T M Thyiyagarajan (Research on SRI and its future scope)

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T M Thyiyagarajan (Research on SRI and its future scope)

  1. 1. Research on SRI and its future scope<br />T.M. Thiyagarajan<br />
  2. 2. SRI HEXAGON<br />Young <br />seedlings<br />Single <br />seedling <br />per hill<br />More <br />organic <br />manures<br />Enhanced<br />water, labour, <br />land and <br />nutrient <br />productivity<br />Wider <br />spacing<br />Unflooded <br />irrigation<br />Intercultivation<br />with weeder<br />
  3. 3. SRI Crop<br />(From 16 seedlings to 1 kg grain per sq.m)<br />
  4. 4. What SRI does ?<br />
  5. 5. Research areas<br />Comparison with other practices<br />Understanding SRI principles<br />Optimizing SRI package of practices<br />Impact of SRI on crop response<br />Effect of SRI practices on soil system<br />Socio-economic aspects on adoption<br />Tool development<br />
  6. 6. Comparison with other practices<br />On-station evaluation<br />On-farm evaluation<br />Farmer participatory evaluation<br />SRI compared with <br />Best Management Practice<br />Local recommended practice<br />Farmer’s practice<br />
  7. 7. Adaptive Research Trials in Farmers’ Fields – Grain yield (kg ha-1)(Tamil Nadu)<br />Average : 7227<br />n = 100<br />Average : 5657<br />
  8. 8. Respective and joint contributions<br />Flexibility of individual principles<br />Understanding SRI principles<br />
  9. 9. Interaction between young seedling, green leaf manure and intercultivation with weeder<br />Thiyagarajan et al., 2002<br />
  10. 10. Variable(s) effect on grain yield<br />SRI<br />Conventional<br />Rajendran et al., 2005<br />
  11. 11. Transplanting single seedlings per hill and following intermittent irrigation during the vegetative growth stage are key elements of SRI methodology (Mishra, 2010)<br />
  12. 12. Optimizing SRI package of practice<br />Adopting to site specific agroecological environment<br />Seedling age (direct seeding, 8-14 days)<br />Number of seedlings (more than one in <br /> specific situations)<br />Spacing (distance, square, zig-zag, crop duration )<br />Intercultivation (type of weeder, time of <br /> operation, no.of times)<br />Irrigation (quantity, time, drainage, <br />rainfed)<br />6. Organic manure (Source, qty, INM)<br />
  13. 13. Gliricidia : best organic source in SRI<br />N : 2.4 %<br />P : 0.1 %<br />K : 1.8 %<br />Ca : 1.2 %<br />
  14. 14. Impact of SRI on crop response-1<br />Varietal expression <br /> variety neutral<br /> hybrid vigour exploited<br /> scented rice response<br />
  15. 15. Impact of SRI on crop response-2<br />Physiological changes <br /> 1. higher and extended root activity<br /> 2. profuse tillering<br /> 3. reduced tiller mortality<br /> 4. higher % productive tillers<br /> 5. more grains per panicle<br /> 6. erect leaves<br /> 7. reduced leaf senescence<br /> 8. higher LAI beyond flowering<br /> 9. source-sink relationship,<br /> 10. phytochemical changes<br /> 11. Early maturity<br />
  16. 16. SRI exploits the genetic potential of rice plants<br />Lodging resistance<br />more than 40 tillers per hill in 30 days<br />more than 100 panicles from single-seedling<br />more than 350 grains per pancile<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />New roots due to earthing up by weeder<br />
  18. 18. Effect of SRI<br /> Greater cationexchange capacity (CEC), ATPase activity, and cytokinin content of the roots in plants grown under SRI rather than conventional cultivation<br /> (Nisha, 2002)<br /> composition as well as abundance of beneficial soil organismsaltered<br /> (Gayathry, 2002)<br />
  19. 19. Reasons for higher yields in SRI<br />Younger tillers became productive<br />Greater root activity at later growth stage also<br />Larger leaves with spreading canopy<br />Greater light interception<br />Delayed leaf senesence<br />Higher rate of photosynthesis<br />Higher harvest index<br />Thakur et al., 2009, <br />Mishra and Saloke, 2010<br />
  20. 20. Impact of SRI on crop response-3<br />Use efficiency of resources<br /> 1. Land<br /> 2. Water<br /> 3. Light<br /> 4. Seeds<br /> 5. Labour<br /> 6. Nutrients<br />
  21. 21. Interaction between spacing and water management<br />Ceesay et al., 2006<br />
  22. 22. Impact of SRI on crop response-4<br />Adpatability changes<br />quick establishment<br /> increased rooting depth <br /> lodging resistance<br />aerenchyma ?<br />
  23. 23. Impact of SRI on crop response-5<br />Pest, disease interactions<br />incidence changes<br /> resistance<br /> micro-climatic changes<br /> nutrient management<br />
  24. 24. Effect of SRI on soil system<br />Soil physical and chemical changes<br />Effect of intercultivation (aeration, pruning effect)<br />Soil biological activity (BNF, micorhizae, hormones)<br />Green house emission (CH4, CO2, N2O)<br />Carbon sequestration (root biomass)<br />Redox potential (exposure of soil to air)<br />Nutrient dynamics (soil fertility changes, long term <br /> effect)<br />Nematode dynamics<br />
  25. 25. Effect of nutrients<br />Andriankaya, 2001<br />
  26. 26. Socio-economic issues in adoption<br />Capacity building<br />Skill development<br />Farm size<br />Land ownership<br />Resource availability<br />Seasonal liquidity<br />Technical support<br />Policy support<br />Labour issues<br />Tools availability<br />Disadoption<br />
  27. 27. Single seedling planting, row planting, wider spacing, intercultivation practice developed by a farmer a century ago in Tamil Nadu<br />Visit : sri-india.net (SRI Newsletter 6)<br />
  28. 28. Future scope<br />Farmer participatory local research <br />- site specific package of practice<br /> - varietal selection<br /> - flexibility of SRI principles<br /> - tool modification<br /> - factors for non-adoption / disadoption<br />
  29. 29. Future scope<br />Coordinated trials in different agroecological regions<br /> - simplifying of intercultivation operation<br /> - standardizing water management practice<br /> - optimum nutrient management<br /> - long term effects of SRI<br />
  30. 30. Future scope<br />In-depth studies <br /> - impact of intercultivation on soil and crop<br /> - how genetic potential is changed<br /> - root activity<br /> - grain filling process<br /> - green house gas emission<br />
  31. 31. Future scope<br />Coordinated efforts<br /> - Consortium concept<br /> - monitoring mechanism<br />
  32. 32. SRI research and evaluation requires more comprehensive approaches and a deeper understanding of the biology of ecosystems. <br />Uphoff et al. (2009)<br />

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