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Organizationalbehavior                        communication                   inworkplaceOrganizational             behavi...
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorContentsIntroduction ....................................................
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behavior                     Communication in workplaceIntroductionNowadays ma...
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorProblem statementHere we wanted to discuss and find out the challenges...
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorLiterature reviewWhat matters Most?According to denial Robert the comm...
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorVerbal communicationAccording to Amy Lucas Verbal communication includ...
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorUnderstanding the non-verbal cues is not so easy like for example if a...
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorunderstand. Development and implementation of a good internal communic...
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorpersuade the other party and above all convince for terms and agreemen...
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorof synchronized non-verbal expressions can add value to the speaker. S...
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorWith appropriate encoding means, email can be sent in any kind of comp...
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behavioret al stated that face to face interaction is the richest mode of comm...
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorwith these developments in communication, nothing has been able to swi...
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviordue to distance. On the other hand Walter said that lack of face to fa...
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorAccording to Encarta People of different societies have established di...
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorAnd communicating the right message in the right way can be the key to...
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorRecommendation:    There should be flow of communication from upper ma...
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorReferencingElectronic Mail and Organizational Communication: Does Sayi...
[COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorHow Does Information and Communication Technology Affect Workplace Org...
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Communication in workplace

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literature review of research articles on communication i workplace signification of different channels of communication and help for marketers to know which one should be used when

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Transcript of "Communication in workplace"

  1. 1. Organizationalbehavior communication inworkplaceOrganizational behavior communication inworkplaceOrganizational behavior communication in workplaceOrganizational behavior communication in workplaceOrganizational behavior communication in workplaceOrganizational behavior communication in Communication in workplaceworkplaceOrganizational behavior communication in Submitted To : Asma SethiworkplaceOrganizationalbehavior communication in Organizational behaviorworkplaceOrganizationalbehavior Ajay Kumar(1011137) commun ication in Dhanesh Kumar(1011147)workplaceOrganizationalbehavior communication inworkplaceOrganizationalbehavior communication inworkplaceOrganizationalbehavior communication inworkplaceOrganizationalbehavior communication inworkplaceOrganizationalbehavior communication inworkplaceOrganizationalbehavior communication inworkplaceOrganizationalbehavior communication inworkplaceOrganizationalbehavior communication inworkplaceOrganizationalbehavior communication inworkplaceOrganizationalbehavior communication inworkplaceOrganizationalbehavior communication inworkplaceOrganizationalbehavior communication inworkplaceOrganizationalbehavior communication inworkplaceOrganizationalbehavior communication inworkplaceqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq
  2. 2. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorContentsIntroduction .................................................................................................................................................. 2 Problem statement ................................................................................................................................... 3 Study objective.......................................................................................................................................... 3 Scope of study ........................................................................................................................................... 3Literature review........................................................................................................................................... 4 What matters Most? ................................................................................................................................. 4 Difficulties in communication ................................................................................................................... 4 Verbal communication .............................................................................................................................. 5 Non-verbal communication ...................................................................................................................... 5 Internal communication............................................................................................................................ 6 Communication in Negotiation ................................................................................................................. 7 Interpersonal and intrapersonal communication ..................................................................................... 9 Electronic mail........................................................................................................................................... 9 Face to face communication ................................................................................................................... 10 Use of channel in problem solving .......................................................................................................... 12 Importance of communication ............................................................................................................... 13 1
  3. 3. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behavior Communication in workplaceIntroductionNowadays many organizations are facing many sorts of problems in workplace due to differentissues. One of the main issues that diminish the performance of the organization ismiscommunication or improper communication of message. The receiver ultimately does notrespond in the way sender expects. . Hardeep anant said that an idea, no matter howinnovative, it is useless until it is properly communicated to others and properly understood bythem.I A Richard defines communication as Communication takes place when one mind acts in sucha way upon its environment that other minds are convinced, and in that other minds in such away that the first mind was feeling about the idea.According to Encarta Communication is the route which comprise of sharing thoughts, data,and messages with others. Communication comprises of writing and talking, visualcommunication (images, graphs, videos) nonverbal communication (facial expressions, bodylanguage, gestures), and electronic communication (telephone calls, electronic mail, cabletelevision, or satellite broadcasts, video chatting, IM chatting) as well. Communication is anintegral part of personal life and is also significant in business as well as education, and anyother situations where people meet with other people.In 1974 Brenan said that communication is something that combines society together. Goodcommunication skills helps people to maintain personal relationship and the quality ofcommunication depend upon the understanding of both speaker and listener. According toDenial Robert communication is a cooperative system like driving in the traffic you have toconcentrate on all the people and cars moving with you and against you. 2
  4. 4. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorProblem statementHere we wanted to discuss and find out the challenges and issues faced by organization due tocommunication gap or improper communication.Study objectiveThe main objective of our study was to analyze what makes the communication more effectivein workplaceHow does the communication affect the performance of an organization?What are the things should be considered while communicating with each other?Scope of studyThis study will help organization or people to know which mode of communication should befollowed in which case and what are the other factors that should be considered whilecommunicating a message. Which channel of communication should be used in which case?And how communication techniques are used to motivate employees and enhance theperformance of the organization. 3
  5. 5. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorLiterature reviewWhat matters Most?According to denial Robert the communication should not be evaluated how we think aboutthe message but how others are responding to our message it is of course useless if we hadproperly communicated our message without any sort of mistake and distortion and the otherperson is not responding the way we want . Denial Robert says that you should communicatefocusing on the listeners filters. This means that while communicating your message you shouldknow the level of person who is listening to you. Hardeep anant said that An idea, no matterhow innovative, it is useless until it is properly communicated to others and properlyunderstood by themDifficulties in communicationIn 2005 Fowler &Manktelow said that Communication obstacles can arise at every stage of thecommunication method (which includes sender, message, mode, receiver, and feedback) andcan create confusion. A good communicator is one who can get his point across withoutmisinterpretation and confusion, goal of a good communicator should be to decrease thenumber of the hindrances at each stage of the process with, concise, accurate clear, wellplanned communications.According to Brennan employees do get information other than management channels. Andmanagement is not able to get that information. The reason of that is not flaw of employees’network but it relays indiscriminately reasons of which include: fragments, rumors and gossips.It is not necessary that it will be in the best interest of organization but it portray the real imageof organization for the employees 4
  6. 6. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorVerbal communicationAccording to Amy Lucas Verbal communication includes any form of communication involvingwords, spoken, written. The conversation we have with our colleague during breaks, discussingnews or the other activities page. Not only this but the text message and memos we send are aform of verbal communication. Our skill to communicate with a language that is based on aplanned system of confrontations, rather than merely expressions and sounds, is somethingthat makes us different from other livings. Not only do we have verbal, but we also have theexpertise that allows us to communicate with one another no matter the physical distance.We use verbal communication for different purpose to express, whether it is to express othersof our desire or to communicate knowledge. Clarification is something that makes verbalcommunication different. Maybe we do not express ourselves clearly, or our words or actionsare misinterpreted. Verbal communication helps to remove misunderstandings and providesrelevant information. According to Robert M. Krauss, A human’s survival depends analyticallyupon his skill to communicate efficiently. .Non-verbal communicationAccording to Leslie Contreras In workplace use of non-verbal communication play a vital role tocreate relationship among employees at workplace. Example of no verbal communication caninclude eye contact, tone of voice pace of articulation and even the space between sender andreceiver can also come under the non-verbal communication. Employees of workplace shouldbe aware of the non-verbal cues and should be able to properly use them to support theirargument and positionApproximately 65 to 75 percent of all the communication done in workplace is nonverbal, saysSusanne Jones, associate Nonverbal cues give us information to make sense of how we perceiveand reflect about others, she added that People use nonverbal expressions to arrive atdecisions about how they relate to colleague or to interpret employee performance, she says. 5
  7. 7. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorUnderstanding the non-verbal cues is not so easy like for example if an employee can perceivethat a new employee isn’t interested in what he is saying or maybe he doesn’t like him. Theother reason of that can also be if the new worker is a bit shy and is not easy with the newpeople, and person is introvert rather than extrovert.Jones says that it is always important to remember in us that friendliness and politeness play avital role in business interaction. A good business man know how to understand the non-verbalexpressions like when a person is increasing distance or blocking the gestures or creating anysort of wall between speaker and listener by putting something in front of the table it expressesthat person is not interested or if the person is changing his moves instantly it also expressesthat person is not interested. Whereas if a person is trying to remove the walls boundariesbetween speaker and listener it expresses a positive feedback from the listener and shows thatperson is interested in the conversation. And enquiring more and more about something alsoexpresses that the listener is interested in the deal and conversationJones exclaims that it is also important How a supervisor communicates influence andsupremacy has a huge impact on job efficiency, like if a boss communicates in distant manner,such as through email or in rude manner and calls employees into her office and letthem sit faraway, this can be create a negative image for the employee. In small businesses, therelationships among people are very much resilient than in a big large business setting whichhas more formality, Jones says that it is always more productive when people know theircolleague personally. That is the reason nowadays big organizations are arranging break andoutdoor picnic so that people can get to know each other and increase the productivity of theorganization. On the other hand it can sense of ownership within the employees and can alsodecrease turnover rate and absenteeism and ultimately increase productivity of theorganization.Internal communicationAs per (Black Enterprise, Clemons), Nowadays internal communication has become moreimportant than it was previously because the conditions of business market have become moredifficult nowadays. Marketplace is full of information that is essential for employees to 6
  8. 8. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorunderstand. Development and implementation of a good internal communication can bebeneficial for the organization in keeping the employees motivated and engaged.According to Phelps Internal communications do not need to be widespread to be useful. Thefactor that appears important is a continuous flow of information, even if all the reactions arenot in yet-simply progress. The employees of organization are public speaker whether they aretalking with customers or suppliers; they are portraying a picture of the company and how it isdoing.In case of communication gap it is not easy for organizations to achieve the goals effectivelyand efficiently. It is the task of Customer Service Representative (CSR) to communicate thefeedback received from the customers served by organization. If the CSR does not know toproper information about the organization they may end up having transferring the wrong or inappropriate information to the customers and vice versa.Communication in NegotiationAccording to Ertel negotiation is also of critical importance for the success of the companies.Employees of workplace negotiate on daily basis with different stakeholders. Exchange ofinformation and resource comes under the great amount of task between differentdepartments and divisions. The basis of managers is to fulfill the interest and needs of bothparties which is done through negotiation, which can only be done with the help of effectivecommunication. Hence both good negotiators along with effective communication areconsidered as critical for the success of the organization.Considering the definition given by Walton and Mckersie “the deliberate interaction of two ormore complex social units which are attempting to define or redefine the terms of theirindependence” we can derive that how much importance the communication has innegotiation. According to Chatmam, Putnam and Sondak negotiation and communication aremutual things intention of both is to make a decision we can understand how communication ismoving around negotiation. Communication helps parties to make relationship of trust expresstheir values, their intentions and ideas and try to understand the interest of others and 7
  9. 9. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorpersuade the other party and above all convince for terms and agreements as well as to resolveissues and dilemmas. Following are the qualities of a good negotiator:(1) Expressthem in a flawless and specific manner(2) Encourage dialog, by asking enquiry and giving responses(3)Support with non-verbal cues andanalyze others nonverbal cues(4) Analyze others speech and improvise the message in their own language(5) Persuade the other party of their ideas, arguments and viewpoints.Putnam and Poole defines negotiation as “The activity of having or managing a conflict occursthrough communication. More specifically, communication undergirds the setting and reframingof goals; the defining and narrowing of conflicting issues; the developing of relationshipsbetween disputants and among constituents; the selecting and implementing of strategies andtactics; the generating, attacking, and defending of alternative solutions; and the reaching andConfirming of agreements.”According to Tutzauer communication in negotiation is not limited to the exchange of proposalsonly negotiator need to clarify the values viewpoints and other supporting perspectives topersuade the other party to do what the negotiator want without compromising the importantpreferences. Because of this good communication skills are considered deliberate for thenegotiator.As according to Nierenberg ability to ask questions effectively is one of the mostessential components of negotiation as it help to collect information about the positionarguments and demands of the other party on the other hand good listening power is alsocrucial for a good negotiator.On the other hand Axtell said that in negotiation communication isnot limited to verbal communication only. But non-verbal cue like body language and gesturesare of equal effectiveness or even more. Shell agreed with him by saying that capability of non-verbal cues is essential quality in managers and proper consideration should be given to themas well. Thompson defined nonverbal cues important as they convey a series of cues about thereal feeling and intention of the other side giving relevant information to the other party. Series 8
  10. 10. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorof synchronized non-verbal expressions can add value to the speaker. Some nonverbal cuesthat can ultimately create distrust among the listener are: Signs of nervousness, impatience,fidgeting, Excessive laughing, awkward smiles, and unreasonably serious tone of voice, lack ofemotion, lack of eye-to-eye contact (preventing eyes), excessively silent attitude. On the otherhand close nearness, directing,grinning, open behavior and gesticulations and direct speech cancreate a source of trust among the listeners.Interpersonal and intrapersonal communicationIn 2000 Rosengren stated that communication can occur in both formal and informal way.Intrapersonal is the simplest level which means within individual with stream consciousness.Communication between more than two people is referred as interpersonal. Interpersonalcommunication can occur among individuals, small group’s regional, national internationalnetwork, formal organization or political units and groupsElectronic mailElectronic mail (email) has many benefits thanother channels of communication: it is userfriendly, cost effective, speedy, and conveys information in written format. As a written onlychannel, it can be used both ass formal as well informal ways by changing the vocabulary andformat of the content.According to Feldman ,Sproull and Kiesler Previous studies on email has focused considerationon the ability to connect even though people are materially and temporally absent. Many ofthese studies show that it accelerates communication among people who might otherwisecommunicate rarely or not at all, sproul say that emails rescue organizations from the boundsof time and space and from need on face-to-face communication.Specifically, the importance offace-to-face communication has been attributed primarily to the need for co-presence toperform certain tasks. According to Rice 1984, Daft and Lengel 1986, Zack 1993) Researchershave come up to the question of the effect of electronic mail on organizations by evaluating theskills of individuals or groups to perform specific tasks using different communication options. 9
  11. 11. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorWith appropriate encoding means, email can be sent in any kind of computer file, includinggraphics, sounds, excels sheet word sheet. Numerous electronic mailing lists and other Internetservices are accessible by email. Email was one of the earliest and most basic resources on theInternet and in many ways it still acts as the lowest common denominator for computercommunications. Many computers that cannot access other Internet services can still exchangeemail with machines on the internet. Different from by telephone and face to facecommunication, email does not require the presence of both parties at the same time sowhenever the other party feels suitable it can access internet to read and reply to the mailsreceived.With email it is easy to send the same information to different people simultaneouslyfor example; you can circulate memos, agenda. On the other hand in emails there is a proofthat you properly acknowledge the person at a specific time. In emails you can easily tell theprocedure requirement and detailed rules and regulation or if there are many things toconsider rather as in face to face communication and telephonic communication it is difficult toremember the details and important details can be missed. Unlike the post mails there is noproof if the recipient has received the mail or not due to advancement of technology it is easilytraceable whether mail is opened on not.Face to face communicationIn 1994 Whittaker et al. stated that in modern workplace digital communication is consideredthe most important form of communication but still face to face communication is more usedfor information exchange, socialization and gossiping. In 1996 Supporting face to facecommunication Csikszentmihalyi stated that valuable information is passed through verbalinteraction and non-verbal cues transmit important correction and norms of culture as well asthe intention of the speaker and listener which can ultimately create a source of trust amongeach other. According to Meherbian there is a less chance of misinterpretation as compared toother form of social relation since the message transferred through body language facialexpression and tone of voice work far better than the verbal message. Supporting that Koskinen 10
  12. 12. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behavioret al stated that face to face interaction is the richest mode of communicating knowledge as itallows the immediate response of feedback from the person receiving the knowledge. Andunderstanding can be checked and misconception can be easily corrected.In 1989 barons researched that manager spends 20% of their time for negotiating whichultimately affect the 80% performance of the employees. After that Mintzberg said that itshould be the negotiation skills along with communications skills that should decide theposition status and responsibility of employees.Many people believe that face to face communication is better than any other type ofcommunication including letter emails telephone calls IM chat and video chat. But SatishRanadisagrees with that. He has supported his point of view with many reasons he says that in theworld we are living pace of life of is very fast and people are unable to give proper time tocommunication in between their other tasks to be done. he supports his argument by sayingthat due to the advancement of like telephone emails and other we can anytime communicateour message to any person anytime we want in our leisure time without caring for the time freetime of the receiver. For this we don’t need to take any sort of appointment where as you canalso get your response in proper time with proper understanding. Arguing with the face to facecommunication he gives another argument that for face to face communication it is very costlyto go and talk to a person living far away; we can use telephone to talk to them andcommunicate our message with the advancement of technology you can communicate with tothe person living in any corner of the world. Arguing with face to face communication harshantanant says that for some people it is very difficult to articulate proper words and can create asort of misunderstanding in receivers mind. Whereas during phone calls those people whocannot properly convey their message due to shyness are also comfortable to convey theirmessage properly.Face to face communication has been the most important method of communication from thebeginning of the time. In fact for decades, face-to-face communication was the only way used.As time passed new means came along with the use of letters,telephone calls, and emails. Even 11
  13. 13. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorwith these developments in communication, nothing has been able to switch the face-to-facemethod.One reason that face-to-face communication is better than other methods is that it allows oneperson to analyze the facial expressions of one another. When a person is talking about goodnews they usually smile and their eyes light up. Or when a person is having a seriousconversation, their eyebrows are usually lower and they keep a straight face on while talking.Sometimes facial expression can be supportive to the argument or verbal communication orother times it can be misleading because of inappropriate nonverbal cues.In face-to-face communication it is easy to analyze whether the person is telling the truth orlying by evaluating the nonverbal cues. Whereas communicating through an email or otherways of communication it is impossible to confirm when a person is lying. But when it comes topersonal communication it is not as easy to get away with a lie. Many people in business preferface-to-face method because it helps to analyze whether person is honest enough to gointobusiness with..Use of channel in problem solvingAccording to (Hirokawa & Pace, 1983) the efficiency of group problem solving is largelycalculated by how well the team members interact with each other. Because group memberscommunicate to affect one another, group communication processes or group dynamic forcesare among the most important factors that impact the success and productivity of any groupdecisions or problem solutions. Supporting that hirokawa in 1992 said that In order to examinehow groups solve problems, it is essential to analyze the communication patterns used by thegroup or team. According to Mason and Kaye Computer conferencing (CC) has been used as ameans for enhancing communication and cooperation because team members participate andcooperate more in those environments than in interpersonal communication(F2F)environments supporting that harasim said that it group people who are not working together 12
  14. 14. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviordue to distance. On the other hand Walter said that lack of face to face to presence lead to lessemotional communication. it can also increase the productivity as only task orientedcommunication is done rather than other out of task things.According to (Jonassen, 1997) In workplaces & everyday situations, most problems that aresolved are vague of nature and require to think out of the box, while most problemsencountered in schools and universities are structured problems does not need to go beyondthe limitations. Structured problems have a well-defined set of solutions, a known goal state,and a controlled set of logical workers. Structured problems classically include all essentials ofthe problem; engage a limited number of directions and values that are prearranged in ananalytical and narrow preparation; own correct, convergent responses; and have a favored,agreed solution process whereas according to (Jonassen, 1997) Unstructured problems, on theother hand are encountered in everyday practice, so they are typically evolving. Unstructuredproblems have ambiguously defined or uncertain tasks and unstated limitations; have manysolutions, or no solutions at all, have many criteria for assessing solutions; require beginners toexpress personal feelings or beliefs about the problem, so unstructured problems needexclusively human interpersonal activities..Importance of communicationIn 1996 Daedalus believed that Good communication is also attributing of the good leaders.When leaders are better at communicating their message they are cherished and followed.In 1993 Alessandra Honaker In this word people are totally interdependent on each other foreach and every tiny task; people need help from others for security comfort friendship and love.The environment we are working in, we need each other to achieve our goals and objectivesproperly. Those goals cannot be achieved without communication. Communication work as abasic thread to connects us together. Through communication we express our wants, needsideas and our feelings. The more effective we are with communication the better the hope toget response from others. 13
  15. 15. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorAccording to Encarta People of different societies have established different spoken andwritten languages as a mode of sharing the messages and meanings. The one which is widelyused and is the most effective mode of communication is interpersonal or face to facecommunication in which people are able to see the gestures and body language of the sender.In interpersonal communication sender can easily analyze the response of the receiver weatherone is interested or not.According to Charles, black enterprise communication is like the soul of a business and themost important of all the intellectual skills. As it is already known that the future of the businessis dependent on the quality of relationship it has with the stakeholders. Good communicationskills help both clients and the workforce.Personal relationshipAccording the Brennan Organizations are constantly focusing on personal relationships.Regardless of the size or vision of the organization it works through people who ultimately workby communication.According to Janice Bayer Communication is the most important contributing factor to thegrowth of any business. Entrepreneur spends their days utilizing various forms ofcommunication in order to build business relationships. Whether it’s trying to obtain newclients or contacts, or to stay in touch with those currently significance so much, everything sayand do is a reflection of ourselves and our businesses.Advertising; your website; courtesy calls; and networking both on the Internet and locally, areall forms of communicating your message to your contacts and prospective clients. By simplytalking about your business, you have the opportunity to put the idea and concept of yourbusiness in the minds of those whom you will do business with or who will pass on yourinformation. 14
  16. 16. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorAnd communicating the right message in the right way can be the key to building successfulrelationships, either with clients or with associates. By being friendly and helpful, employeesare letting their clients and contacts know that they are there for them and that theirrelationship is something that they can both use to improve your businesses.Successful relationships with stakeholders are not the only relationships that enhance the life ofa business. But the way of working and communicating with contacts and associates can have agreat influence on organizations success.Findings and conclusion While communicating a message the most important thing that should be considered is the understandings and caliber of the listener. We should use the words and channel of communication as per the understanding of the recipient of information. Verbal communication should be used when there is chance of misinterpretation and corrections are needed at the time of anyone misinterpret the information Electronic mail should be used when the information or message being sent is of critical importance and detailed with rules procedure and regulations. Face to face communication should be used in case of persuasion and so than people can improvise the message as per the demand of the listener. Face to face communication is of most important as through it we can easily and immediately get feedbacks from the recipient of the information Good communication skills are needed in each and every task of organization And communication skills can also be used to determine the status position and caliber of the employee In negotiation communication skills are of critical importance What should be considered while communicating outside the organization Communication is important for relationship building as well 15
  17. 17. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorRecommendation: There should be flow of communication from upper management to lower management. When upper management plans a strategy of the organization and for the execution of that strategy they should inform the middle and lower management employees so that employees will know how to do that particular task. An organization should give feedback to the employees through particular channel of communication like face to face communication because an email or call will not show that expression. As there is culture diversity in the organization people came from different culture and from different background so organization will follow a single particular language for communication which is understood by everyone that will reduce misunderstanding and conflict between the employees. When manager divides the task he or she will tell the employee about the task because this will reduce the communication gap. Mostly task are not been done because of communication gap between employee and manager. Manager should know the importance of the task which task is done to earlier and which task is done after that. According to the importance of the task he or she should use the channel of communication. E.g. if task is urgent and important then manager should call the employee in the office and give direction for that task. An organization should develop such environment in which employees feel free to ask any question from their supervisor so this will decrease the chance of miscommunication between employees. An organization should follow vertically, horizontally and diagonal modes of communication like 360 degree feedback. Every employee can communicate with other employee without any hindrance. 16
  18. 18. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorReferencingElectronic Mail and Organizational Communication: Does Saying "Hi" Really Matter?Author(s): MarjorieSarbaugh-Thompson and Martha S. Feldmanhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/264024909/07/2012Electronic Communication and Changing Organizational FormsAuthor(s): Janet Fulk andGerardineDeSanctishttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2634992 accessed on09/07/2012Introduction to the Special Issue: Communication Processes for Virtual OrganizationsAuthor(s):GerardineDeSanctis and Peter MongeReviewedhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2640236 .Communication and Trust in Global Virtual TeamsAuthor(s): Sirkka L. Jarvenpaa and DorothyE.Leidnerhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2640242 .Dyadic Communication Relationships in Organizations: An Attribution/Expectancy ApproachAuthor(s): Bruce Barry and J. Michael Cranthttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2640375the Workplace and the InternetAuthor(s): Seumas Miller and John WeckertReviewedhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/25074416Communication Patterns in Computer Mediated versus Face-to-Face Group Problem SolvingAuthor(s): David H. Jonassen and Hyug Il KwonReviewedhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/30220298Communication and Coordination in the Virtual OfficeAuthor(s): Mary Beth Watson Fritz, SridharNarasimhan and Hyeun-Suk RheeReviewedhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/40398290Changing RealitiesUser Creation, Communication, and Innovation in Digital WorldsCoryOndrejkahttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=799468Power and Communication: Semantic vs. Pragmatic Messages, Gail BergerNorthwesternUniversity - Kellogg School of Management Deborah H. Gruenfeld Stanford Graduate Schoolhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=304583Language Diversity in the WorkplaceCristina Rodriguez New York University (NYU) - School of Lawhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=939077 17
  19. 19. [COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE] Organizational behaviorHow Does Information and Communication Technology Affect Workplace Organization? Tat-keiLaiCopenhagen Business School - Department of EconomicsDecember 30,2011http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1703121Knowledge Sharing Through Face-to-Face Communication and Labour Productivity: Evidence fromBritish WorkplacesSergio Salis, Policy Studies Institute ,Allan M. Williams ,London MetropolitanUniversity - Working Lives Research Institute ,July2008http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1162296Integrity, Respect for Others, and Ethics – Three Essential Leadership Qualities, Marianne Ojo,OxfordBrookes University - School of Social Sciences and Law ; The Institute for Business and Finance Research,LLC ; Covenant University , April 25,2011,http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1822043Sociometric Badges: A New Tool for I.S. Research Benjamin N. Waber ,Sinan Aral ,New York University (NYU) - Leonard N. Stern School of Business ; Massachusetts Institute ofTechnology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management Daniel Olguin Erik Brynjolfsson AlexPentland Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) March 17, 2011http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1789103Language, Power, and Identity in the Workplace: Enforcement of English-Only Rules byEmployers ,Janet Ainsworth ,Seattle University School of Law2010http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1822396Workplace Communication for Skilled Migrants Occasional Paper No 6, Victoria UniversityLanguage in the Workplace Project John Prebble Victoria University of Wellington Date posted:May 14, 2010Last revised: July 06,201http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1605489 18

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