Self Knowledge by Will
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Self Knowledge by Will

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Self Knowledge by Will Self Knowledge by Will Presentation Transcript

  • Self-knowledge On Management By Gumporn S. (Will) 501-9839
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Background - 1943 Abraham Maslow published his Hierarchy of Needs
      • Divided needs into two groups - deficiency needs and growth needs
      • Within the deficiency needs each lower need must be at least partially met before moving to the next higher need.
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • 1.Physiological - Life Support,Hunger, Thirst, Air, Bodily comforts,Elimination, Sex
    • 2.Safety - Security / Out of danger,Peers, Curriculum, Teachers-Administrators
    • 3.Sense of Belonging - Being affiliated with, and accepted by, others.
    • Growth Needs
    • 4.Esteem - To achieve, be competent, and be recognized –has both an internal and an external component.
    • 5.Self-actualization - To find fulfillment and realize one’s potential - a concern for personal growth.
    • Deficiency Needs
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Maslow later added two growth needs prior to self-actualization and one after it. The needs added prior to self-actualization are:
    • Cognitive - a need to know, understand, and explore, and
    • Aesthetic - a need for symmetry, order, and beauty
    • The need added after Self-Actualization was Transcendence - To help others find self- fulfillment and realize their potential.
  • Maslow on Management Source:http://www.rapidbi.com/images/management-models/maslow-hierarchy-needs.jpg
  • Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
    • • Intrinsic (or Inner) Motivation
    • causes people to participate in an activity for their own enjoyment.
    • – For example, kids play sports
    • because it is fun and they like being with their friends.
    • Extrinsic (or External) Motivation
    causes people to do something for a reward or to avoid a penalty – For example, a professional athlete might enjoy the sport, but he/she chooses to play for a particular team because it pays more money or has more prestige.
  • Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation (Cont.)
    • Reasons
    • People are usually attracted to a job for extrinsic reasons (good pay, good benefits, good working conditions)
    • People usually stay with a job for intrinsic reasons (they like the people they work with, they find the job challenging, people praise them for the job they do)
    • Motivation
    • Paying people more money ( extrinsic motivation) does not make them work harder . (But it might keep them from leaving and it might attract new employees).
    • Intrinsic motivation is what builds loyalty and dedication in your employees.
  • McGregor’s X,Y and Z Theories Douglas McGregor popularized the human relations approach to management in the 1960s
    • Theory X:
    • Theory Y:
    • assumes individuals consider work as natural as play or rest and enjoy the satisfaction of
    • esteem and self-actualization needs
    • assumes workers dislike and avoid
    • work , so managers must use coercion, threats, and various control schemes to get workers to
    • meet objectives
    Theory Z : introduced in 1981 by William Ouchi, and is based on the Japanese approach to motivating workers, emphasizing trust, quality, collective decision making, and cultural values
  • Classical approaches to management include:
  • Scientific management (Frederick Taylor)
      • Develop rules of motion, standardized work implements, and proper working conditions for every job.
      • Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job.
      • Carefully train workers and provide proper incentives.
      • Support workers by carefully planning their work and removing obstacles.
    • Scientific management
    • (the Gilbreths)
      • Motion study-Science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions.
      • Eliminating wasted motions improves performance.
  • Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) Rules of management :
      • Foresight — to complete a plan of action for the future.
      • Organization — to provide and mobilize resources to implement the plan.
      • Command — to lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the best work toward the plan.
      • Coordination — to fit diverse efforts together and ensure information is shared and problems solved.
      • Control — to make sure things happen according to plan and to take necessary corrective action.
      • Scalar chain — there should be a clear and unbroken line of communication from the top to the bottom of the organization.
      • Unity of command — each person should receive orders from only one boss.
      • Unity of direction — one person should be in charge of all activities with the same performance objective.
  • Bureaucratic organization (Max Weber)
        • An ideal, intentionally rational, and very efficient form of organization.
        • Based on principles of logic, order, and legitimate authority.
        • Characteristics:
      • Clear division of labor
      • Clear hierarchy of authority
      • Formal rules and procedures
      • Impersonality
      • Careers based on merit
    • Possible disadvantages of bureaucracy:
      • Excessive paperwork or “red tape”
      • Slowness in handling problems
      • Rigidity in the face of shifting needs
      • Resistance to change
      • Employee apathy(not active)