Learner differences affective factors

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  • Learners want to improve because there is a communicative need: a reason why they have to communicate
  • Motivation is the only affective factor that research has demonstrated a significant effect.
  • In language learning what you think about the L2 and the people and culture it representsMore interactions = more opportunities
  • Learner differences affective factors

    1. 1. Learner Differences Affective Factors
    2. 2. Learner Differences Motivation Anxiety Attitudes Intelligence and aptitude Personality factors
    3. 3. Learner differences How quickly learners learn a language How successfully learners learn a language
    4. 4. Opportunities for learning Number of opportunities Kind of opportunities
    5. 5. Number of opportunities More is better More listening chances and more speaking chances result in more learning opportunities
    6. 6. Kind of opportunities Learners cannot be passive  Learners must interact with the language Language must be at an appropriate level
    7. 7. Motivation The inner drive to do something Communicative need
    8. 8. Communicative need Integrative motivation  Desire to be part of a group Instrumental motivation  Desire to learn a language so that it can be used Higher motivation results in greater progress
    9. 9. Motivation Most important affective factor Motivation is needed to  Start learning  Continue learning
    10. 10. Anxiety Learners must be comfortable in their learning environment Anxiety about the environment can affect learning both negatively and positively
    11. 11. Attitudes 1 What you think about something  Positive  Negative Favorable attitudes usually result in more interaction with a second language community
    12. 12. Attitudes 2 Language is part of our cultural identity Using another language means giving up part of that identity and adopting another identity Accepting another culture will help when learning that culture’s language
    13. 13. Intelligence and Aptitude Higher intelligence usually means higher language ability Intelligence and language ability are often tested by similar tests No surprise that there is a close relation
    14. 14. Personality factors 1 Extroversion / Introversion  Extroverted learners thought to be better because they enter into more conversations Self-esteem  Learners with high self-esteem may be more ready to risk making mistakes
    15. 15. Personality factors 2 Tolerance for ambiguity  Learners cannot always understand everything 100%  Learners who can handle not always understanding may be less overwhelmed Empathy  Understanding thoughts and feelings of others may enable learners to take on a new identity more easily
    16. 16. Conclusions Motivation is the only factor that has shown a clear effect Other factors play some role  Which are most important is difficult to say  Some factors have a direct role; other an indirect one

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