Anpara Thermal Power Project of UPRVUNL is one of the
thermal power project situated on the north bank of reservoir
of Rihand in the Singrauli coal field area of northern coal field
in U.P. The project is envisaged for
A : 3X210 MW
B : 2X500 MW
D : 2X500 MW (under construction)
First Synchronization On Commercial Load
Unit-I 24.03.86 01.01.87
Unit-II 28.02.88 01.08.87
Unit-III 12.03.88 01.04.89
Unit-IV 28.07.93 01.03.94
ANPARA SONEBHADRA (U.P.)
PROJECT REPORT ON
BOILER MAINTENANCE DIVISION
SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:
Er. SANJAY KUMAR PATEL AJAY KUMAR TIWARI
EXECUTIVE ENGINEER B.TECH. (ME),IIIrd
B.M.D.-II B.T.P.S A.E.C,AGRA
Anpara Thermal Power Station
The Anpara Power Plant is located near village Anpara on the
bank of Rihand reservoir in the district of Sonebhadra (Uttar
Pradesh). it is about 34 km from Rihand Dam on Pipri-Singrauli
road and about 200 km from Varanasi. Varanasi is connected
by air/rail and road route from other major cities.
Generating Units at Anpara Thermal Power Station
All the units of Anpara TPS are coal-fired thermal power plants,
having a total generating capacity of 1630 mw and consists of
following units –
Date of First
1 210 MW 210 MW 24.03.1986
M/S BHARAT HEAVY
2 210 MW 210 MW 28.02.1987 -DO-
3 210 MW 210 MW 12.03.1988 -DO-
4 500 MW 500 MW 19.07.1993
5 500 MW 500 MW 04.07.1994 -DO-
The coal to all these units is fed from Kharia, Kakri and Bina
open coal mines of NCL, by means of a marry-go-round
system, maintained by UPRVUNL.
Following figure is the Unit Overview of ‘B’ Anpara Thermal
Power Plant which is unit 4 and unit 5 generates 2 X 500 MW.
It means these units two machine of 500 MW. Following figure
is the Overview of one unit.
Figure of Unit Overview
IMPORTANT TERM AND THEIR FUNCTION
1). C.E.P.(Conensate Exaction Pump):- It is used to pump the condensate water from
condenser to L.P.H.S. through C.P.P.
2). C.P.P.(Condensate Polishing Plant):-It is used to polish the condensate water by the
process of ion exchange and filtration of corrosion product.
3). L.P.H.S.(Low Pressure Heater System):- It heat the water at low pressure. The water
is in liquid form.
4). Deaerator:- It is used to remove oxygen from the water.
5). B.F.P.(Boiler Feed Pump):- Boiler feed pump is used to feed water to steam generator
boiler drum to desired pressure and temperature.
i). T.B.F.P.(Turbo Boiler Feed Pump):- It work with the steam from Intermediate Pressure
(I.P.) turbine exhast.
ii). M.B.F.P.(Motorised Boiler Feed Pump):-It work with the motor as name specifies.
6). H.P.H.S.(High Pressure Heating System):- It feed the heat water at very high
pressure. This provide the good mechanical properities at high temperture.
7). Boiler:- It is with the large number of tube running feed water in it and heated with burner.
8). Turbine:- It is parts where steam is flow through blades of turbine and make shaft to move.
i).H.P.:- It work with heat pressure steam.
ii). I.P.:- It work with Intermediate pressure steam.
iii). L.P.:- It work with low pressure steam.
9). Generator:- Moving shaft work as mechnical energy and convert it to electrical energy by
10). Condenser:- It than convert the steam to the water.
11). E.S.P.(Electrostatic percipitate):- It used to filter the ash coming from the
economizer to the chimney where dust is stick to anode.
12). F.D. Fan (Force Draft Fan):- It is use to provide atmospheric air to furnance.
13). P.A. Fan (Primary Draft Fan):- It is used to transfort coal from the mill to the
14). I.D. Fan (Induced Draft Fan):- It is used to Push the Flue Gas out from the chimneys.
DESCRIPTION OF THE CYCLE
1. The energy used to heat the feed water is usually derived from steam extracted
between the stages (distance of the one rotor blade and stationary blade is one
stage) of the steam turbine. Therefore, the steam that is used to perform the
expansion work in the turbine (and therefore generate power) is utilized for that
purpose. The percentage of total cycle steam mass flow used for the feed water
heater is termed as the Extraction Fraction. Increase in this cause a decrease in
turbine power output.
2. Feed water heaters can also be open and close Heat Exchangers. An open feed
water is merely a direct contact heat exchanger in which extracted steam is allow
to mixed with the feed water. This kind of heater normally required a feed pump at
both inlet and the outlet since the pressure in the heater is between the boiler
pressure and the surface condenser pressure. A deaeartor is special case of the open
feed water heater which is specifically designed to remove non-condensable gases
from the feed water.
3. Closed feed water heater are typically shell and tube type heat exchanger where
the feed water passes through the tubes and is heated by the turbine extraction
steam. This do not require separate pumps before and after the heater to boost the
feed water to the pressure of the extracted steam (which is almost fully condensed
after heating the feed water) must be throttled to the condenser pressure, an
isenthalpic process that results in the some entropy gain with a slight penalty on
overall cycle efficiency.
4. Many power plants incorporate a number of feed water heaters and may use both
open and closed components.
5. Feed water is also used in both fossil and nuclear fuelled power plant. An
economizer serves a similar purpose to a feed water heater, but is technically
different. Instead of using actual cycle steam for heating, it uses the lowest
temperature Flue gas from the furnace to heat the water before it enters the boiler
proper. This allows for the heat transfer between the furnace and feed water to
occur across a smaller average temperature gradient (for the steam generator as a
whole). System efficiency is therefore further increased when viewed with respect to
the actual energy content of the fuel.
A summer project is a golden opportunity for learning and self-
development. I consider myself very lucky honoured to have so
many wonderful people lead me through in completion of this
My grateful thanks to Er SANJAY KUMAR PATEL, Executive Engineer
and Mr AMIT RANJAN, Assistant Engineer who in spite of being
extraordinarily busy with his duties, took time out to hear, guide
and keep me on the correct path. I do not know where I would have
been without him. A humble ‘Thank you sir’.
Last but not the least there were so many who shared valuable
information that helped in the successful completion of this project.
AJAY KUMAR TIWARI
B-TECH (ME), IIIrd
This is to certify that Mr. AJAY KUMAR TIWARI doing
B.Tech. (Mech. Engg.) IIIrd year from ANAND ENGG. COLLEGE
,AGRA (Uttar Pradesh) has completed his vocational training from
Anpara Thermal Power Station, Anpara, Sonbhadra (U.P.) from
15.06.2013 to 15.07.2013. His area of training is BMD - II. This
training was carried out under the guidance of Mr. SANJAY KUMAR
PATEL (Executive Engineer BMD-II).
During this period he has been punctual, sincere in his job
& has undergone the learning process with responsibility and sense
of purpose. He also bears a very good character.
We wish him 'All The Best' for his bright future.
GUIDED BY: PREPARED BY:
Er. SANJAY KUMAR PATEL AJAY KUMAR TIWARI
EXECUTIVE ENGG. BTECH(ME)- III YR
BMD-II BTPS AEC,AGRA
2. Anpara Power Project (In One Sight)
3. ATPS Achievements
4. Unit Overview
5. Boiler Maintenance Division - I
1.1 Steam Drum
1.2 Furnace Water Wall
1.3 Super heater, Re-heater
1.5 Air Pre-heater
1.6 Boiler Circulation Pump (BCP)
2.1 Maintenance testing of boiler Bottom Ash Disposal
2.2 Furnace Purge Condition
B. Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)
C. Submerged Screw Conveyer (SSC)
This is to hereby declare that I studied in B.Tech
(Mechanical Engineering) III Year from ANAND ENGG.
COLLEGE,AGRA (Uttar Pradesh), that I have completed
my summer training from Anpara Thermal Power
Station with full dedication & devotion.
I have completed my work without using
any unfair means. It was a real learning experience
gaining partial knowledge.
AJAY KR. TIWARI
‘B’TPS is worked on the modified rankine cycle. In ‘B’TPS
there are 2 units namely 4 & 5.The capacity of each unit is 500 MW
Here outlet steam of L.P.TBN goes condenser where this
steam condense & becomes condensate. Also there is a provision of
makeup DM water the level. Condensate is extract from the
condenser by CEP. There are three CEP in which one is in reserve &
other two are working in position. CEP force the condensate to CPP
for improving the quality of the condensate. After that this
condensate goes to the LP heaters for initially heat up. There are
three LP heaters. The outlet of 3rd
LP heater goes to boiler feed,
initially to the M-BFP & in running to the T-BFP discharge of T-BFP
goes to HP-HTRS. There are four HP heaters and discharge of HP
HTR 6B & 5B goes to the economiser which is in the boiler furnace.
After economiser, feed water goes to the boiler drum where steam
is collect on the upper portion & water on the lower portion which
is circulated by BCP (3:1 in reserve). From boiler drum, steam is goes
to the super heater where steam becomes super heat & after that
goes to the HP TBN which of 4 stages. After that goes it to the re-
heater, where it reheat & goes to IP TBN which of 5 stage. From IP
TBN, steam goes to the LP TBN inlet where it expands & TBN
convert heat energy to mechanical energy which is further
converted into electrical energy by generator.
HIGH PRESSURE HEATER
These are placed between the boiler feed water pump and the
boiler. The tube material varies depending on your nuclear power
plant’s need, although the standard is seamless low alloy carbon
This provides good thermal conductivity as well as good
mechanical properties at high temperatures.
Working of High Pressure Heater
There are two trenches of HP heater 5A & 6A are in one
trench where HP heater 5B & 6B are in other trench. The feed water
flows through the tubes of HP heaters. For changing HP heater from
water side one no. filling valve is provided for each trench of
heater. For changing of HPH-5 & 6 from steam side at load on
machine approximately 20%, extraction steam valve shall be
opened gradually and slowly to avoid the hammering.
S.No. Description HPH-5 HPH-6
1. Condensing zone 529 m2
2. Overall area 755 m2
3. Drain cooling zone 131 m2
4. Water velocity in tube 1.96 m/sec 1.96 m/sec
5. Design water flow 7224.48 T/hr 7224.48 T/hr
6. Tube size:ODXTh.mm 15.875X2.11 15.875X2.413
7. No.of tubes 1037 1037
LOW PRESSURE HEATER
These are placed between main condensate extraction pumps
and the boiler feed water pumps and consist of a U-Tube bundle
heat exchanger mounted in a tube sheet and surrounded by a
steam shell. Stainless steel is often used to protect against
corrosion and erosion while longitudinal welding allows thin tube
wall to produced.
Low pressure heater is installed after condensate
extraction pump and in the same way it heats the water but it takes
the same extraction from the LP turbine.
Working of Low Pressure Heater
All the heaters are designed for horizontal mounting, surface
type, having S.S.U-tube. Condensate water flow inside the tube and
heating steam washes the tube system from outside in the shell of
LP Heater. LPH-1 is located inside the condenser. LPHS should be
charged from water inside by opening of their inlet and outlet
valve. For charging of LPH-2 & 3 from steam side at load on
machine approximately 20%, extraction steam valve shall be
opened gradually and slowly to avoid the hammering
S.No. Description LPH-1 LPH-2 LPH-3
1. Condensing zone 1060 m2
2. Overall zone 1060 m2
3. Drain cooling zone Not provided 116 m2
4. Water velocity in tube 1.98 m/s 1.68 m/s 1.85 m/s
5. Design water flow 1052.43 T/hr 1265.10 T/hr 1265.10 T/hr
6. Tube size ODXTh.mm 16X0.889 19.05X0.889 19.05X0.889
7. No. of tube 931 895 814
It is cylindrical, spray and tray type deaerator of adequate
capacity for limiting non-condensed gases to 0.005 cc/lit (at storage
tank). It acts as a heater in regenerative system. It is in two parts
i.e. deaeretion chamber and storage tank. The condensate water
sprayed on trays of deaerator through nozzles. In the separate part
of steam, so that the saturation temperature is virtually reached.
The non-condensable gases accumulated the spray and escape via
the discharge in the atmosphere. Initially deaerator is charged from
auxiliary steam being kept on auto mode with a pressure of 0.3
and after approximately 20% load on machine, is changed
from turbine extraction.
Type: Cylindrical, spray & tray
Condensate inlet quantity: 1337.7 T/hr , Overall length: 10275 mm,
Dia X Thickness:( 3040X20 )mm, Spray valve : 108 nos., Capacity: 15
T/hr. Per valve
2.Feed storage tank:-
Horizontal, cylindrical shell, Capacity at operating level: 330 m2
overall length: 42236 mm, Dia X Thickness:(3600X25) mm, Two nos.
Deaerator vent silenser provided of size 250 mm & flow rate 300
3.Deaerator Recirculation Pump:-
Horizontal centrifugal type having capacity: 318 m3
/hr, Total Head:
19 M WC, Speed: 1450 rpm, Suction/Discharge bore: Nb 150/Nb
BOILER FEED PUMP
Boiler feed pump is used to feed water to steam generator boiler
drum at desired pressure and temperature.
Need Of Boiler Feed Pump
As the water is feed to the steam generator it has to be at the
temperature & pressure that of the steam generator.
Process Of Water Flow
Boiler feed pump extract water from deaerator and feed it to the
boiler drum via HP heater and economizer.
General Configuration Of Boiler Feed Pump
Generally 2 turbine driven boiler feed pump (1 working & 1
standby) & 2 motor driven boiler feed pump is used for 1 unit.
Turbine Driven Boiler Feed Pump:-
It works with the steam extraction from intermediate pressure (IP)
Motor Driven Boiler Feed Pump:-
It works with a motor as the name specifies.
Boiler wide subject the study of boiler is continue.
Boiler Pressure Part & Steam Production
Boiler Pressure parts include:-
> Super heater
> Re heater
> Boiler drum
Drum Type Sub Critical Boiler
Feed water heating takes place in economizer to raise its.
temperature safely lower than the saturation temperature.
Steam generator takes place in furnace water walls.
Steam-water separation takes place in the drum.
Temperature of separated steam increases in super heaters.
After expansion in HP Turbine, steam increases to same
temperature in the re heater.
Circulation system can also loosely be defined as the combination of
equipments and processes for maintaining differential pressure
throughout the water/steam path. For a sub critical boiler, the
system is consisted of drum, down comers, ACP, Ring Header,
Evaporator (water wall), Evaporator outlet Header, Riser tube etc
and for a super critical boiler, the system is consider of BFP,
Economizer and Super Heater.
Following achievements of Anpara Thermal Power Station Anpara
Sonebhadra (U.P) are given bellow:-
1. President of India awarded consecutively for years
1989,1990,1991 & 1992-1993
2. Highest unit P.L.F. unit-1 Dec.1988, 97% with 150.90 M.U.
3. Highest unit power load factor unit-2 Nov.1989, 95.67%, with
144.65 M.U. generation.
4. Highest unit P.I.F. unit-3, Oct.1993, 94.67%, with 148.37 M.U.
5. Highest STN P.L.F. (with two units 2&3) Oct.1993, 61.77% with
289.54 M.U. generation.
6. Highest one day STN P.L.F. on 11.12.1993, 100.07% with
15.1308 M.U. generation. (unit 1,2&3).
7. Highest station P.L.F. on Dec.1993, 90.02% with 421.96 M.U.
generation (unit 1,2&3)
8. Min. monthly oil used in Feb.1992, 0.33 KI/M.U.
9. First 500 M.W. load on unit-4 achieved at 10.17 hrs. On
30.12.1993 & full load trial operation completed on
ANPARA THERMAL POWER (IN ONE SIGHT)
Project cost Rs.721 crores Rs.4100 crores
Capacity 3X210 MW 2X500 MW
Generation per year
(M.V) 72% P.L.F
Boiler & its helpful
TBN, generator & its
K.W.U (B.E.H.L) Toshiba(Japan)&
Coal Plant E.P.J. & M.A.M.C F.C.B.Applewage
Ash Disposal B.S.B.K Webcock (UK)
Water treatment &
Drislacs & Simplacs P.W.T.(UK)
CW & its cooling
Voltas & B.S.T. B.E.H.L
Coal used yearly 272 mill.Ton 4 mill.Ton(E-grade)
Avg.calorific value of
4260 Kcal/kg 4458 Kcal/kg
Coal of min grade
used 3188 Kcalkg
150 It/hr.(F.I) 447 ton/hr.(F.I)
Ash storage limit 99.70% 99.876%
Height of chimney 220 mt 275 mt
Ash disposal/year 0.816 mill.Ton 1.3 mill.Ton
BOILER MAINTANANCE DEVISION-I
Boiler:- A steam generator or boiler is usually a closed vessel made
of steel. Its function is to transfer the heat produced by the
combustion of fuel (solid, liquid & gaseous) to water and ultimately
to generate steam. In this plant boiler is hanged at 79mt. above
from bottom with vent house, boiler have two pass. There are used
high pressure, vertical, forced circulation water tube boiler in
Steam Drum:- Steam drum is cylindrical drum in which steam is
collecting at the top portion of water level. There are used one
boiler drum. It have diameter of 1780 mm I.D. and overall length
between welded line is 21500mm. It have 92 nos of turbo
Furnace water wall:- Water wall have no. of bundle of tube (water)
in which water circulates. This is of water cooled welded wall
hopper bottom type. Dimensions of furnace water is given below
such as:- width, depth & volume are 17907mm, 15330mm & 14300
respectively. Heating surface of FWW have radiant convective
type & EPRS (EPRS is including panel, platen super heaters). So
dimension of radiant heating surface & convective heating surface
are 5120 m2
& 1090 m2
. So total heating surface is 6310 m2
dimension of EPRS is 7030 m2.
Heat loading of BMCR is realising
heat from furnace & showing the cooling of furnace. In this furnace
heat release rate 92100 Kcal/hrm3
&furnace cooling factor rate
. Description –furnace walls are composed of 50.8
mm O.D reflects tube on 63.5mm centres. The space between fin
welded to form a complete gas tight seal.
Super heater:- A super heater is an important device of steam
generating unit. Its purpose is increased the temperature of
saturated steam without raising, it is placed in the path of hot flue
gases from the furnace. Super heater is design at a pressure of 205
. Steam temperature control by the spray control method &
its range about 60 to 100% BMCR. Roof extended side wall & rear
pass wall is of steam cooled type. Primary super heater are of
pentant panel type. The amount of heating surface at roof , extend
side wall & rear panel wall is 2510 m2
. The amount of heating
surface at primary, secondary & tertiary and final super heater are
respectively, so total amount of
surface is 16260m2
Re-heater:- The steam goes from outlet of HP TBN to re-heater
where it re-heat & goes to IP turbine. Re-heater is designed at
pressure 51 kg/cm2
. Steam temperature is controlled by excess air
ratio, burner till & spray control method and its range is 60 to 100 %
BMCR. Primary re-heater are of pendant space type. The area of
heating surface by primary , secondary & tertiary re-heaters are
, so total heating surface is 6950m2
Economizer:- It is used to heat the feed water by utilising the heat
in the exhaust fuel before leaving the chimney. The economizer
improving the efficiency of steam boiler, this is designed at pressure
of 208.5 kg/cm2
. Economizer is of base tube in line arrangement
1.primary air preheater- Type of primary air preheater is Ijungstron
type with vertical shaft. Size of this is 26-vix-1625 there are used
two no. of air preheater heating surface per air preheater is
2.Secondary air preheater- Type of this Ijungstron type with vertical
shaft size this is 30-vix-2300. There are used of no. of air preheater.
Heating surface per air preheater is 38190m2
Boiler circulation pump:- Boiler circulation pump is connected
between the suction manifold & water wall bottom header. Boiler
circulation pump is pumped the water and increased the pressure
by water goes from the suction manifold to water wall bottom
header and bottom to steam drum. Since boiler is forced circulation
boiler then the BCP is required by the pumping the from suction
manifold to water wall bottom header.
Maintenance testing of boiler bottom ash disposal system:-
Ash hopper quenching valve(nozzle) should be open.
Checkout the leakage of oil with hydraulic system of AHG.
Seal truf make up water valve should be open & over flow
water should be fall down with truf.
Cleaning of dust of seal truf.
Screw conveyor & Clinker Grinder-
Checkout tension of chain of screw conveyor.
Tightness of bracket boll of flight bar in each shift.
For cleaning of conveyor chain, cleaning of spray jet.
Cleaning of overall flow tank
Testing of segment of clicker grinder.
For gressing of bearing of SSC & clinker grinder one time in
Checkout temperature of SSC, bearing of clinker grinder &
Hydraulic Power Pack-
Checkout level of oil of HPP & temperature of HPP.
Cooling water valve should be opened.
Removing of leakage of oil from pipe line & machine of HPP.
Checkout the reading of all pressure gauge at HPP.
Removing leakage of oil with hydraulic oil pumps.
Water should not fall down on any electrical instruments.
Cleaning of HPP pack & all related instruments daily.
Pressure oil hydraulic chain tension should not be less than 22
Level of oil tank of chain tensioner should not be less than
decided sign & oil should not leakage with system.
The leakage of oil & water from all valve of all instruments.
Liner plate & nozzle in drain trench should be in good position.
Furnace Purge Condition:-
BMS power normal.
No boiler trip command.
Fuel oil shut off valve closed.
Fuel oil leak check valve closed.
All burner valves closed.
Fuel oil supply pressure proper.
All feeders stopped.
All mills stopped.
All flame scanner no flame.
Any flame scanner fan started.
Ail flow (30%).
One IDF/FDF running.
Any secondary APH started.
All aux air dampers modulating.
Any BCP pressure normal.
Drum level normal.
Electro static precipitator:- Electro static precipitator is device used
to collecting the ash from the mixture of fuel gas & ash by ID fan,
gas induced after that it goes to the chimney by ESP 99.876% ash is
removed. Fly ash fall down at bottom of hopper. It goes outside in
the form of slury.
Submerged Screw Conveyor:- Screw conveyor is rotating part which
submerged in water tank 85% of fly ash goes in ESP & 15% of fly ash
goes in SCC, which are heavy particles. It makes a from clinker and
after that it goes outside.
In the coal mill, coals breaks into small particles. From
coal bunker coal goes in feeder A & B by motorised valve. After that
in the screw conveyor & from screw conveyor, it goes in the tube
mill. Which have 80 tons coal in the tube mill, ball of 875 gm. The
mixture of hot & cold air from primary air fan goes by screw
conveyor in the tube mill & all coal small particles goes in the
burner 1,2,3,4. The temperature of hot air is 293.90
c. There are
connected two sealing air fan for sealing air. LP pumps is also
connected to screw conveyor. There are connected two HP pumps
such as HP-1 & HP-2 for BRG and ball & sockets.
All system of conveyor & tube mill connected to motor of
600 rpm reduced gear is connected to motor for reducing the speed
at 120 rpm. And pinion is connected for rotating the screw conveyor
at 16 rpm.
Parts of mill:-
1. Coal bunker
2. R.C. feeder
3. Screw conveyor
4. Mill drum
Lubrication system of main bearing of mill.
Main reduces lubrication system.
Auxiliary reducer lubrication system.
Maintenance testing of R.C. feeder & sealing air fans.
1. Main bearing oil (servomas S.P.400 unit 1800 It)
2. Main reducer & auxiliary reducer lubricant oil (servomas
S.P.220 unit 180 It & 75 It)
3. Girth gear greesh (servotech-40)
4. Pinion bearing / screw conveyor / seal air fan & R.C. feeder
bearing (servo jam EP-2)
Running Condition on Mill:-
1. Motor wind temperature R=65o
2. Motor wind temperature Y=62o
3. Motor wind temperature B=63o
4. Motor wind temperature R=165o
UNIT ELECTRICAL OVER VIEW
From generator we have 21 KV power which goes
from transformer and stepup at 400 KV. Current goes by pass bus in
the main bus 1 & 2.
Scoop tube control system- Scoop tube control system
consisting of control drive scoop tube itself fitted to the end of input
shaft on the hydraulic coupling casting. The control driver
responding to control signal produce 0 to 90 degree rotary angles
and these angular change are directly transmitted to scoop tube.
Power Transmission Element:-
The rotary part is made up of output member and input
member. The runner and impeller have flat vanes. The impeller is
forced to input shaft and the runner connected to the output shaft
by means of flanged joints.
Speed Reduction Gear:-
The runner is connected to pinion, which engages with
wheel at all times. The wheel is connected at its shaft and I.D. fan
by way of gear coupling.
The main shaft is integral with boss and is fixed to the
main boss by means of rivets.