Lutherans in NJ/NY/PA - Part2
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Lutherans in NJ/NY/PA - Part2

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Lutherans in NJ, NY, PA - from the Revolution through 2009

Lutherans in NJ, NY, PA - from the Revolution through 2009

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Lutherans in NJ/NY/PA - Part2 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Lutherans in Our Area A History – Part 2 21 June 2009 Alana Coble
  • 2. Recap: Lutherans in Two Colonies  New Sweden  Swedish / Finnish Lutherans  New Amsterdam  Dutch Lutherans
  • 3. First Lutheran Ordained in America  November 24, 1703 - Justus Falckner  From Albany to Philadelphia (over 240 miles apart) – travelled some 1200 miles a year
  • 4. Henry Melchior Muhlenberg (1711-1787)  Arrived in Pennsylvania 1742  1748 – called together the Ministerium of Pennsylvania, first permanent synod  1760 – NY congregations join Ministerium of Pennsylvania and Adjacent States
  • 5. Patriarch of American Lutheranism  Established training for new pastors,  Developed liturgy of 1748, and common Lutheran Service Hymnal  Travelled extensively (NY to Muhlenberg House Georgia), mediated in disputes  Introduced constitutional provisions in congregations that eased transition to “free church” model Old Trappe Church
  • 6. A Lutheran Revolution  1787-1792, more organization  4 new synods formed, and Pennsylvania Ministerium reorganized  NY organized its own synod 1792  Northern NJ was still claimed by PA  By 1800, NY synod had 11 pastors, 39 congregations (NY, NJ, Canada)
  • 7. A Lutheran Revolution  Part of larger trend of Protestant organization  Unlike others who wanted independence from Europe, Lutherans wanted ties and money  Money, materials, pastors flowed through 1790s  While southern synods shrank, PA grew & subdivided into conferences  Synods concerned with quality & supply of clergy  Education became a primary concern
  • 8. John Christopher Kunze (1744-1807)  Came to America age 26, highly educated  Muhlenberg’s son-in-law  Drafted first PA Ministerium constitution 1777  Succeeded Muhlenberg at Zion Lutheran Church 1779  Moved to NY 1784 to serve Christ / Trinity churches  Served NY & PA ministerium.  Wrote both 1792 constitutions
  • 9. Formal Education for Pastors  Kunze had begun teaching in Philadelphia 1773, but there was no formal seminary yet  John Christopher Hartwick (1714 - 96) left land near Albany for a theological seminary for missionaries to “Red or Black Heathen”  1797: Hartwick Theological Seminary founded  Chartered 1816  First Lutheran seminary in US
  • 10. Hartwick Seminary
  • 11. Crisis Years, 1800-1817  Tens of thousands of Lutherans in US  How to proceed?  Language issues (German vs. English)  Mobility of population vs. parish-based clergy  Theological education
  • 12. Crisis Years - Language  Kunze & NY were leaders in moving toward English  Kunz published English catechism 1784, English hymnal 1794, liturgy 1796  NY Ministerium changed to English 1806  St. John’s (Phila) founded as English-speaking  But there was opposition – e.g., Zion Lutheran Church Phila – Justus Henry Christian Helmuth led prohibition of English, backed by Ministerium of PA
  • 13. Crisis Years – 2nd Great Awakening  Religious enthusiasm – days-long meetings with preaching, singing, prayer  Innovations – long meetings, women allowed to pray in public  East coast Lutheran leaders opposed revivalism
  • 14. Years of Organization and Debate  General Synod formed 1819 – proposed by Ministerium of PA  Included NY, NC, MD, VA and PA synods  Based on theology – entirety of Augsburg Confession – instead of geography
  • 15. The Great Debate – What does it mean to be an American Lutheran?  Internal unity (based on faith) vs. organizational unity  By 1822, PA Ministerium had left General Synod  1845 – so many strains of belief that a clear statement of Lutheran belief was needed  Some believed Augsburg Confession needed to be altered to fit current world  No action until 1855
  • 16. The Great Debate  1855 Definite Synodical Platform  Augsburg Confession needs to be updated - influenced by Great Awakening revivalism  Platformists:  Led by Samuel Simon Schmucker, first professor at Gettysburg seminary, leader of General Synod – as important as Muhlenberg  Confessionalists:  Led by Beale Melanchthon Schmucker (Samuel’s son) Charles Porterfield Krauth, William Julius Mann
  • 17. Separate Paths  1866 Confessionals broke with General Synod  General Council of the Lutheran Church in America moved toward services that reflected 16th c. German Lutheran practices  Congregation active in liturgical response and hymn selection  Hymns and service in one book  Prime movers: Beale Schmucker, Charles Krauth and sister Harriet Krauth Spaeth (music editor of Churchbook with Music, 1893).
  • 18. Separate Paths  General Synod  General Council  United Synod (in South)  Brought together somewhat by Common Service book, 1888  But issue of whether church should regulate a common liturgy remained  What does unity mean? Confessional or organizational?
  • 19. Institution Building  Lutherans busy organizing, publishing, educating and giving care  Luther League (1888) began as Central Association of Lutheran Young People's Associations of the City of New York
  • 20. Elizabeth Fedde (1850 – 1921)  Emigrated from Norway to serve Norwegian seamen in NYC  Lutheran deaconess  Began Norwegian Relief Society 1883  1885, opened deaconess house in Brooklyn  Included 9-bed hospital  Now Lutheran Medical Center in Brooklyn
  • 21. Philadelphia  Mary J. Drexel Home and Philadelphia Motherhouse of Deaconesses, fd. 1884 by John Lankenau  To provide nurses for German Hospital  Bldg. completed 1888  Served Hospital, home for aged, Children’s Hospital, etc.
  • 22. Gettysburg Seminary  Fd. 1826 by S. S. Schmucker  Now Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg
  • 23. Lutheran Theological Seminary, Philadelphia  Fd. 1864 by Ministerium of PA  1st classes held on 9th Street  Relocated 1889 to Mt. Airy
  • 24. Upsala College  Founded 1893 – upper rooms of Bethlehem Church of Brooklyn  Then 15 acres in Kenilworth donated 1898  1924 moved to East Orange  Closed 1995
  • 25. Church Building – New York City  After 1840, many churches built  By 1865, 24 churches  Start to see Swedish immigrants’ influence  1900 – 95 churches  60 German & German-English  19 Scandinavian
  • 26. Churches – New York City  St. Mark, 1847  St. John’s, 1855  St. Peter’s, 1862  Gustavus Adolphus, 1865  Holy Trinity, 1868  Finnish Church, 1890 St. John’s, Christopher St.
  • 27. NYC Churches Swedish-Finnish Church, Holy Trinity, 1920s Brooklyn
  • 28. Church Building  Old Swede’s Church  After the United States' founding in 1789 ended formal ties with Sweden. A tower was built in 1837 and was rebuilt entirely 1864-65 in neo-Gothic style  Still extant – but became an Episcopal church 1957
  • 29. Immigrants to the U.S. (19th century) 1820 – 1890 By 1930 Germans 4,731,023 5,000,000+ Swedes 478,000 1,300,000 Norwegians 850,000 Finns 275,000 Danes 350,000
  • 30. Religion of Immigrants?  NY Times 1874-75 sermon series  Though Lutherans were 3.8% of the population (more than Congregationalists – 2%) – they were not in the series (nor were Roman Catholic sermons)  Viewed as the religions of immigrants
  • 31. Scandinavian Churches  Influx late 19th century through 1920s Rasmus Andersen: 1883 – 1924  Brooklyn Peder Jensen Pedersen: 1924 – 1929  Our Savior’s (Danish) Alfred Thorkil Dorf: 1929 – 1946 (1872) Frank Olaf Lund: 1946 - 1947 Einar August Anderson: 1948 - 51
  • 32. Scandinavian Churches  Perth Amboy - St. Stephen’s (Danish)  One of 3 Danish churches in Perth Amboy!  Rasmus Andersen: 1878 – 1881  Ole Jacobsen: 1887 – 1898  Johannes Frederick Christiansen: 1900 – 1910  Alfred Thorkill Dorf: 1911 – 1916  Hans Olesen Jensen: 1923 – 1926  Niels Christian Nielsen: 1926  Franz Peter Ostke: 1926 – 1929  Oscar Hansen Dyreborg: 1929 – 1934  Peter Hansen Pedersen: 1934 – 1940  Svend Aage Baden: 1941 – 1945  Ove Richard Nielsen: 1945 – 1948
  • 33. Elizabeth  1833 - Missions Committee of the Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium of New York showed interest in the Lutherans in Elizabethtown, NJ (as it was then known)  No pastor until 1855 – Johan Wirz  1858 - "The Deutsche Evangelische Lutherische Kirche" chartered  Moved 1905, and changed name 1936 to St. Mark Evangelical Lutheran Church  1951 – became home to Latvian Lutheran Congregation of Elizabeth  1984 began outreach ministry to its Spanish-speaking neighbors  1998 last English speakers transferred to St. Paul Lutheran church  Now a Spanish-speaking Lutheran congregation called San Marcos Lutheran Church.
  • 34. Elizabeth, 1920 San Marcos (1st Lutheran Church in Elizabeth Norwegian Church
  • 35. Elizabeth  1893 – Trinity Evangelical Lutheran English Sunday School begun – evolved into The Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Holy Trinity 1896  Gained English-speaking members from the Scandinavian Lutheran Church  1929 – HT divided – new congregation, St. Paul Evangelical Lutheran Church  St. Bartholomew’s Lutheran Church – 1905 – Swedish population  Also Bethlehem Norwegian Lutheran Church St. Paul’s  They merged late 1960s into United Lutheran Church  Closed for financial reasons mid-1990s  1919 – St. Luke’s Lutheran Church, LCMS
  • 36. Jersey City / Hoboken  1910 – 23 Lutheran churches  5 Scandinavian  Trinity Scandinavian Evangelical Lutheran Church fd. 1890  Mostly Norwegian  Now part of St. Mathew Trinity Lutheran Church, Hoboken St. Matthews, ca 1858
  • 37. Jersey City / Hoboken  The Lutheran Homes at Jersey City  Nursing & old age care for women (1868)
  • 38. Newark  1833 – St. John’s Evangelical Lutheran Church (1st)  Moved to current location 1910  Split 1840 – St. John’s German Lutheran Church  10 years of litigation  Merged with Redeemer Lutheran, Irvington
  • 39. Newark  First Reformed Dutch Church, fd. 1847  Became Lutheran 1883  Dissolved between 1914 and 1922
  • 40. Newark  1833 – 1 Lutheran church  1840 – 2 Lutheran churches  Same number for years  1875 – 3 Lutheran churches (all German)  1895 – 6 Lutheran churches (5 German, 1 English)  1906 – 9 Lutheran churches (most German, 1 Slavonic, 1 English)  1915 – 10 Lutheran churches (inc. 1 Danish, 1 Swedish)  1930 – 13 Lutheran churches  1998 – 2 Lutheran churches
  • 41. Women in the Church  Supported mission work, esp. in India, then some in China  NY & NJ Synodical Society (1884 – 1909)  Women’s Missionary Society of the New York Ministerium (1923 – 1929)  NJ, Albany, CT joined 1927  Women’s Synodical Society of the United Lutheran Synod of New York (1929 – 1937)
  • 42. Synods and more Synods  1918: General Synod and the General Council merged with United Synod in the South to form the United Lutheran Church in America (ULCA)  HQ at 39 East 35th Street, NYC  1960: ALC absorbs 2 other synods (another 1963)  1962: ULCA merges with 3 synods to form Lutheran Church in America  HQ at 231 Madison Avenue, NYC  1988: ELCA merger  St. John’s own Pastor Frye participated in merger
  • 43. Missouri Synod  Formally begun 1847  Begun in St. Louis ca 1838-9 – refugees from Saxony  Influenced NYC region as 1,000 Saxons passed through NY in 1839  1843 formed Trinity Church, 9th Street & Avenue B  By 1918, over 51 LCMS churches in NY metropolitan area  Today, 149 LCMS churches within 50 miles of Summit  61 in NJ Grace Lutheran Church of Livingston, NJ
  • 44. Famous Lutherans in our Area  John Ericsson (1803 – 1889)  Creator of the Monitor  Jenny Lind  Arrived NY 1850  Dietrich Bonhoeffer  At Union Theological Seminary 1930-31  Studied with Reinhold Niebuhr  Returned to NY Spring 1939, but returned to Germany July 1939
  • 45. Lutherans in NJ, 1890  19 congregations  12,878 communicants  General Council – 7,940 (2/3)  General Synod – 2,415 (1/5)  Synodical Conference – 699  Cities with over 1,000 communicants  Jersey City – 2,230  Trenton – 1,575  Newark – 1,387 German United Evangelical Zion Church, Newark (1900)
  • 46. Lutherans in NY State, 1890  317 congregations  89,076 communicants  Densest in NYC (Manhattan & Brooklyn)  54 congregations  30,857 communicants  In 1/3 of NYS counties there were no Lutherans at all Gustavus Adolphus, 1887
  • 47. Lutherans in NYC, 20th Century  NYC 1920  160 ministers  110,430 Lutherans  NYC 1940  11 Synods  Including United Lutheran Synod of NY (part of UCLA, 104 churches), American Lutheran Church (5), Augustana Synod (17), Missouri Synod (54), Norwegian Lutheran Church (13), Finnish Synod (2)  205 churches
  • 48. Lutherans in NJ, 2009  189 ELCA congregations in the New Jersey Synod  in 159 municipalities  490 ELCA Congregations within 60 miles of Summit