3. 1. Success in first language learning 3 Differences in how well they use it  Better public speakers  Better writers All normal children master their first language
4. 1. Failure in second language learning 4Most second language learners fail  More learners try to learn a language and fail than learners who try and succeed  Learners fail in different degrees  Learners progress stops before complete success
5. 2. Strategies 5All learners make generalizations  Simple past: played, walked, waited, comedOnly second language learners generalize from their first language when they are learning a second language  One sound, /r/, in Japanese  Separate sounds, /l/ & /r/, in English
6. 3. Goals 6First language learners have no goals  Learning a first language is not under a child’s controlSecond language learners have a variety of goals  Work & study  Enjoy music, movies, travel, etc.
7. 4. Intuitions 7First language learners rely on their intuition (sense of what sounds right) to decide if a sentence is grammaticalGrammatical intuition for second language learners never develops completely
8. 5. Instruction 8Children never have formal lessons in their first language  Children’s first language develops through communicationMost second language learners must have some instruction
9. 6. Positive and negative evidence 9Children only hear  Language that has no mistakes (positive evidence)Second language learners hear  Language that has no mistakes  Explanations about mistakes and corrections of their mistakes (negative evidence)
10. 7. Affective factors 10First language learning is independent of affective factors  Personality, motivation, attitude, etc.Second language learning is dependent on affective factors