BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE A.LAXMAN I.T 2/4 AEC The next  generation  user interface G.NAGENDRA   I.T  2/4  AEC
INTRODUCTION A  Brain-Computer Interface  (BCI)  is a  direct communication pathway between the human or an animal brain a...
CLASSIFICATION BCI INVASIVE BCI PARTIALLY INVASIVE BCI NON-INVASIVE BCI
INVASIVE BCIs <ul><li>Electrodes   are implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Produces  Hi...
PARTIALLY INVASIVE BCIs  <ul><li>BCIs are implanted  inside the skull   </li></ul><ul><li>Electrodes are placed on the  su...
Non- invasive BCIs <ul><li>BCIs have electrodes carefully placed on a cap that the patient wears </li></ul><ul><li>Has no ...
Block diagram for BCI devices
Signal Acquisition Different ways of extracting signals form the brain <ul><li>Direct neural contact </li></ul><ul><li>ECo...
DIRECT NEURAL CONTACT <ul><li>Most  accurate method </li></ul><ul><li>Highly Invasive </li></ul><ul><li>Electrode picks up...
Electrocorticography(EcOG) <ul><li>Partially Invasive </li></ul><ul><li>Consists 16 sterile, stainless steel, carbon tip, ...
FUNCTIONAL Magnetic Resonance Imaging  (fMRI) <ul><li>Type of specialized MRI scans  </li></ul><ul><li>Measures blood flow...
ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY(eeG)  <ul><li>Electronic monitoring device to measures electrical activity in brain </li></ul><ul><...
electroencephalogram
Interface  via  eeg <ul><ul><li>VEP (Visual Evoked Potential) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P300 (Potential 300)  </li></ul><...
Visual  evoked  potential <ul><li>Caused by sensory stimulation of subjects visual fields </li></ul><ul><li>VEP  is observ...
P 300 <ul><li>Unexpected sensory stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Peeks in the vicinity of 300 ms and lie for very simple decisio...
SSVEP <ul><li>Steady State Visual Evoked Potential </li></ul><ul><li>SSVEP are signals that are natural  responses to visu...
Pros  &  cons  <ul><li>Can help people with inabilities to control wheel chairs or other devices with brain activity </li>...
CONCLUSION BCI  research is an interdisciplinary  endeavor  involving neuroscience , engineering , signal processing, and ...
QUERIES..??
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Brain Computer Interface

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BCIs (Brain Computer Interface) exploit the ability of human communication and control bypassing the classical neuromuscular communication channels. BCI can help people with inabilities to control wheel chairs, or other devices with brain activity.
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Brain Computer Interface

  1. 1. BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE A.LAXMAN I.T 2/4 AEC The next generation user interface G.NAGENDRA I.T 2/4 AEC
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a direct communication pathway between the human or an animal brain and an external device
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION BCI INVASIVE BCI PARTIALLY INVASIVE BCI NON-INVASIVE BCI
  4. 4. INVASIVE BCIs <ul><li>Electrodes are implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Produces High quality of signals </li></ul><ul><li>Prone to scar tissue build up </li></ul><ul><li>Causes the signal to become weaker or even lost </li></ul>
  5. 5. PARTIALLY INVASIVE BCIs <ul><li>BCIs are implanted inside the skull </li></ul><ul><li>Electrodes are placed on the surface of cortex </li></ul><ul><li>The electrode picks up neural firing from the surface of the brain </li></ul>
  6. 6. Non- invasive BCIs <ul><li>BCIs have electrodes carefully placed on a cap that the patient wears </li></ul><ul><li>Has no complications of brain surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Signals are very noisy and are often misunderstood by the computer </li></ul>
  7. 7. Block diagram for BCI devices
  8. 8. Signal Acquisition Different ways of extracting signals form the brain <ul><li>Direct neural contact </li></ul><ul><li>ECoG </li></ul><ul><li>fMRI </li></ul><ul><li>EEG </li></ul>
  9. 9. DIRECT NEURAL CONTACT <ul><li>Most accurate method </li></ul><ul><li>Highly Invasive </li></ul><ul><li>Electrode picks up highly clear signals </li></ul><ul><li>Signals get weaker if scar tissue develops </li></ul>
  10. 10. Electrocorticography(EcOG) <ul><li>Partially Invasive </li></ul><ul><li>Consists 16 sterile, stainless steel, carbon tip, gold ball electrodes </li></ul><ul><li>ECoG is mainly used to detect the Visual and Auditory stimuli </li></ul>
  11. 11. FUNCTIONAL Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) <ul><li>Type of specialized MRI scans </li></ul><ul><li>Measures blood flow in brain using MRI </li></ul><ul><li>Studies the brain‘s function </li></ul><ul><li>Very Accurate High cost due to MRI </li></ul>
  12. 12. ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY(eeG) <ul><li>Electronic monitoring device to measures electrical activity in brain </li></ul><ul><li>Pain less test </li></ul><ul><li>Used to record the electrical signals from the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Used to confirm brain death </li></ul>
  13. 13. electroencephalogram
  14. 14. Interface via eeg <ul><ul><li>VEP (Visual Evoked Potential) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P300 (Potential 300) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SSVEP (Steady State Visual Evoked Potential) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Visual evoked potential <ul><li>Caused by sensory stimulation of subjects visual fields </li></ul><ul><li>VEP is observed using EEG </li></ul><ul><li>VEPs are very useful in detecting blindness </li></ul><ul><li>Flashing lights, checker boards that flickers are commonly used visual stimuli </li></ul>
  16. 16. P 300 <ul><li>Unexpected sensory stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Peeks in the vicinity of 300 ms and lie for very simple decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Longer it takes for P 300 to appear in harder decision </li></ul><ul><li>Used for screening terrorists and other criminals </li></ul>
  17. 17. SSVEP <ul><li>Steady State Visual Evoked Potential </li></ul><ul><li>SSVEP are signals that are natural responses to visual stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>This technique is used widely used in Electroencephalographic research regarding vision </li></ul>
  18. 18. Pros & cons <ul><li>Can help people with inabilities to control wheel chairs or other devices with brain activity </li></ul><ul><li>To develop better sensing system </li></ul><ul><li>BCIs are linguistic independent and can be used any where across the world </li></ul><ul><li>The signals are weak and are prone to interference </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery to brain might be risky and cause brain death </li></ul><ul><li>There are chemical reactions involved in brain which BCI devices cannot pick up </li></ul>
  19. 19. CONCLUSION BCI research is an interdisciplinary endeavor involving neuroscience , engineering , signal processing, and clinical rehabilitation , and lies at the intersection of several emerging technologies such as Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence among others. BCI is considered as an new frontier in science and technology
  20. 20. QUERIES..??

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