THE REVOLUTIONARYTHE REVOLUTIONARY
ENERGY SOURCEENERGY SOURCE
Sonofusion Research team from variousSonofusion Research team from various
organizations have joined forces to createorganizations have joined forces to create
acoustic fusion technology energy consortiumacoustic fusion technology energy consortium
(AFTEC) to promote the development of(AFTEC) to promote the development of
It was derived from a related phenomenon,It was derived from a related phenomenon,
Sonofusion involves tiny bubbles imploded bySonofusion involves tiny bubbles imploded by
sound waves can make hydrogen nuclei fuse-andsound waves can make hydrogen nuclei fuse-and
may one day become a revolutionary new energymay one day become a revolutionary new energy
When a gas bubble in liquid is excited byWhen a gas bubble in liquid is excited by
ultrasonic acoustic waves, it can emit shortultrasonic acoustic waves, it can emit short
flashes of light suggestive of extremeflashes of light suggestive of extreme
temperatures inside the bubble.temperatures inside the bubble.
These flashes of light, known asThese flashes of light, known as
‘sonoluminescence’, occur as the bubble‘sonoluminescence’, occur as the bubble
implodes, or cavitates.implodes, or cavitates.
Chemical reactions occurs .Chemical reactions occurs .
THE IDEA OF SONOFUSIONTHE IDEA OF SONOFUSION
Technically known as acoustic inertial confinementTechnically known as acoustic inertial confinement
In this piezoelectric crystal attached to a liquid-filledIn this piezoelectric crystal attached to a liquid-filled
flask send pressure waves through the fluid, excitingflask send pressure waves through the fluid, exciting
the motion of tiny gas bubbles.the motion of tiny gas bubbles.
High temperatures and pressure speculated at theHigh temperatures and pressure speculated at the
bubble core .bubble core .
This leading to conditions suitable for thermonuclearThis leading to conditions suitable for thermonuclear
HOW SONOFUSION WORKSHOW SONOFUSION WORKS
Action of vacuum pump.Action of vacuum pump.
Fill the flask with deuterated acetone.Fill the flask with deuterated acetone.
For initiation an oscillating voltage of 20kHzFor initiation an oscillating voltage of 20kHz
applied to the ring.applied to the ring.
Fire a pulsed neutron generator.Fire a pulsed neutron generator.
ACTION IN THE FLASKACTION IN THE FLASK
Stage (1)Stage (1)
Neutrons flying throughNeutrons flying through
the flask create a bubblethe flask create a bubble
cluster in the deuteratedcluster in the deuterated
acetone liquid.acetone liquid.
Stage (2)Stage (2)
The negative pressure inThe negative pressure in
the liquid makes thethe liquid makes the
bubbles swell 100000bubbles swell 100000
times in size (from nanotimes in size (from nano
to millimeter-scale).to millimeter-scale).
Stage (3)Stage (3)
The liquid pressureThe liquid pressure
turns positive andturns positive and
compresses thecompresses the
bubble, causing thembubble, causing them
to implode with greatto implode with great
The implosion createsThe implosion creates
an instantaneousan instantaneous
pressure of 10 trillionpressure of 10 trillion
kilopascals andkilopascals and
temperature of moretemperature of more
than 100 millionthan 100 million
degree C, making thedegree C, making the
deuterium fusedeuterium fuse..
FUSION REACTIONFUSION REACTION
Deuterium-Deuterium fusion has two probableDeuterium-Deuterium fusion has two probable
outputs, helium and a 2.45-MeV neutron or tritiumoutputs, helium and a 2.45-MeV neutron or tritium
and a proton.and a proton.
The energy of 2.45MeV neutron can be harnessed inThe energy of 2.45MeV neutron can be harnessed in
a reactor to create water vapor &drive an electricitya reactor to create water vapor &drive an electricity
EVIDENCE TO SUPPORTEVIDENCE TO SUPPORT
TABLETOP NUCLEAR FUSIONTABLETOP NUCLEAR FUSION
We gather two kinds of evidence that theWe gather two kinds of evidence that the
deuterium is fusing.deuterium is fusing.
The first is by measuring levels of anotherThe first is by measuring levels of another
hydrogen isotope tritiumhydrogen isotope tritium
The second is neutron emissions detected byThe second is neutron emissions detected by
the neutron detector.the neutron detector.
OTHER APPROACHESOTHER APPROACHES
Mainly two types:Mainly two types:
Laser beam technique.Laser beam technique.
Magnetic confinement fusionMagnetic confinement fusion
It is self sustaining.It is self sustaining.
Easily control.Easily control.
Produce more energy than it consumes.Produce more energy than it consumes.
Low cost.Low cost.
Easily available raw materials.Easily available raw materials.
Environmental friendly.Environmental friendly.
The technology might one day, in theory, lead to a newThe technology might one day, in theory, lead to a new
source of energy. It may result in a new class of low costsource of energy. It may result in a new class of low cost
Compact detectors for security applications.Compact detectors for security applications.
To analyze molecular structure of materials.To analyze molecular structure of materials.
Machines that cheaply manufacture new syntheticMachines that cheaply manufacture new synthetic
materials & efficiently produce tritium, which is used formaterials & efficiently produce tritium, which is used for
medical imaging to watch dials.medical imaging to watch dials.
To create a full-size electricity producingTo create a full-size electricity producing
nuclear generator.nuclear generator.
For more than half a century,For more than half a century,
thermonuclear fusion has held out thethermonuclear fusion has held out the
promise of cheap, clean and virtuallypromise of cheap, clean and virtually
limitless energy.limitless energy.