Climate change and natural disastersPresentation Transcript
CLIMATE CHANGE AND NATURAL DISASTERS A perspective about the near future Antonio J. Díaz Mora – Dic2011
This slideshow has beenmade in order to presentsome of the possibleconsequences found by thescientific community inrelation to the globaltemperature increase of theearth.
INTRODUCTION• Earthquakes, floods, drought and other natural hazards cause tens of thousands of deaths, hundreds of thousand injuries and billion of dollars in economic losses each year around the world.• About 600 disasters are globally recorded each year by the Centre of Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters in Brussels.• The reported number of natural disasters worldwide has been increasing, from fewer than 100 in 1975 to more than 400 in 2005.
HAZARDS For instance:• Cyclones. More than 1,600 storm• Drought and tracks are dated for the period 1 January 1980 desertification. through 31 December• Wild land fires. 2000. It supposes more than 80 each year.• Floods.• Mud floods. Not all these hazards are• Storms and hailstorms. directly related with climate change, but the• Earthquakes. possible relations between• Volcanoes. each other, and natural disasters could increase• Landslides. enormously the• Ice avalanches. vulnerability of populations of all kind of successes.
INTERACTIONS CHAINGreenhouse gasses emissions Global warming. Wind and rain patterns. Rising sea levels. Storms, cyclones and others. Coast lost, soil erosion Less agricultural productivity. Changes in ecosystem and biodiversity. Migration patterns, biodiversity lost, genetic resources.
NUMBER OF DISASTERS
A SAMPLE OF INTERACTION: ARTIC GRACIER RETREAT• For the last two years, we are undergoing severe cold weather episodes in north America, northern Europe and eastern Asia. The effects are not only the loos of ice sheets but also changes in wind patterns.• The surface temperature in the Artic sea is even more higher than we expected, because of a phenomenon called ‘Artic Amplification’. Is is believed to be caused by the change in energy absorption, i.e., the darker surface of the sea without ice absorbs more solar energy than the reflective ice.
HOW CLIMATE IS AFFECTED BY GLOBALWARMING Glacier Ocean disappearance acidification and sea level. Sea Oxygen temperature depletion Climate alteration
WHAT WE CAN EXPECTChanges in tropical storm frequency, intensity and tracks, thatinteract with coastal development in urban and rural areas.Agricultural areas already under pressure from urbanization andother land use changes will become more susceptible todrought, severe weather or floods.
REFERENCES• Natural Disaster Hotspots: a global risk analysis. March 2005. United Nations. Framework Convention on Climate Change.• Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED).• Development Actions and the Rising Incidence of Disasters. Evaluation Brief 4. Independent Evaluation Group. World Bank.