446 cognitive categories


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446 cognitive categories

  1. 1. 01 WINTER TemplateCognitive Categories Prototype & Periphery MembersAssistant Professor Wichian Sunitham Prototype series 4.1
  2. 2. 02 teapot mug cup/mug cupgoblet cup/mug
  3. 3. 03 office chair three-legged stoolfour-legged stool chair bench couch
  4. 4. 04 parrot emu ostrich robinhornbill peacock hen
  5. 5. 05
  6. 6. 06 WINTERMain findings of Berlin & Kay (1969: 2-3) Template1. All languages contain terms for white and black.2. If a language contains three terms, then it contains a term for red.3. If a language contains four terms, then it contains a term for either green or yelllow (but not both).4. If a language contains five terms, then it contains a term for both green and yellow.5. If a language contains six terms, then it contains a term for blue.6. If a language contains seven terms, then it contains a term for brown.7. If a language contains eight or more terms, then it contains a term for purple, pink, orange, grey, or some combination of these.
  7. 7. 07Berlin & Kay, 1969: 3
  8. 8. 08Findings of Berlin and Kay (1969)1. Consistency in chip selecton: the selection of color chips from the chart was consistent; that is, only the chips from particular areas were chosen by most people.2. Foci: The chips were called foci or focal colors as they represent best colors.3. Universality of foci: The foci are shared by not only speakers of the same language, but by speakers of different languages.
  9. 9. 09Characteristics of foci 1. They are monomorphemic and monolxemic 2. They are included in other color terms. 3. They are not in restricted applications 4. They are psychological salient.
  10. 10. 10Eleanor Rosch (1970s)Are foci a matter of language or of the mind? Salience of foci is to be investigated.Were foci be more attractive to Dani pre-school children than were non-focal colors?In a color-matching task, which color group, between fociand non-foci, was matched more accurately?In a recognition task (STM), which color group, betweenfoci and non-foci, was matched more accurately?In a learning task (LTM), which color group, betweenfoci and non-foci, was matched more accurately?
  11. 11. 06 WINTER TemplateCognitive Categoriesfamily resemblances & fuzzy boundaries Assistant Professor Wichian Sunitham Prototype series 4.2
  12. 12. 07Aitchison, 1987
  13. 13. 08Some member are better than the others. Categorization can be graded. Some members, though are not really similar to the prototype, still share overlapping similarities with it. [family resemblance] Members boundaries are fuzzy, not clear-cut.
  14. 14. 09
  15. 15. 10Longman Dictionary of Comtemporary English Online
  16. 16. 06 WINTERa piece of furniture for one person to sit on, with a back, Templatelegs, and sometimes two armsa chair that has two curved pieces under it, so that whensomeone sits on it they can move it backwards and forwardsa chair, especially in an office, with a seat that can turnaround in a circle without you having to move the legs a large comfortable chair with parts for you to rest your arms on. It is often part of a set of chairs called a suite that also includes a sofa (=a long chair for two or three people) a chair with large wheels that someone who cannot walk uses for moving around a tall chair that very young children sit in to eat
  17. 17. 06 WINTER TemplateCognitive Categories Lexical categorizationAssistant Professor Wichian Sunitham Prototype series 4.3
  18. 18. Conceptual categories 07 Similarity categorization Feature-list categorization Levels of categorization General level Fundamental level Levels of exclusiveness Specific level
  19. 19. Conceptual categories 08 General level Superordinate level Fundamental level Basic level Specific level Subordinate levelPrototypical member
  20. 20. Basic level categories 09 They are used for everyday neutral reference - They form a clear visual image. - They give characteristic patterns of behavioral interaction. - They show clear part-whole information. - They are more rapidly categorized.
  21. 21. Superordinate level categories 10 - Compared to basic level categories, their within-category resemblance is relatively low. - They have fewer defining attributes than basic level categories. - Linguistically, names of superordinate categories are often mass nouns.
  22. 22. Subordinate level categories 06 WINTER - Members have high mutual resemblance, but low distinctiveness. Template - They are much less informative relative to their immediate basic level items. - Linguistically, they are polymorphemic.
  23. 23. One-word description 07
  24. 24. One-word description 08