A History of the Defenders of the Faith
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A History of the Defenders of the Faith

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Ken will give an overview of various defenders of the faith during various periods in Church History, starting with the early Christological debates through Augustine to Aquinas and Natural Theology ...

Ken will give an overview of various defenders of the faith during various periods in Church History, starting with the early Christological debates through Augustine to Aquinas and Natural Theology in the Middle Ages.

We will look at the challenge of the Enlightenment and Modernity and the answers given by the great defenders of the faith in the 20th century, from G.K. Chesterton to Lewis to Francis Schaeffer to Ravi Zacharias and Tim Keller today, and others along the way. Clearly, we will be limited to broad strokes as we attempt to paint this picture

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A History of the Defenders of the Faith A History of the Defenders of the Faith Presentation Transcript

  • An Apologetics Overview (By century, from 30,000 feet) Ken Daniel, Sept 2010
  • Some motivating scriptures
    • I Peter 3:15 "Always be ready to give a reason...
    • Eph 4:14 "Tossed to and fro by every wind of doctrine",
    • Acts 26:24 "...your great learning has driven you insane..."
    • Themes :
    • The half-life of modern awareness; not lose valuable contributors from the past
    • Context over the centuries; an overview of selected major issues & players
    • To be an Acts 26 "man of knowledge"
    • Defense against: Pagan Religions, Distortions, Skepticism, Heresy, Cults
    • Evidentialism, Presuppositionalism, Rational Theology, Romantic Theology
    • Resources for the digital age: easy ebook access to classics
  • Epochs
    • Period The Challenge Protagonists
    • Early Church Paganism / Judaizers Paul
    • Church Fathers Heresy Arius Athanasius
    • Christendom Islam Muslim Theology Aquinas
    • Enlightenment Skepticism Hume Sam Johnson
    • Modernity Naturalism Huxley C.S. Lewis
    • Post-Modernity New Age / Secularism Dan Brown Tim Keller
    Taking a closer look across the centuries, focusing on the past century....
  • Early Church & Church Fathers ...from the NT through Augustine NT and Early Church Challenges The Pagan world, the Judaizers, Gnosticism Defenders Paul. Mars Hill, Trials and defenses John against the Gnostics Justin Martyr (103-165): Apologies (1&2), Dialogue with Trypho Church Fathers   Challenges Greek Philosophy influence on Christology; Origen, Arius Defenders Athanasius Christology debates        - Relevance: Gnosticism ... DaVinci Code   Augustine - Manicheanism The Modern World C.S. Lewis: St Athanasius on the Incarnation Harold O.J. Brown: Heresies Augustine: Confessions The Trinity City of God
    • Councils:
    • Nicea 325 Arianism
    • Constantinople 381
    • Ephesus 431 Nestorianism
    • Chalcedon 451
    Henry Chadwick: The Early Church
  • R.C. Sproul, A. Lindsley, J. Gerstner: Classical Apologetics The Modern World
    • Middle Ages
      • Challenges
    • Threat of Islam, role of Aristotle; Averroes & Avicenna
    • Defenders
    • Aquinas, Scholasticism.    
    • Renaissance & Reformation. 16th-17th
    • Challenges
    • Reaction against scholasticism; Humanism
    • (Mostly polemics within the family of believers)
    • Defenders
    • Luther vs Erasmus & Humanism: "Bondage of the Will"
    • John Calvin: Institutes: (Presented to King Francis I as a defense of the Reformation)
    • Enlightenment. 17th-18th.
    • Challenges
    • Hume, Voltaire,  Gibbon, Diderot
    • Defenders
    • Pascal, (Kant), Jonathan Edwards,  William Paley, Sam Johnson, Rutherford, (Locke)
    Christendom: ...from the Middle Ages through The Enlightenment Runcima: History of the Crusades Peter Gay: The Enlightenment and the Rise of the New Paganism Philip Benedict: Christ’s Churches, Purely Reformed Jenkins: Lost History of Christianity
  • Tim Keller: The Reason for God B. Warfield: Inspiration & Authority of the Bible Carl F.H. Henry: God, Revelation, & Authority Francis Schaeffer: The God Who Is There G.K.Chesterton: The Everlasting Man C.S. Lewis: Mere Christianity Breaking out and enlarging
    • 19th Century
      • Challenges
    • Darwin, Marx, Huxleys,  
    • Higher Criticism, naturalism, materialism, modernism, positivism
    • Defenders
    • Oxford Movement, Princeton Seminary,      
    • 20th Century
    • Challenges
    • Skepticism: Russell, G.B. Shaw, H.G.Wells 
    • Scientism/Evolution ... Scopes & Mencken to Gould & Sagan,
    • Atheistic Materialism; Marxism; Liberal Theology: Tillich; Pietism, anti-intellectualism
    • Defenders
    • Neo-Orthodoxy: Barth and Brunner, Niebuhrs R.A. Torrey & "The Fundamentals"
    • Evangelical Awakening: Parachurch, InterVarsity, Crusade; L'Abri Evangelical seminaries, Christianity Today
    • Academy and Pulpit: Machen, Carl Henry, John Stott; Society of Christian Philosophers;
    • Apologetic Ministries: L’Abri & Francis Schaeffer, Ligonier & R.C. Sproul
    • Os Guinness, John Warwick Montgomery, Josh McDowell
    • Public Intellectuals; Lewis, Chesterton; Secular Prophets, T.S. Kuhn, John Updike, Tom Wolfe, Alan Bloom, Walker Percy
    • 21st Century
    • Challenges
    • Religious Pluralism, new atheism, post-modern relativism; Enduring questions: Problem of Evil, Tolerance vs "one way"
    • Humanity vs cyber culture; Compromisers: emerging church & post-modernism
    • Defenders (a sparse sample...)
    • Tim Keller, Lee Strobel, Ken Myers, Alister McGrath, Ken Boa, Art Lindsley
    • Intelligent Design: Discovery Institute, Michael Behe; Ravi Zacharias; ... C.S. Lewis Institute
    • Socrates in the City: Eric Metaxis
    The Modern World: ...from the Industrial Age to the Computer Age
  • B.B. Warfield: Inspiration & Authority of the Bible Josh McDowell: A Ready Defense John Henry Newman: The Idea of a University James Turner: Without God, Without Creed the Origins of Unbelief in America
    • 19th Century
      • Challenges
    • Darwin, T.H. Huxley,  Herbert Spencer
    • Naturalism, materialism; Marx
    • Biblical Higher Criticism, D.F. Strauss, J. Wellhausen
    • Positivism A. Compte, J.S. Mill,
    • Modernism: Nietzsche to Beckett
    • Defenders
    • Oxford Movement,
    • Princeton Seminary  
    The Modern World: ...from the Industrial Age to the Computer Age
  • Carl F.H. Henry: God, Revelation, & Authority Francis Schaeffer: The God Who Is There - “FAS’s Big Ideas” G.K.Chesterton: The Everlasting Man C.S. Lewis: Mere Christianity Focus: C.S. Lewis 20th Century Challenges Skepticism: Russell, G.B. Shaw, H.G.Wells  Scientism/Evolution ... Scopes & Mencken to Gould & Sagan, Atheistic Materialism; Marxism; Freud Liberal Theology: Bultmann, Tillich; (Pietism, anti-intellectualism) Defenders Neo-Orthodoxy: Barth and Brunner, Reinhold & RIchard Niebuhr R.A. Torrey & "The Fundamentals" Evangelical Awakening: Parachurch: InterVarsity, Campus Crusade; Evangelical seminaries, Christianity Today, Academy and Pulpit: Machen, Carl F.H. Henry, John Stott; Society of Christian Philosophers; Apologetic Ministries: L’Abri & Francis Schaeffer, Ligonier & R.C. Sproul Os Guinness, John Warwick Montgomery, Josh McDowell, Charles Colson Public Intellectuals; C.S. Lewis, G.K. Chesterton; Secular Prophets, T.S. Kuhn, John Updike, Tom Wolfe, Alan Bloom, Walker Percy, Neil Postman The Modern World: ...from the Industrial Age to the Computer Age
  • Chesterton had more sense than all the other moderns put together; bating, of course, his Christianity. Johnson was one of the few authors whom I felt I could trust utterly; curiously enough, he had the same kink. On the other hand, those writers who did not suffer from religion and with whom in theory my sympathy ought to have been complete -- Shaw and Wells and Mill and Gibbon and Voltaire -- all seemed a little thin… Surprised by Joy Chapt 14: Checkmate Samuel Johnson 1700s The Literary Club G.K. Chesterton The Everlasting Man (1925) C.S. Lewis - from his autobiography Back to 20 th Century
  • Carl F.H. Henry: God, Revelation, & Authority Francis Schaeffer: The God Who Is There - “FAS’s Big Ideas” G.K.Chesterton: The Everlasting Man C.S. Lewis: Mere Christianity 20th Century Challenges Skepticism: Russell, G.B. Shaw, H.G.Wells  Scientism/Evolution ... Scopes & Mencken to Gould & Sagan, Atheistic Materialism; Marxism; Freud Liberal Theology: Bultmann, Tillich; (Pietism, anti-intellectualism) Defenders Neo-Orthodoxy: Barth and Brunner, Reinhold & RIchard Niebuhr R.A. Torrey & "The Fundamentals" Evangelical Awakening: Parachurch: InterVarsity, Campus Crusade; Evangelical seminaries, Christianity Today, Academy and Pulpit: Machen, Carl F.H. Henry, John Stott; Society of Christian Philosophers; Alvin Plantinga Apologetic Ministries: L’Abri & Francis Schaeffer, Ligonier & R.C. Sproul Os Guinness, John Warwick Montgomery, Josh McDowell, Charles Colson Public Intellectuals; C.S. Lewis, G.K. Chesterton; Secular Prophets, T.S. Kuhn, John Updike, Tom Wolfe, Alan Bloom, Walker Percy, Neil Postman The Modern World: ...from the Industrial Age to the Computer Age
  • Tim Keller: The Reason for God
    • 21st Century
    • Challenges
    • Religious Pluralism, new atheism, post-modern relativism;
    • Enduring questions: Problem of Evil, Tolerance vs "one way"
    • Humanity vs cyber culture;
    • Compromisers: emerging church & post-modernism
    • Defenders (a sparse sample...)
    • Tim Keller, Lee Strobel, Ken Myers, Ken Boa, Art Lindsley,
    • - Alister McGrath, Don Carson, N.T. Wright, Norman Geisler
    • - J.P. Moreland, William Lane Craig
    • Intelligent Design: Discovery Institute, Michael Behe;
    • Ravi Zacharias; ... C.S. Lewis Institute
    • Socrates in the City: Eric Metaxis
    D.A. Carson: Telling the Truth & Becoming Conversant with the Emerging Church Alister McGrath: Evangelicalism & the Future of Christianit Ken Myers: Mars Hiill Audio Journal Curt Thompson, MD: Anatomy of the Soul The Modern World: ...from the Industrial Age to the Computer Age
  • Topics for the 21st Century
    • Enduring Themes
      • Problem of Evil;
      • Uniqueness of Christ
      • Materialism & Scientism
    • Man as Machine
      • Philosophic underpinnings: Behaviorism
    • Moral Apologetics
      • The Autonomous Individual
  • Closing Thoughts
    • Book Clubs
      • Old Books & eBooks: Kindle and iPad
    • Right Brain vs Left Brain Apologetics
      • Curt Thompson, MD: Anatomy of the Soul
    • Mars Hill Audio Journal
    • Tim Keller (NYC) & Eric Metaxas (Socrates in the City)
    • Ravi Zacharas RZIM & C.S. Lewis Institute
      • Oxford Summer Program