<ul><li>Requests: What are they? </li></ul><ul><li>Kinds of requests </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of a request </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>When you make a request, a speaker asks a someone to do something </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lend something </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Hearer-oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could  you  clean up the kitchen, please? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speaker-ori...
<ul><li>Danny, can you remind me to bring the book for you on Monday?  Otherwise I might forget. </li></ul><ul><li>Attenti...
<ul><li>Face  is your feeling of self-worth or self-image </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive face  is the desire for approval ...
<ul><li>Requests can potentially be intrusive </li></ul><ul><li>The request may place a burden on the recipient </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Refusing a request and having a request refused result is a potential loss of face </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore...
<ul><li>Direct strategies  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually the second most common (10% in English) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Co...
<ul><li>Explicit requests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’m asking you to clean up the kitchen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You’ll ...
<ul><li>Make use of frequently used expressions to downgrade the request </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggestions </li></ul></ul>...
<ul><li>Grammatical downgraders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could you…? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I wonder if you would mind…? ...
<ul><li>Supportive moves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do me a favor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can you do me a favor?  Would ...
<ul><li>Supportive moves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check possibility  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are you going towards the...
<ul><li>Non-conventionally indirect strategies are  hints </li></ul><ul><li>There is a gap between the speaker’s intended ...
<ul><li>It’s cold in here. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning: Close the window </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do you have any money on...
<ul><li>How requests are made depend on social and situational factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social status </li></ul></ul>...
<ul><li>English speakers prefer conventionally indirect strategies even when the burden is small </li></ul><ul><li>Japanes...
<ul><li>Requests: What are they? </li></ul><ul><li>Kinds of requests </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of a request  </li></ul><ul><...
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Requests

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  • Requests usually include reference to the requester, the recipient fo the request and the action to be performed.
  • Requests

    1. 2. <ul><li>Requests: What are they? </li></ul><ul><li>Kinds of requests </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of a request </li></ul><ul><li>Requests & face </li></ul><ul><li>Burden of requests </li></ul><ul><li>Request strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Factors affecting requests </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese requests </li></ul>
    2. 3. <ul><li>When you make a request, a speaker asks a someone to do something </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lend something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can I borrow 1,000 yen? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do or help with a chore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Would you clean up your room? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do something for someone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could you drive me to the station? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 4. <ul><li>Hearer-oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could you clean up the kitchen, please? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speaker-oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can I borrow your notes from yesterday’s class? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speaker- and Hearer-oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So, could we tidy up the kitchen soon? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impersonal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So it might be a good idea to get it cleaned up. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>Danny, can you remind me to bring the book for you on Monday? Otherwise I might forget. </li></ul><ul><li>Attention getter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Danny </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Head act – the request </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you remind me to bring the book for you on Monday? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supportive move(s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Otherwise I might forget. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>Face is your feeling of self-worth or self-image </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive face is the desire for approval by others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We want others to like and respect us </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative face is the desire not to impose on others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We don’t want to be a burden to others </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Requests can potentially be intrusive </li></ul><ul><li>The request may place a burden on the recipient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking someone who is busy to do something else places a burden on them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A recipient may have to refuse a request </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We don’t like to say no </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We don’t like to be refused </li></ul></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>Refusing a request and having a request refused result is a potential loss of face </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, there is a need to minimize the burden of requests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speakers reduce the burden of requests through different strategies </li></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>Direct strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually the second most common (10% in English) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conventially indirect strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common in all languages (82%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-conventially indirect strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Least common (8%) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Explicit requests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’m asking you to clean up the kitchen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You’ll have to clean up the kitchen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I really wish you’d clean up the kitchen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often imperatives (commands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clean up the kitchen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do your homework! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sit down. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 11. <ul><li>Make use of frequently used expressions to downgrade the request </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggestions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How about cleaning up? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why don’t you help with the cleaning up? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>Grammatical downgraders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could you…? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I wonder if you would mind…? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you think I could…? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It would really help if you…? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would you mind if I…? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would you be kind enough to…? </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>Supportive moves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do me a favor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can you do me a favor? Would you lend me 1,000 yen? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I missed my bus. Could you give me a lift home? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>Supportive moves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check possibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are you going towards the station? If so, could I have a ride? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You have beautiful handwriting. Could I borrow your notes? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Non-conventionally indirect strategies are hints </li></ul><ul><li>There is a gap between the speaker’s intended meaning and the literal meaning </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>It’s cold in here. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning: Close the window </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do you have any money on you? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning: Can I borrow some money? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do you know where the newspaper is? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning: Would you get the newspaper? </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>How requests are made depend on social and situational factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearer’s obligation to carry out the request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right of the speaker to make the request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty of completing the request </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>English speakers prefer conventionally indirect strategies even when the burden is small </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese tend to use direct strategies when the burden is small </li></ul><ul><li>English speakers do use hints, but Japanese hints tend to be more ambiguous </li></ul>
    18. 19. <ul><li>Requests: What are they? </li></ul><ul><li>Kinds of requests </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of a request </li></ul><ul><li>Requests & face </li></ul><ul><li>Burden of requests </li></ul><ul><li>Request strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Factors affecting requests </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese requests </li></ul>

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