickel titanium or beta titanium wire, (angle orthod 2004;74:825–831.)Timolium outperforms in the following:  More resistant to breakage,  Smoother for reduced friction,  Brightly polished and aesthetically pleasing,
  • 12. TIMOLIUM TITANIUM WIRE  Nickel free for sensitive patients,  Easier to bend and shape,  Can be welded  Loops and bends can be made without breakage
  • 13. TIMOLIUM TITANIUM WIREClinical applicationTimolium wire is excellent for all phases of treatment. During initial treatment : it is excellent for space closure, tooth alignment, levelling and bite opening. During intermediate treatment : early torque control can begin because of the moderate forces that are delivered. Final treatment phase: total control during detailing makes Timolium the wire of choice
  • 14. References:1. Supercable and the SPEED system by Berger J, Byloff FK, Waram T j clin orthod 1998 Apr;32(4):246-532. Alignment efficiency of superelastic coaxial nickel-titanium vs superelastic single-stranded nickel-titanium in relieving mandibular anterior crowding A randomized controlled prospective study by Biju Sebastiana (Angle Orthod.
  • 15. SUPER CABLEIn 1993, Hanson combined the mechanical advantages of multistranded cables with the material properties of superelastic wires to create a superelastic nickel titanium coaxial wire.This wire, called super cable, It comprises seven individual strands that are Woven together in a long, gentle spiral to maximize flexibility and minimize force delivery.
  • 16. SUPER CABLEPROPERTIES• Improved treatment efficiency• Simplified mechanotherapy• Elimination of archwire bending.• Flexibility and ease of engagement regardless of crowding
  • 17. SUPER CABLE No evidence of anchorage loss. A light, continuous level of force, preventing any adverse response of the supporting periodontium. Minimal patient discomfort after initial archwire placement. Fewer patient visits, due to longer archwire activation.
  • 18. SUPER CABLEDISADVANTAGES•Tendency of wire ends to fray if not cut with sharp instruments.•Tendency of archwires to break and unravel in extraction spaces•Inability to accommodate bends, steps, or helices.•Tendency of wire ends to migrate distally and occasionally irritate soft tissues as severely crowded or displaced teeth begin to align.
  • 19. References:1. Combination anchorage technique: an update of current mechanics by Thompson WJ. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1988 May;93(5):363-79.2. Dual-Flex Archwires by JAMES L. CANNON, DDS, MS JCO VOLUME 18 : NUMBER 09 : PAGES (648-649) 1984
  • 20. Combined wiresThe key to success in a multi attachment straight wire system is To have the ability to use light tipping movements in combination with rigid translation To be able to vary the location of either, at any time the need arises during treatment.They used three specific combined wires for the technique 1. Dual Flex-l, 2. Dual Flex-2, and 3. Dual Flex-3 (Lancer Orthodontics).
  • 21. COMBINED WIRESThe Dual Flex-1 it consists of a anterior section made of 0.016-inch round Titanal and a posterior section made of 0.016-inch round steel. The flexible front part easily aligns the anterior teeth and the rigid posterior part maintains the anchorage and molar control by means of the “V” bend, mesial to the molars. It is used at the beginning of treatment.
  • 22. COMBINED WIRES The Dual Flex-2  it consists of a flexible anterior segment composed of an 0.016 ´ 0.022-inch rectangular Titanal and a rigid posterior segment of round 0.018-inch steel.
  • 23. COMBINED WIRESThe Dual Flex-3, This however, consists of a flexible anterior part of an 0.017 ´ 0.025-inch Titanal rectangular wire and a posterior part of 0.018 square steel wire.The Dual Flex-2 and 3 wires establish anterior anchorage and control molar rotation during the closure of posterior spaces. They also initiate the anterior torque.
  • 24. References:1. Effect of coating on properties of esthetic orthodontic nickel-titanium wires by Masahiro Iijimaa; Takeshi Mugurumab; William A. Brantleyc; Han-CheolChoed; Angle Orthodontist, Vol 82, No 2, 2012
  • 25. BIOFORCE WIREIntroduced by GAC It was possible to produce variation in force delivery between archwires of identical dimension This was possible by specifying transition temperatures within given ranges. And were graded as thermodynamic arch wires. This property was further advanced to produce variable transition temperatures within the same archwire This arch wire was called Bioforce archwire
  • 26. BIOFORCE WIRE It is aesthetic Is the first and only family of biologically correct archwires It applies low and gentle forces to anteriors Increasingly stronger forces across the posteriors until plateauing at the molars.
  • 27. BIOFORCE WIRE Beginning at approximately 100 grams increasing to approximately 300 grams It provides the right force to each tooth Reducing the number of wire changes & Providing greater patient comfort
  • 28. BIOFORCE WIREClinical applications: During initial stages when anterior torque is needed, use of an relatively large size (i.e. 0.018x0.025) can be given without the fear of significant root resorption.
  • 29. BIOFORCE WIREDuring later stages of treatment i.e. If the posterior occlusion is not settled in, rotations have not been fully corrected or the bite opening is taking a long time because of the heavy musculature.These are an good reason to give an bioforce arch wire as the undesirable effects of the applied force-producing mechanisms will be minimized.
  • 30. References:1. Talass M E .Optiflex archwire treatment of a skeletal Class HI open bite. J Clin Orthod 1992; 26: 245-52.2. Effect of coating on properties of esthetic orthodontic nickel-titanium wires by Masahiro Iijimaa; Takeshi Mugurumab; William A. Brantleyc; Han-CheolChoed; Angle Orthodontist, Vol 82, No 2, 2012
  • 31. OPTIFLEX ARCHWIRE Optiflex is a non metallic orthodontic arch wire It was designed by DR. TALASS In the year 1992 and manufactured by Ormco. It has got unique mechanical properties with a highly aesthetic appearance made of clear optical fiber.
  • 32. OPTIFLEX ARCHWIRE It comprises of 3 layers.A) A silicon dioxide core that providesthe force for moving tooth.B) A silicon resin middle layer thatprotects the core form moisture andadds strength.C) A strain resistant nylon outer layer thatprevents damage to the wire and further increases strength
  • 33. OPTIFLEX ARCHWIRE1) It the most aesthetic orthodontic archwire.2) It is completely stain resistant, and will not stain or loose its clear look even after several weeks in mouth.3) Its effective in moving teeth using light continuous force
  • 34. OPTIFLEX ARCHWIRE4) it is Very flexible ,5) has an extremely wide range of actions,6) when indicated it can be tied with electrometric ligatures to severely malaligned teeth without fear of fracturing the arch wire.7) Due to superior properties optiflex can be used with any bracket system
  • 35. OPTIFLEX ARCHWIREPrecaution’s while using optiflex archwires1) Optiflex archwires should be tied into brackets with elastomeric ligatures. Metal ligatures should never be used since they will fracture the glass core.2) Sharp bends similar to those placed in a metal wire should never be attempted with optiflex, as these bends will immediately fracture the glass core.
  • 36. OPTIFLEX ARCHWIREPrecaution’s while using optiflex archwires3) Using instruments with sharp edges, like the scaler etc should be avoided instead a gentle finger pressure is used to insert the archwire into the slot.4) To cut the end of the archwire distal to the molar, it is recommended to the use the mini distal end cutter which is designed to cut all 3 layer’s of optiflex.
  • 37. OPTIFLEX ARCHWIREclinical applications1) It is used in adult patients who wish that their braces not be really visible for reasons related to personal concern’s or professional consideration.2) Can be used as initial archwire in cases with moderate amounts of crowding in one or both arches.
  • 38. OPTIFLEX ARCHWIREClinical applications3) ideal for non extraction cases and also cases with no partially edentulous areas4) Optiflex can be used in presurgical stage in cases which require orthognathic intervention as a part of the treatment. Optiflex is available in a pack of ten 6 inch straight length wires of .017” and .021” sizes
  • 39. References:1. Zufall S W, Kusy R P. Sliding mechanics of coated compo-site wires and the development of an engineering model for binding. Angle Orthod 2000; 70: 34- 47.2. Burstone C.J., Kuhlberg A.J. Fiber-reinforced composites in orthodontics. JCO 2000; 36: 271-9.3. Fiber Reinforced Composite Arch-Wires in Orthodontics:Function Meets
  • 40. FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITEARCHWIRE Excellent combination of high elastic recovery, high tensile strength and low weight. Excellent formability Allow for tailoring of flexural and torsional properties. Excellent aesthetics because of their translucency. Ability to form wires of different stiffness values for the same cross-section.
  • 41. FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITEARCHWIRE This would facilitate the practice of Constant Cross- section Orthodontics. Ability to directly bond attachments to these wires, Eliminating the need for soldering and electrical resistance welding Such wires can also be directly bonded to teeth, obviating the need for brackets (i.e. When anchorage from a large number of teeth is required)
  • 42. FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITEARCHWIRE Recent Reports on Fiber Reinforced Composite Archwires Recent modification (Reports by Zufall, Kennedy and Kusy, Angle Orthod 2000; 70: 34-47) They compared the frictional characteristics of composite archwires against stainless steel and ceramic brackets They found composite archwires had higher kinetic coefficients of friction than stainless steel but lower than nickel-Titanium or beta titanium.
  • 43. FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITEARCHWIRE  They also noted abrasive wear of composite at high forces.  Which lead to release of glass fiber within the oral cavity  This then lead them to test the use of coating material i.e. Poly(chloro-p-xylylele) and also an addition of 10 micron thick layer of parylene
  • 44. FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITEARCHWIREThis material when coated proved to be Wear resistant Low in friction Eliminated the abrasive wear & Consequent release of glass fiber from the wire Thus judged to improve the clinical acceptability of the composite wires
  • 45. FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITEARCHWIREClinical applicationAccording to Zufall and Kusy study,(Angle Orthod 2000; 70: 34- 47) : The composite archwire retained sufficient resilience to function during initial stage of orthodontic treatment and also During intermediate stages of orthodontic treatment
  • 46. FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITEARCHWIREAccording to Burstone and Kuhlberg (JCO 2000; 36: 271-9.): Described that a new fiber reinforced composite called "Splint-It" which incorporates S2 glass fibers in a bis GMA matrix This is available in various configurations such as rope, woven strip and unidirectional strip These materials are only partly polymerized during manufacture (pre-pregs), which makes them flexible, adaptable and easily contourable over the teeth.
  • 47. FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITEARCHWIRE Later they are completely polymerized and can be bonded directly to teeth. It can also be used for various purposes such as • post treatment retention, • as full arches or sectional arches, and • to reinforce anchorage by joining teeth together. A particular advantage is that due to direct bondability to teeth, they can obviate the need for brackets in specific situations
  • 48. CONCLUSION “Fiber reinforced composites are regarded as the last great frontier of orthodontic materials”. (Kusy RP.. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1998; 113:91-95) Due to their excellent aesthetics and strength, as well as the ability to customize their properties to the needs of the orthodontist, They are expected to replace metals in orthodontics in the near future.
  • 49. REFERENCES:1. William R. Proffit -Contemporary Orthodontics, 5th edition, Mosby Company, 20122. Graber Thomas M., .Vanarsdall. Jr. Robert L. – Orthodontics, Current Principles and techniques3. Titanium-niobium, a new finishing wire alloy. By Michel dalstra, Gabriella denes, birte melsen Clin orthod res. 2000 feb;3(1):6-144. A comparative evaluation of metallurgical properties of stainless steel and tma wires with Tiolium and titanium niobium archwires by r devaki vijayalakshmi,ks nagachandran, pradeep kummi, p jayakumar (indian j dent res,20(4),20095. A comparative evaluation of metallurgical properties of stainless steel and tma wires with Tiolium and titanium niobium archwires by r devaki vijayalakshmi,ks nagachandran, pradeep kummi, p jayakumar (indian j dent res,20(4),20096. Mechanical Properties and Surface Characteristics of Three Archwire Vinod Krishnan, MDSa; K. Jyothindra Kumar, MDS, M. Orth RCS, MDO RCPS, FDS RCS Alloys (Angle Orthod 2004;74:825–.)7. Supercable and the SPEED system by Berger J, Byloff FK, Waram T j clin orthod 1998 Apr;32(4):246-538. Alignment efficiency of superelastic coaxial nickel-titanium vs superelastic single-stranded nickel-titanium in relieving mandibular anterior crowding A randomized controlled prospective study by Biju Sebastiana (Angle Orthod. 2012;82:703–708.)
  • 50. REFERENCES:11. Dual-Flex Archwires by JAMES L. CANNON, DDS, MS JCO VOLUME 18 : NUMBER 09 : PAGES (648-649) 198412.Effect of coating on properties of esthetic orthodontic nickel-titanium wires by Masahiro Iijimaa; Takeshi Mugurumab; William A. Brantleyc; Han-Cheol Choed; Angle Orthodontist, Vol 82, No 2, 201213.Talass M E .Optiflex archwire treatment of a skeletal Class HI open bite. J Clin Orthod 1992; 26: 245-52.14. Effect of coating on properties of esthetic orthodontic nickel-titanium wires by Masahiro Iijimaa; Takeshi Mugurumab; William A. Brantleyc; Han-Cheol Choed; Angle Orthodontist, Vol 82, No 2, 201215. Zufall S W, Kusy R P. Sliding mechanics of coated compo-site wires and the development of an engineering model for binding. Angle Orthod 2000; 70: 34-47.16. Burstone C.J., Kuhlberg A.J. Fiber-reinforced composites in orthodontics. JCO 2000; 36: 271-9.17. Fiber Reinforced Composite Arch-Wires in Orthodontics:Function Meets Esthetics by Ashima Valiathan and Siddhartha Dhar

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