• Fuel is any material that stores energy that
can later be extracted to perform mechanical
work in a controlled manner
• Hydrocarbons are the most common source of
fuel used by humans
• Coal was first used as a fuel around 1000 BCE
Indian Energy Sources
• About 70% of India's energy generation capacity
is from fossil fuels
• The country has ambitious plans to expand its
renewable and nuclear power industries
• Major Sources of Energy in India are• Fossil Fuels – Coal, Lignite, Petroleum, Natural
• Nuclear – Uranium, Thorium (future)
• Renewable – Solar, Wind, Biomass, HydroPower
• Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black
sedimentary rock normally occurring in rock
strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal
• Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with
variable quantities of other elements, chiefly
hydrogen, with smaller quantities of
sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen
• Most important energy source of India
• Accounts for 55% of energy needs of India
Coal Reserves in India
• India has World’s Third Largest Coal Reserves
• India has a hard coal reserves around 255 billion
tonnes, of which 92 billion tonnes are proven
• Hard coal deposit spread over 27 major
coalfields, located mainly in Eastern and SouthCentral parts
• The lignite reserves stand at a level around 36
billion tonnes, concentrated mainly in Tamil Nadu
• Surface Mining - used when a coal seam is
relatively close to the surface, usually within
• Underground (or deep) mining- used when
the coal seam is buried several hundred feet
below the surface. In underground
mining, workers and machinery go down a
vertical shaft or a slanted tunnel called a slope
to remove the coal
Coal Mining in India
• Coal Mining started in 1774 by M/s Sumner and Heatly
of East India Company in the Raniganj Coalfield
• The nationalisation was done in two phases, the first
with the coking coal mines in 1971-72 and then with
the non-coking coal mines in 1973
• The production of coal increased from a level of about
70 million tonnes at the time of nationalization
to 492.95 million tonnes in 2008-09.
• Coal India Limited is major Coal mining company of
Classification of Coal
• Peat,-precursor of coal. In its dehydrated form, peat is a highly
effective absorbent for fuel and oil spills on land and water.
• Lignite referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal
and used almost exclusively as fuel for electric power
generation. Additionally, it is an important source of light
aromatic hydrocarbons for the chemical synthesis industry.
• Bituminous coal -dense sedimentary rock, black but
sometimes dark brown, often with well-defined bands of
bright and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steamelectric power generation, with substantial quantities also
used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to
• Anthracite -the highest rank; a harder, glossy, black coal.
Classification of Coal
• Mostly E and F grade coal used in India.
( K Cal / Kg. )
% Ash + Moisture
19.57 - 23.97
23.92 - 28.69
28.69 - 34.05
34.06 - 40.14
40.14 - 47.10
• Coke is a solid carbonaceous residue derived from
low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal from which the
volatile constituents are driven off by baking in an
oven without oxygen at temperatures as high as
• The Coking Coal reserves in India is Low ( 33 BT)
• Metallurgical coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing
agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace
• Coke from coal is grey, hard, and porous and has a
heating value of 24.8 million Btu/ton (29.6 MJ/kg)
Advantages of Coal
• Easily combustible, and produces high energy upon
• Widely and easily distributed all over the world;
• Comparatively inexpensive due to large reserves and easy
• Good availability
• Very large amounts of electricity can be generated in one
place using coal, fairly cheaply.
• A fossil-fuelled power station can be built almost
anywhere, so long as you can get large quantities of fuel to
Disadvantages of Coal
• It is Nonrenewable and fast depleting
• fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide, contributing to global
• It leaves behind harmful byproducts upon combustion,
thereby causing a lot of pollution;
• Mining of coal leads to irreversible damage to the adjoining
• A coal plant generates about 3,700,000 tons of carbon
dioxide every year.
• A 500-megawatt coal- fired plant draws about 2.2 billion
gallons of water from nearby bodies of water. This is
enough water to support approximately 250,000 people.
Clean Coal Technology
• Clean coal technology is a collection of
technologies being developed to reduce the
environmental impact of coal energy generation
• Clean coal technologies remove sulfur and
nitrogen oxides before, during, and after coal is
burned, or convert coal to a gas or liquid fuel.
• Clean coal technologies are also more efficient,
using less coal to produce the same amount of
• The world's first "clean coal" power plant went
on-line in September 2008 in Spremberg, German
• Coal gasification is the process of producing coal
gas, a type of syngas–a mixture of carbon
monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon
dioxide(CO2) and water vapour (H2O)–from coal
• The coal is blown through with oxygen and steam
(water vapor) while also being heated
• Oxygen and water molecules oxidize the coal and
produce a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide
(CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), water vapour
(H2O), and molecular hydrogen (H2)
Fluidised Bed Combustion
• FBC is a combustion technology used in power plants
• In this combustor, crushed coal is mixed with
limestone and suspended on jets of air inside a boiler
• The limestone acts like a sponge by capturing 90
percent of the organic sulfur that is released when the
coal is burned
• Combustion temperatures can be held to 1,500
degrees F, about half that of a conventional
boiler, which is below the threshold where nitrogen
• India produced roughly 880
thousand barrels per day
(bbl/d) of total oil in 2009
from over 3,600 operating
• In 2009, India consumed
nearly 3 million
bbl/d, making it the 6th
largest net importer and 4th
largest consumer of oil in
• EIA expects approximately
100 thousand bbl/d annual
• India’s oil (upstream) sector is dominated by
– Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC)
– Oil India Limited (OIL)
– Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) and
– Gas Authority of Indian Limited (GAIL).
Reliance Industries Limited – Private Firm
• India’s downstream sector is also dominated by
– Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) is the largest state-owned
company in the downstream sector
• India had 2.8 million bbl/d of crude oil refining
• Total of 18 facilities for refining as of January
• India has the fifth largest refinery capacity in
• The Jamnagar complex, privately-owned by
Reliance Industries is the largest oil refinery
complex in the world.
Upcoming refinery projects
• India is slated to add 840 thousand bbl/d of
refining capacity through 2015 based on currently
• 120,000 bbl/d Greenfield refinery in Bina in 2011
by a joint venture between Bharat Petroleum
Corporation Limited and Oman Oil Company
• 180,000 bbl/d grassroots refinery in Bhatinda in
2014 by Hindustan Petroleum Corporation
Strategic Petroleum Reserve
• To support India’s energy security, India is constructing a
strategic petroleum reserve (SPR).
• The first storage facility at Visakhapatnam will hold
approximately 9.8 million bbls of crude (1.33 million tons) and
is scheduled for completion by the end of 2011.
• The second facility at Mangalore will have a capacity of nearly
11 million bbls (1.5 million tons) and is scheduled for
completion by the end of 2012.
• The SPR project is being managed by the Indian Strategic
Petroleum Reserves Limited (ISPRL), which is part of Oil
Industry Development Board (OIDB), a state-controlled
• According to Oil and Gas Journal,
India had approximately 38
trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven
natural gas reserves as of January
• Natural gas demand is expected
to grow considerably, largely
driven by demand in the power
• The power and fertilizer sectors
account for nearly three-quarters
of natural gas consumption in
• India’s state-owned companies account for the bulk of natural
• ONGC accounted for 69 percent of natural gas production in
the country in 2007.
• Privately-owned Reliance Industries will also have a greater
role in the natural gas sector in the coming years, as a result
of a large natural gas find in 2002 in the KG basin.
• The Gas Authority of India Ltd. (GAIL) holds an effective
monopoly on natural gas transmission and distribution
Exploration and Production
• IEA forecasts Indian natural gas peak production between
2020 and 2030.
• ONGC announced a find in late 2006 in the Mahanadi basin
with an estimated 3 to 4 Tcf of reserves in place.
• In December 2006, ONGC announced a find of an
estimated 21 to 22 Tcf of natural gas in place at the KGDOWN-98/2 block in the KG basin.
• In addition, state-owned Gujarat State Petroleum
Corporation (GSPC) holds an estimated 1.8 Tcf of natural
gas reserves at the KG-OSN-2001/3 block in the KG area.
• Reliance Industries’KG-D6 block holds estimated reserves of
11.5 Tcf and came online in April 2009.
Natural Gas Imports
• Iran-Pakistan-India Pipeline
– under discussion since 1994.
– The plan calls for a roughly 1,700-mile, 5.4-Bcf/d pipeline.
• Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India Pipeline
– project consists of a planned 1,050-mile pipeline
– TAPI is envisioned to have a capacity of 3.2 Bcf/d
• Imports from Myanmar
– In March 2006, the governments of India and Myanmar signed a
natural gas supply deal.
– In March 2009, Myanmar signed a natural gas supply deal with China
sourced from a field invested in by GAIL and ONGC, putting any IndiaMyanmar pipeline deal in question.
Nuclear Power in India
• Fourth-largest source of electricity in India after
thermal, hydroelectric and renewable sources.
• India has 20 nuclear reactors in operation in 6
nuclear power plants, generating 4,780 MW.
• 5 plants are under construction and are expected
to generate an additional 2,720 MW.
• Plans to increase nuclear power output to 64,000
MW by 2032.[
• Current electricity generation capacity from
nuclear energy is approximately 4.2%.
• The most common fissile nuclear fuel is
• Thorium can also be used as nuclear fuel.
• Although not fissile itself, Th-232 will absorb
slow neutrons to produce uranium-233 (U233), which is fissile.
• The worldwide production of uranium in 2009
amounted to 50,572 tonnes, of which 27%
was mined in Kazakhstan.
• The top three producers-Kazakhstan, Canada,
and Australia (together 63%).
Uranium deposits of India
• Existinf Mines
- Jaduguda in Singhbhum Thrust Belt (in Jharkhand) is the first
uranium deposit to be discovered in the country in 1951.
- Bhatin Mine – 3 km west of Jaduguda Mine.
- Narwapahar Mine – large deposit, 12 km west of Jaduguda Mine.
- Turamdih mine
• Old Mines
- Turamdih mine
- Banduhurang mine
- Bagjata Mine
- Mohuldih Mine (all in Jharkhand)
- Lambapur-Peddagattu mine (Andhra Pradesh)
- Domiasiat mine (Meghalaya )
• USA, Australia and India have particularly
large reserves of thorium.
• India has more than 360000 tons of high
quality thorium deposits.
Energy Density Comparisons
1 kg Coal
1 kg Oil
1 kg Uranium
Fuel Required for 1000 MWe Plant (annual)
Land Required for 1000 MWe Plant
Fossil Nuclear Site
Solar (thermal or Photovoltaic)
Bio Mass Plantation
2000 train cast of 1300 t each
10 super tanker
10 m3 of reactor core
20-50 km2 (a small city)
NUCLEAR POWER : CLEANEST SOURCE OF ENERGY
MUCH LESS THAN FOR COAL AND HYDRO PROJECTS OF SAME SIZE.
LEAST DISPLACEMENT OF PROJECT AFFECTED PEOPLE & THEIR
(FOR PLANTS OF 1000 MWe CAPACITIES)
COAL - THERMAL PLANT
70 T OF URANIUM / YEAR FOR
3.5 MILLION TONNES
PLF AT 75%
NO GREEN HOUSE GASES,
6.5 M.T. OF CO-2
(GREEN HOUSE GAS)
ALSO SO2 AND NOx
EMIT S ONLY 5 % OF NATURAL
EMITS DUE TO
PRESENCE OF Ra. 226, 228 &
Nuclear Power and Environment
• The main environmental concerns for nuclear
power are radioactive.
• These materials can remain radioactive and are
dangerous to human health for thousands of
• Every 18 to 24 months, nuclear power plants
must be shut down to remove and replace the
"spent" uranium fuel.
• The construction of nuclear power plants can
destroy natural habitat for animals and plants or
contaminate local land with toxic by-products.
NUCLEAR POWER - GREEN & ECONOMIC SOURCE
Nuclear Power is “Green Power”
No emission of green house and acid rain gases.
Radiation exposure is a tiny
Waste generated is many folds (lakh times) less in
volume as compared to coal and is technologically
NPP design addresses all issues pertaining to
safety, environment etc related measures are built-in
plant and are included in costs.
• Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into
electricity, either directly using photovoltaics
(PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power
• CSP systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking
systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a
• Photovoltaics convert light into electric current
using the photoelectric effect.
• The 354 MW SEGS CSP installation is the largest
solar power plant in the world and is located in
the Mojave Desert of California.
Scope of Solar Energy
• The average intensity of solar radiation
received on India is 200 MW/km square
• With a geographical area of 3.287 million km
square, this amounts to 657.4 million MW
• Only 12.5% of the land area amounting to
0.413 million km square can, in theory, be
used for solar energy installations.
• Even if 10% of this area can be used, the
available solar energy would be 8 million MW
• Solar power is pollution-free during use.
• PV installations can operate for many years with
little maintenance or intervention after their
• Solar electric generation is economically superior
where grid connection or fuel transport is
difficult, costly or impossible
• Compared to fossil and nuclear energy sources,
very little research money has been invested in
the development of solar cells, so there is
considerable room for improvement.
• Solar electricity is more expensive than most
other forms of small-scale alternative energy
• Solar electricity is not produced at night and is
greatly reduced in cloudy conditions.
• Solar cells produce DC which must be
converted to AC. This incurs 4-12% losses
• The efficiency of conversion of solar energy to
useful energy is low.
• Definition - Wind power is the conversion of
wind energy into a useful form of energy, such
as using wind turbines to make electricity,
windmills for mechanical power, windpumps
for water pumping or drainage, or sails to
Wind Power in India
• The development of wind power in India
began in the 1990
• India has the fifth largest installed wind power
capacity in the world.
• The total estimated capacity is 45000 MW
• As of 31 Dec 2010 the installed capacity of
wind power in India was 14158 MW
• The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
(MNRE) has fixed a target of 10,500 MW
between 2007–12, but an additional
generation capacity of only about 6,000 MW
might be available for commercial use by
• Biomass is biological material derived from living, or
• Estimates have indicated that 15% - 50% of the world’s
primary energy use could come from biomass by the year
• Currently, about 11% of the world’s primary energy is
estimated to be met with biomass.
• In India, over 500 million tones /Year of agricultural and
agro-industrial residue alone is generated, is equivalent to
about 175 million tonnes of oil.
• 150-200 million tonnes of this biomass material is sufficient
to generate 15 000-25 000 MW of electrical power at
typically prevalent plant.
• It is the process through which solid biomass
material is subjected to partial combustion in
the presence of a limited supply of air in
gasifier and producer gas formed.
• The calorific value of this gas is about 10001200 kcal.Nm3.
• Biomass can be converted to other usable
forms of energy like methane gas or
transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel.
Technology to convert Biomass into
• Thermal conversion- These are processes in which heat is
the dominant mechanism to convert the biomass into
another chemical form. pplications of thermal conversion
are combined heat and power (CHP) and co-firing. In a
typical biomass power plant, efficiencies range from 2027%
• Chemical conversion- chemical processes may be used to
convert biomass into ethanol and biodiesel.
• Biochemical conversion- (anaerobic
digestion, fermentation and composting )to break
down(makes use of the enzymes of bacteria and other
micro-organisms) the molecules of which biomass is
Biomass gasifier based systems:- applications of a
producer gas produced from a biomass gasifier
• Mechanical shaft power applications, i.e., water
pumping for irrigation/drinking and grinding,
where the gas is used as fuel for internal
• Direct heat applications where it is burnt directly
in a boiler, furnace or klin, burner for institutional
cooking, etc., to provide heat.
• Electricity generation through shaft power
application viz., (engine coupled to an
Other Sources of Renewable Energy
Dam Based Projects
Run Off River Projects
Small Hydro Power Projects
Pump Storage Projects
• Geo-Thermal Energy
• Tidal Energy
• Bio Fuels