Introduction to Motivation Theories
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Introduction to Motivation Theories

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Introduction to Motivation Theories Introduction to Motivation Theories Presentation Transcript

  • AJAY MOHAN and TAMILVANAN, MBA, PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
  • “ Always do what you are afraid to do." - Ralph Waldo Emerson ROBBINS AND JUDGE PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY Direction Persistence Intensity
  • “ Men are born to succeed, not fail.” -Henry David Thoreau AJAY MOHAN and TAMILVANAN, MBA, PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY IDEAL SITUATION NEEDS MOTIVATION NEEDS TRAINING TERMINATE W I L L I N G N E S S ABILITY
  • MOTIVATION PROCESS “ Your life is in your hands, to make of it what you choose” -John Kehoe PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY NEED (DEPRIVATION) DRIVE (TENSIONS OR DRIVES TO FULLFIL A NEED ) ACTIONS (GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOUR)
  • THEORY OF MOTIVATION Sama (counseling) Dana (offering of gifts) Danda (Punishments) Bheda (creating a split) Management Practices from ‘ KAUTILYA’S ARTHASHASTRA’ (Written by CHANAKYA, The world’s first Management Guru) “ What you are is what you have been, and what you will be is what you do now.” -Buddha AJAY MOHAN and TAMILVANAN, MBA, PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
  • THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
    • CONTENT THEORIES
      • Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
      • Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
      • ERG Theory
      • Frederick Herzberg’s Two- Factor Theory
      • David C McClelland’s Theory of Needs
    “ If you don't risk anything, then you risk even more.” -Erica Jong PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
    • PROCESS THEORIES
      • Victor H Vroom Expectancy Theory
      • Equity Theory 
      • Cognitive Evaluation Theory
      • Self- Efficacy Theory
      • Reinforcement Theory
    “ All that we are is the result of what we have thought.” -Buddha PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
  • MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY “ Our greatest glory is not in never failing but in rising up every time we fail” -Ralph Waldo Emerson PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
  • “ Fortune favours the brave.” -Publius Terence PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY NEED HOME JOB SELF- ACTULISATION Education, Religion, Hobbies, Personal growth Training, Advancement, Growth, Creativity ESTEEM Approval of family, Friends, Community Recognition, High status, Responsibilities BELONGINGNESS Family, Friends, Clubs Teams, Departments, Coworkers, Clients, Supervisors, Subordinates SAFETY Freedom from war, poison, violence Work safety, job security, Health insurance PHYSIOLOGICAL Food, Water, Sex Heat, Air, Basic salary
  • “ It is hard to fail, but it is worse never to have tried to succeed.” -Theodore Roosevelt PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
  • “ The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams.” -Eleanor Roosevelt PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
  • “ You must be the change you wish to see in the world .” -Mahatma Gandhi PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
  • MCCLELLAND’S THEORY OF NEEDS NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT NEED FOR POWER NEED FOR AFFILIATION “ You will never possess what you are unwilling to pursue.” -Mike Murdock PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY Friendship Good relationship drive to excel Achieve in relation to a set of standards Strive to succeed To control others To get desired things done
  • “ They can because they think they can.” -Virgil PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
  • Equity theory “ Our strength grows out of our weakness.” -Ralph Waldo Emerson PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
  • Cognitive Evaluation Theory “ The better part of happiness is to wish to be what you are.” -Desiderius Erasmus PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
    • Economists have found that offering to pay women for donating blood decreases the number willing to donate by almost half, and that letting them contribute the payment to charity reverses the effect.
    • When six day-care centers in Haifa, Israel, began fining parents for late pickups, the number of tardy parents doubled. The fine seems to have reduced their ethical obligation to avoid inconveniencing the teachers and led them to think of lateness as simply a commodity they could purchase.
    PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
    • Incentives affect what our actions signal, whether we’re being self-interested or civic-minded, manipulated or trusted, and they can imply—sometimes wrongly—what motivates us.
    • Incentives also run into trouble when they signal that the employer mistrusts the employee or is greedy. Close supervision of workers coupled with pay for performance is textbook economics—and a prescription for sullen employees.
    “ There are two rules for success: 1) Never tell everything you know…” -Roger H. Lincoln PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
  • GOAL SETTING Goals Specific & Difficult Accepted Effects on Person Directs attention Energises Encourages persistency New strategies developed Feedback Performance “ The secret of getting ahead is getting started” -Mark Twain PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
  • Implementing Goal Setting: Management By Objectives Specific Goals Participatively Set Explicit Time Frame Feedback on Goal “ He who controls others may be powerful, but he who has mastered himself is mightier still.” -Lao-Tzu PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
  • VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY “ There is no such thing in anyone's life as an unimportant day.” -Alexander Woollcott PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY 3. Rewards-Personal goals relationship = Valence 1. Effort-Performance relationship = Expectancy 2. Performance-Rewards relationship = Instrumentality Individual Effort Individual Performance Personal Goals Organizational Rewards 1 2 3
  • Self- Efficacy Theory (social cognitive or social learning theory) Enactive Mastery Vicarious Modeling Verbal Persuasion Arousal “ No matter how hard the past, you can always begin again.” -Buddha PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
  • Reinforcement Theory BEHAVIOUR CONSEQUENCE “ BEHAVIOUR IS A FUNCTION OF ITS CONSEQUENCES” “ Do not seek to follow in the footsteps of the wise. Seek what they sought.” -Basho PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
  • “ A day will never be anymore than what you make of it.” -Josh S. Hinds PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
  • REFERENCE: Books : Organizational Behavior 13 th edition -Stephen P. Robbins , Timothy A. Judge Human Resource Management text and cases – 5 th edition -K. Aswathappa Web: http://hbr.harvardbusiness.org/2009/03/when-economic-incentives-backfire/ar/1 http://changingminds.org http://www.google.com http://www.netmba.com http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/index.html http://tutor2u.net/business/people/motivation_theory_maslow.asp http://www.provenmodels.com/20/theory-x-&-y/douglas-mcgregor http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/foundations_of_psychology/43811 http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/foundations_of_psychology/41616 http://www.businessballs.com/leadership-management.htm http://www.ebookbillboard.com PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY
  • AJAY MOHAN and TAMILVANAN, MBA, PONDICHERRY CENTRAL UNIVERSITY, PONDICHERRY