INTRODUCTION This theory was given by skinner in 1938. According to him, the behavior of human being or animal is not a passive reflex. Skinner revolt against no stimulus, no response theory. In their life we do not wait for things to happen. Most of our responses cannot be attributed to known stimulus.
CONCEPT OF OPERANT CONDITIONINGa) Operant-> Operant is an act which constitute an organism for doing something.b) Responses -> Skinner put forward the idea that most of our responses cannot be attributed to unknown stimulus.
responses Elicited behavior Emitted behavior (Respondent Behavior) (Operant behavior)Response to known stimuli Response to unknown stimuli
Re-inforcement & Re inforcer Positive Re-inforcement Negative Re-inforcementIncreases the likelihood of Removal of which increases Particular behavior The likelihood of behavior
OPERANT CONDITIONING Kind of learning process where a response is made more probable or more frequent by re-inforcement.
SKINNER’S EXPERIMENT WITH RAT Skinner developed a special apparatus known as skinner’s box. This box has a grid floor, a system of light or sound produced at the time of delivery of a pellet of food, in the food cup, on the pressing of lever. Skinner placed a hungry rat in the box. In this experiment, pressure on the bar in a certain way, by the rat could result in the production of a click and emergence of a food pellet. The rat was rewarded for each proper pressing of the lever. The rat repeated this process, and ultimately learned to press the lever as desired by the experimenter.
MECHANISM OF OPERANT CONDITIONING Shaping: The process of building a chain of responses through a step by step process called shaping. Chaining: Chaining refer to a process in which required behavior or task is broken down into small steps for its effective learning. Discrimination: It is a process of using signals, clues to determine when behavior is likely to be re-inforced or punished. Generalization: It refer to the ability of an organism dealing with the perception of response to, similar stimuli.
THANKS…… DEVELOPED BY: MR AJAY SINGH INTEL COMPUTER CENTER JAWALI DIST KANGRA , HP (9805208769)