J ob analysis

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  • After gathering information, the job analyst uses the information to analyze the job.
    One of the broadest and best-researched instruments for analyzing jobs is the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ).
    The person analyzing a job determines whether each item on the questionnaire applies to the job being analyzed, and then rates each item based on six scales.
    Using the PAQ provides an organization with information that helps in comparing jobs, even when they are dissimilar.
  • J ob analysis

    1. 1. Unit II Job Analysis
    2. 2. Job Analysis and Design
    3. 3. Job Analysis  Job analysis  The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.
    4. 4. Relationship of Job Requirements to Other HRM Functions J O B R E Q U I R E M E N T S Determine recruitment qualifications. Provide job duties and job specifications for selection process. RECRUITMENT SELECTION Determine training needs and develop instructional programs. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Provide performance criteria for evaluating employees. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Provide basis for determining employee’s rate of pay. COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT May help to determine bargaining units. LABOR RELATIONS
    5. 5. Job Analysis  Job analysis is a systematic investigation of the tasks, duties and responsibilities necessary to do a job.  Job analysis is the process of collecting job related information.
    6. 6. Objectives/Purpose of Job Analysis
    7. 7. JOB ANALYSIS SYSTEM JOB DESCRIPTION -- Task SOURCES OF DATA -- Duties --- Responsibilities -- Job Analyst -- Employee JOB DATA -- Supervisor -- Task HUMAN RESOURCES FUNCTIONS -- Performance -- Recruitment -- Standard -- Selection -- Responsibilities -- Training & Development METHODS OF -- Knowledge COLLECTING DATA -- Required -- Compensation Mgt. -- Interviews -- Experience -- Labour Relations -- Questionnaires -- Performance Appraisal Needed -- Observations -- Job Content -- Records -- Duties -- Skills Required -- Diaries -- Equipment -- Physical Demand JOB SPECIFICATIONS Needed 4
    8. 8. Job Analysis Process
    9. 9. Step I Strategic Choices in JA  The extent of employee involvement in job analysis.  The level of details of the analysis. (objective and nature of job)  Timing and frequency of the analysis  Past oriented vs future oriented.
    10. 10. Step II Information Collection  Major Decision involved are: The type of information collected  Method of collection  Person involved in collection.
    11. 11. Types of Information to be Collected  Work activities  Human behaviors  Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids  Performance standards  Job context  Human requirements
    12. 12. Persons involved in Information Collection  3 categories of person that can be involved:  Trained Job Analysts  Superiors  Job holders This decision depends on nature and objective of job Analysis.
    13. 13. Methods of Collecting information  Personal observation  Interview  Critical Incidents  Questionnaire  Position Analysis Questionnaire  Management Position Description Questionnaire
    14. 14. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) What is it? Key sections:  A standardized job 1. Information input analysis questionnaire containing 194 questions about work behaviors, work conditions, and job characteristics that apply to a wide variety of jobs. 2. Mental processes 3. Work output 4. Relationships with other persons 5. Job context 6. Other characteristics
    15. 15. Management Position Description Questionnaire (MPDQ) MPQD is a standardised instrument designed specifically for use in analyzing managerial jobs. The 274-item questionnaire contains 15 sections. It would take 212hrs to complete the questionnaire. In most cases the respondents are asked to state how important each item is to the position. Management Position Description Factors 1. Product, marketing and financial strategy planning. 2. Coordination of other organisational units and personnel. 3. Internal business control. 4. Products and services responsibility. 5. Public and customer relations. 6. Advanced consulting. 7. Autonomy of actions. 9. Staff service. 10. Supervision. 11. Complexity and stress.
    16. 16. COMBINATION  Since each method is faulty analyst often rely on combination.  Two or more techniques are used.
    17. 17. Application of job analysis information Job Descriptions  Job Job Specifications Analysis  Informati on Job Design Job Performance Standards
    18. 18. Job Description  A recognized list of functions, tasks, accountabilities, working conditions and competencies for a particular occupation or job.  Job Description is a list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships,, and supervisory.  There is no standard format using writing job description but it contain:
    19. 19. Job Descriptions Job Description Job Title Job Identification 1. Title. 2. Statement. 3. Essential Functions. 1. XXX 2. XXX 3. XXX 4. XXX Job summary 4. Specifications. 1. XXX 2. XXX 3. XXX 4. XXX Responsibilities and duties Working condition
    20. 20. JOB TITLE  Indicates job duties and organizational level  It specifies title of job like, marketing manager, clerk etc JOB IDENTIFICATION  Distinguishes job from all other jobs  Contain several type of information.  Job status section permits quick identification of the exempt or non exempt status of job  The date at which description written, the name of a person who wrote it and name of a person who approved it.  The immediate supervisor title is some times also shown in identification section.
    21. 21.  Job summary:  Describes general nature of job, listing only major function and activities.  For example,marketing manager Plans, direct and coordinates the marketing of the organizational product.  Responsibilities and duties  List of major responsibilities and duties.  All major duties should be separately and described in few sentences.  Example.establishes marketing goals,develop marketing plans and programs, communicates with advertising agencies etc.
    22. 22.  Working conditions:  It also explain working condition, hours of work, safety and health hazards etc
    23. 23. Writing Job Descriptions  Step 1. Decide on a Plan  Step 2. Develop an Organization Chart  Step 3. Use a Job Analysis/Description Questionnaire  Step 4. Obtain Lists of Job Duties  Step 5. Compile the Job’s Human Requirements  Step 6. Complete Your Job Description
    24. 24. Example of Job Description JOB TITLE:_____ CODE:________ REPORTS TO:_____________ GRADE LEVEL: _______________ AS ON DATE :_________ OCCUPATIONAL JOB NO. : ______ FUNCTIONS (job summary): ______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ TASKS AND DUTIES: ______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ WORKING CONDITIONS: ______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________
    25. 25. Specimen of Job Description Title Compensation manager Code HR/2310 Department Human Resource Department Summary Responsible for the design and administration of employee compensation programmes. Duties  Conduct job analysis.  Prepare job descriptions for current and projected positions.  Evaluate job descriptions and act as Chairman of Job Evaluation Committee.  Insure that company’s compensation rates are in tune with the company’s philosophy. Cont… 25
    26. 26. USES OF JOB DESCRIPTION grading & classification  placement & orientation of new employees  promotions & transfers  defining & outlining career paths  redressal of grievances  investigating incidents  locating faults  defining limits of authority  health & fatigue studies  developing performance standards 26
    27. 27. JOB SPECIFICATION       Skills required to perform the job Physical demands of the job specify the minimum qualifications required of a worker to fill specific jobs Describes what the job demands of employees and the human factors and traits required to do job well. It include specific tool, action, experience, education, training, that help clarify individual requirement for successful job performance. It is written record of the physical ,mental,social & psychological and behavioral characteristics which a person should possess in order to perform the job effectively
    28. 28. JOB SPECIFICATION FACTORS SKILLS FORMAL EDUCATION EXPERIENCE COMMUNICATION SKILLS MATHEMATICAL SKILLS COMPUTER SKILLS REASONING ABILITY EFFORT PHYSICAL EFFORT DEXTERITY MENTAL CONCENTRATION RESPONSIBILITY SUPERVISION OF OTHERS CONFIDENTIALITY/INFORMATION PHYSICAL ASSETS CONTACTS WITH OTHERS WORKING CONDITIONS HAZARDS JOB CONDITIONS
    29. 29. Specimen of job specification Education  MBA with specialisation in HRM/MA in social work/PG Diploma in HRM/MA in industrial psychology.  A degree or diploma in Labour Laws is desirable. Experience  At least 3 years’ experience in a similar position in a large manufacturing company. Skill, Knowledge, Abilities  Knowledge of compensation practices in competing industries, of job analysis procedures, of compensation survey techniques, of performance appraisal systems.  Skill in writing job descriptions, in conducting job analysis interviews, in making group presentations, in performing statistical computations  Ability to conduct meetings, to plan and prioritise work. Work Orientation Factors  The position may require upto 15 per cent travel. Age  Preferably below 30 years. 29
    30. 30. Job Evaluation (JOB STANDARDS)  Job evaluation provides the relative value of each job in the organization. It is an important tool to determine compensation administration.  If an organization is to have an equitable compensation program, jobs that have similar demands on terms of skills, education and other characteristics should be placed in the common compensation groups.
    31. 31. Job Design  Is the process of structuring work and designating the specific activities at individual or group levels .  It determines the responsibility of an employee  The authority he enjoys over his work  Scope of decision making , level of satisfaction & productivity

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