Indian energy sourcing


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Indian energy sourcing

  1. 1. Fuel • Fuel is any material that stores energy that can later be extracted to perform mechanical work in a controlled manner • Hydrocarbons are the most common source of fuel used by humans • Coal was first used as a fuel around 1000 BCE in China
  2. 2. Indian Energy Sources • About 70% of India's energy generation capacity is from fossil fuels • The country has ambitious plans to expand its renewable and nuclear power industries • Major Sources of Energy in India are• Fossil Fuels – Coal, Lignite, Petroleum, Natural Gas • Nuclear – Uranium, Thorium (future) • Renewable – Solar, Wind, Biomass, HydroPower
  3. 3. Coal • Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock normally occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams • Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, with smaller quantities of sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen • Most important energy source of India • Accounts for 55% of energy needs of India
  4. 4. Coal Reserves in India • India has World’s Third Largest Coal Reserves • India has a hard coal reserves around 255 billion tonnes, of which 92 billion tonnes are proven • Hard coal deposit spread over 27 major coalfields, located mainly in Eastern and SouthCentral parts • The lignite reserves stand at a level around 36 billion tonnes, concentrated mainly in Tamil Nadu
  5. 5. Coal Mining • Surface Mining - used when a coal seam is relatively close to the surface, usually within 200 feet • Underground (or deep) mining- used when the coal seam is buried several hundred feet below the surface. In underground mining, workers and machinery go down a vertical shaft or a slanted tunnel called a slope to remove the coal
  6. 6. Surface Mining Under Ground mining
  7. 7. Coal Mining in India • Coal Mining started in 1774 by M/s Sumner and Heatly of East India Company in the Raniganj Coalfield • The nationalisation was done in two phases, the first with the coking coal mines in 1971-72 and then with the non-coking coal mines in 1973 • The production of coal increased from a level of about 70 million tonnes at the time of nationalization to 492.95 million tonnes in 2008-09. • Coal India Limited is major Coal mining company of India
  8. 8. Classification of Coal • Peat,-precursor of coal. In its dehydrated form, peat is a highly effective absorbent for fuel and oil spills on land and water. • Lignite referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for electric power generation. Additionally, it is an important source of light aromatic hydrocarbons for the chemical synthesis industry. • Bituminous coal -dense sedimentary rock, black but sometimes dark brown, often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steamelectric power generation, with substantial quantities also used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke • Anthracite -the highest rank; a harder, glossy, black coal.
  9. 9. Classification of Coal • Mostly E and F grade coal used in India. Grade C.V. ( K Cal / Kg. ) % Ash + Moisture A > 6200 19.57 B 5601-6200 19.57 - 23.97 C 4941-5600 23.92 - 28.69 D 4201-5940 28.69 - 34.05 E 3361-4200 34.06 - 40.14 F 2401-3360 40.14 - 47.10
  10. 10. Coking Coal • Coke is a solid carbonaceous residue derived from low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal from which the volatile constituents are driven off by baking in an oven without oxygen at temperatures as high as 1,000 °C • The Coking Coal reserves in India is Low ( 33 BT) • Metallurgical coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace • Coke from coal is grey, hard, and porous and has a heating value of 24.8 million Btu/ton (29.6 MJ/kg)
  11. 11. Advantages of Coal • Easily combustible, and produces high energy upon combustion • Widely and easily distributed all over the world; • Comparatively inexpensive due to large reserves and easy accessibility • Good availability • Inexpensive • Very large amounts of electricity can be generated in one place using coal, fairly cheaply. • A fossil-fuelled power station can be built almost anywhere, so long as you can get large quantities of fuel to it.
  12. 12. Disadvantages of Coal • It is Nonrenewable and fast depleting • fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide, contributing to global warming. • It leaves behind harmful byproducts upon combustion, thereby causing a lot of pollution; • Mining of coal leads to irreversible damage to the adjoining • A coal plant generates about 3,700,000 tons of carbon dioxide every year. • A 500-megawatt coal- fired plant draws about 2.2 billion gallons of water from nearby bodies of water. This is enough water to support approximately 250,000 people.
  13. 13. Clean Coal Technology • Clean coal technology is a collection of technologies being developed to reduce the environmental impact of coal energy generation • Clean coal technologies remove sulfur and nitrogen oxides before, during, and after coal is burned, or convert coal to a gas or liquid fuel. • Clean coal technologies are also more efficient, using less coal to produce the same amount of electricity. • The world's first "clean coal" power plant went on-line in September 2008 in Spremberg, German
  14. 14. Coal Gasification • Coal gasification is the process of producing coal gas, a type of syngas–a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide(CO2) and water vapour (H2O)–from coal • The coal is blown through with oxygen and steam (water vapor) while also being heated • Oxygen and water molecules oxidize the coal and produce a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), water vapour (H2O), and molecular hydrogen (H2)
  15. 15. Fluidised Bed Combustion • FBC is a combustion technology used in power plants • In this combustor, crushed coal is mixed with limestone and suspended on jets of air inside a boiler • The limestone acts like a sponge by capturing 90 percent of the organic sulfur that is released when the coal is burned • Combustion temperatures can be held to 1,500 degrees F, about half that of a conventional boiler, which is below the threshold where nitrogen pollutants
  16. 16. OIL • India produced roughly 880 thousand barrels per day (bbl/d) of total oil in 2009 from over 3,600 operating oil wells. • In 2009, India consumed nearly 3 million bbl/d, making it the 6th largest net importer and 4th largest consumer of oil in the world. • EIA expects approximately 100 thousand bbl/d annual consumption growth through 2011.
  17. 17. Sector Organization • India’s oil (upstream) sector is dominated by state-owned enterprises. – Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) – Oil India Limited (OIL) – Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) and – Gas Authority of Indian Limited (GAIL). Reliance Industries Limited – Private Firm • India’s downstream sector is also dominated by state-owned entities. – Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) is the largest state-owned company in the downstream sector
  18. 18. India’s Oil Reserves
  19. 19. Downstream/Refining • India had 2.8 million bbl/d of crude oil refining capacity. • Total of 18 facilities for refining as of January 1, 2010. • India has the fifth largest refinery capacity in the world. • The Jamnagar complex, privately-owned by Reliance Industries is the largest oil refinery complex in the world.
  20. 20. Upcoming refinery projects • India is slated to add 840 thousand bbl/d of refining capacity through 2015 based on currently proposed projects. • 120,000 bbl/d Greenfield refinery in Bina in 2011 by a joint venture between Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited and Oman Oil Company Limited. • 180,000 bbl/d grassroots refinery in Bhatinda in 2014 by Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited, and
  21. 21. Strategic Petroleum Reserve • To support India’s energy security, India is constructing a strategic petroleum reserve (SPR). • The first storage facility at Visakhapatnam will hold approximately 9.8 million bbls of crude (1.33 million tons) and is scheduled for completion by the end of 2011. • The second facility at Mangalore will have a capacity of nearly 11 million bbls (1.5 million tons) and is scheduled for completion by the end of 2012. • The SPR project is being managed by the Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserves Limited (ISPRL), which is part of Oil Industry Development Board (OIDB), a state-controlled organization.
  22. 22. Natural Gas • According to Oil and Gas Journal, India had approximately 38 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven natural gas reserves as of January 2010. • Natural gas demand is expected to grow considerably, largely driven by demand in the power sector. • The power and fertilizer sectors account for nearly three-quarters of natural gas consumption in India.
  23. 23. Sector Organization • India’s state-owned companies account for the bulk of natural gas production. • ONGC accounted for 69 percent of natural gas production in the country in 2007. • Privately-owned Reliance Industries will also have a greater role in the natural gas sector in the coming years, as a result of a large natural gas find in 2002 in the KG basin. • The Gas Authority of India Ltd. (GAIL) holds an effective monopoly on natural gas transmission and distribution activities.
  24. 24. Exploration and Production • IEA forecasts Indian natural gas peak production between 2020 and 2030. • ONGC announced a find in late 2006 in the Mahanadi basin with an estimated 3 to 4 Tcf of reserves in place. • In December 2006, ONGC announced a find of an estimated 21 to 22 Tcf of natural gas in place at the KGDOWN-98/2 block in the KG basin. • In addition, state-owned Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation (GSPC) holds an estimated 1.8 Tcf of natural gas reserves at the KG-OSN-2001/3 block in the KG area. • Reliance Industries’KG-D6 block holds estimated reserves of 11.5 Tcf and came online in April 2009.
  25. 25. Natural Gas Imports • Iran-Pakistan-India Pipeline – under discussion since 1994. – The plan calls for a roughly 1,700-mile, 5.4-Bcf/d pipeline. • Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India Pipeline – project consists of a planned 1,050-mile pipeline – TAPI is envisioned to have a capacity of 3.2 Bcf/d • Imports from Myanmar – In March 2006, the governments of India and Myanmar signed a natural gas supply deal. – In March 2009, Myanmar signed a natural gas supply deal with China sourced from a field invested in by GAIL and ONGC, putting any IndiaMyanmar pipeline deal in question.
  26. 26. Nuclear Power in India • Fourth-largest source of electricity in India after thermal, hydroelectric and renewable sources. • India has 20 nuclear reactors in operation in 6 nuclear power plants, generating 4,780 MW. • 5 plants are under construction and are expected to generate an additional 2,720 MW. • Plans to increase nuclear power output to 64,000 MW by 2032.[ • Current electricity generation capacity from nuclear energy is approximately 4.2%.
  27. 27. Nuclear Fuels • The most common fissile nuclear fuel is Uranium 235. • Thorium can also be used as nuclear fuel. • Although not fissile itself, Th-232 will absorb slow neutrons to produce uranium-233 (U233), which is fissile.
  28. 28. Uranium Mining • The worldwide production of uranium in 2009 amounted to 50,572 tonnes, of which 27% was mined in Kazakhstan. • The top three producers-Kazakhstan, Canada, and Australia (together 63%).
  29. 29. Uranium deposits of India • Existinf Mines - Jaduguda in Singhbhum Thrust Belt (in Jharkhand) is the first uranium deposit to be discovered in the country in 1951. - Bhatin Mine – 3 km west of Jaduguda Mine. - Narwapahar Mine – large deposit, 12 km west of Jaduguda Mine. - Turamdih mine • Old Mines - Turamdih mine - Banduhurang mine - Bagjata Mine - Mohuldih Mine (all in Jharkhand) - Lambapur-Peddagattu mine (Andhra Pradesh) - Domiasiat mine (Meghalaya )
  30. 30. Major uranium provinces of India
  31. 31. Thorium Deposits
  32. 32. Contd. • USA, Australia and India have particularly large reserves of thorium. • India has more than 360000 tons of high quality thorium deposits.
  33. 33. Energy Density Comparisons • • • 1 kg Coal 1 kg Oil 1 kg Uranium • Fuel Required for 1000 MWe Plant (annual) • • • • Coal Oil Nuclear (Uranium) • Land Required for 1000 MWe Plant • • • • Fossil Nuclear Site Solar (thermal or Photovoltaic) Wind Field Bio Mass Plantation 3 kw.h 4 kw.h 50000 kw.h 2,600,000 t 2,000,000 t 30t 2000 train cast of 1300 t each 10 super tanker 10 m3 of reactor core 1-4 km2 20-50 km2 (a small city) 50-100 km2 4000-6000 km2
  35. 35. Nuclear Power and Environment • The main environmental concerns for nuclear power are radioactive. • These materials can remain radioactive and are dangerous to human health for thousands of years. • Every 18 to 24 months, nuclear power plants must be shut down to remove and replace the "spent" uranium fuel. • The construction of nuclear power plants can destroy natural habitat for animals and plants or contaminate local land with toxic by-products.
  36. 36. NUCLEAR POWER - GREEN & ECONOMIC SOURCE  Nuclear Power is “Green Power”  No emission of green house and acid rain gases.  Radiation exposure is a tiny background.  Waste generated is many folds (lakh times) less in volume as compared to coal and is technologically manageable.  NPP design addresses all issues pertaining to safety, environment etc related measures are built-in plant and are included in costs. fraction of natural
  37. 37. Solar Power • Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). • CSP systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. • Photovoltaics convert light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. • The 354 MW SEGS CSP installation is the largest solar power plant in the world and is located in the Mojave Desert of California.
  38. 38. Giant Photovoltaic array CSP
  39. 39. Scope of Solar Energy • The average intensity of solar radiation received on India is 200 MW/km square • With a geographical area of 3.287 million km square, this amounts to 657.4 million MW • Only 12.5% of the land area amounting to 0.413 million km square can, in theory, be used for solar energy installations. • Even if 10% of this area can be used, the available solar energy would be 8 million MW
  40. 40. Advantages • Solar power is pollution-free during use. • PV installations can operate for many years with little maintenance or intervention after their initial set-up • Solar electric generation is economically superior where grid connection or fuel transport is difficult, costly or impossible • Compared to fossil and nuclear energy sources, very little research money has been invested in the development of solar cells, so there is considerable room for improvement.
  41. 41. Disadvantages • Solar electricity is more expensive than most other forms of small-scale alternative energy production • Solar electricity is not produced at night and is greatly reduced in cloudy conditions. • Solar cells produce DC which must be converted to AC. This incurs 4-12% losses • The efficiency of conversion of solar energy to useful energy is low.
  42. 42. Cost Comparison • • • • Coal: $.006/kWh Oil: $0.05/kWh Gas: $0.03/kWh Solar: $0.38/kWh
  43. 43. Wind Energy • Definition - Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships.
  44. 44. Wind Power in India • The development of wind power in India began in the 1990 • India has the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the world. • The total estimated capacity is 45000 MW • As of 31 Dec 2010 the installed capacity of wind power in India was 14158 MW
  45. 45. • • • • • • • • 1 Tamil Nadu (4906.74 MW) 2 Maharashtra (2077.70 MW) 3 Gujarat (1863.64 MW) 4 Karnataka (1472.75 MW) 5 Rajasthan (1088.37 MW) 6 Madhya Pradesh (229.39 MW) 7 Kerala (27.75 MW) 8 West Bengal (1.10MW)
  46. 46. Future Plans • The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has fixed a target of 10,500 MW between 2007–12, but an additional generation capacity of only about 6,000 MW might be available for commercial use by 2012.
  47. 47. Biomass • Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living. • Estimates have indicated that 15% - 50% of the world’s primary energy use could come from biomass by the year 2050. • Currently, about 11% of the world’s primary energy is estimated to be met with biomass. • In India, over 500 million tones /Year of agricultural and agro-industrial residue alone is generated, is equivalent to about 175 million tonnes of oil. • 150-200 million tonnes of this biomass material is sufficient to generate 15 000-25 000 MW of electrical power at typically prevalent plant.
  48. 48. Biomass gasification • It is the process through which solid biomass material is subjected to partial combustion in the presence of a limited supply of air in gasifier and producer gas formed. • The calorific value of this gas is about 10001200 kcal.Nm3. • Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel.
  49. 49. Technology to convert Biomass into energy source • Thermal conversion- These are processes in which heat is the dominant mechanism to convert the biomass into another chemical form. pplications of thermal conversion are combined heat and power (CHP) and co-firing. In a typical biomass power plant, efficiencies range from 2027% • Chemical conversion- chemical processes may be used to convert biomass into ethanol and biodiesel. • Biochemical conversion- (anaerobic digestion, fermentation and composting )to break down(makes use of the enzymes of bacteria and other micro-organisms) the molecules of which biomass is composed,
  50. 50. Biomass gasifier based systems:- applications of a producer gas produced from a biomass gasifier • Mechanical shaft power applications, i.e., water pumping for irrigation/drinking and grinding, where the gas is used as fuel for internal combustion engine. • Direct heat applications where it is burnt directly in a boiler, furnace or klin, burner for institutional cooking, etc., to provide heat. • Electricity generation through shaft power application viz., (engine coupled to an alternator/generator set).
  51. 51. Other Sources of Renewable Energy • Hydro-Power Dam Based Projects Run Off River Projects Small Hydro Power Projects Pump Storage Projects • Geo-Thermal Energy • Tidal Energy • Bio Fuels
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