History of simplicity- IES Tomás Mingot, Logroño ( Spain)Presentation Transcript
History of Voluntaries simplicity
Greek – Roman Times
Modern Age (XV – XIX)
XX – XXI Centuries
Introduction Voluntary simplicity: It's a lifestyle characterized by less consumption. We can describe it as a manner of living in a more uncomplicated way without luxury and with certain austerity.
The History of Voluntary simplicity began in the Greek Times and after that, in the Roman Times. For example, Diogenes.
It continued throughout the Medieval Age.
After that, the Modern Age started. It lasted from XV century to XIX century.
And it still goes on at present (XX - XXI Centuries)
People do that for many reasons:
family and friends
SIMPLICITY IN THE ANCIENT WORLD
INTRODUCTION The people of the ancient world were not characterized precisely by there simplicity. One example of that are the pictures of there gods and goddesses. Fortunately, there were philosophers that were characterized for having a simple life. IN GRECCE -Diogenes - Socrates IN ROME -Jesus Christ
GREECE People in Greece were merchants and they had contact with other cultures. In Greece philosophy appeared. Two philosophers with a simple life were Sócrates and Diogenes.
DIOGENES Diogenes lived as a vagabond in the streets of Athens, turning extreme poverty into a virtue. It is said that he was living in a barrel and his only possesions were a blanket, a candle, a walking stick and a cavity.
SOCRATES Socrates was one of the most famous Greek philosophers. He was always wearing the same cap, and was tremendously austere as for food and drink. Many people said that no slave would like to be treated like he was treating himself.
ROMAN EMPIRE The people in the empire were practical people and excelent warriors but they were not interested in leading a simple life. Those who had the Roman citizenship were having a life full of luxury and waste. But not all people were like the Romans, Jesus Christ was an excelent example of simplicity.
Jesus Christ He was borned in Galilea, a zone of Palestina; in a very poor family (his father was a carpenter). When he was borned, Galilea was a province of the Roman Empire. Here in Galilea, the predominant religion was the Judaism. Some of the Judaism leaders, called pharisees, had a luxury life. But Jesus’ techings were very different:
He teach to his disciples that they shouldn't be very worried about material things. “Stop being anxious as to what you will eat or drink, or about your bodies as what you will wear”- he said .
He made an example of simple life to his disciples, because he hadn’t a proper house. In the Gospels is written that his most valiusly possession were his clothes.
The Middle Ages of European history is a period of international history covering roughly a millennium in the 5th century through 15th centuries. It is commonly dated from the fall of the Western Roman Empire, and contrasted with a later Early Modern Period; the time during which the Reformation and the rise of humanism in the Italian Renaissance unfolded are generally associated with the transition out of the Middle Ages, with European overseas expansion as a succeeding process, but such dates are approximate and based upon nuanced arguments.
People connected with simple life and simplicity were monks, hermits...
San Millán de la Cogolla
Biography It is born Millán or Emiliano in Berceo in the year 473. Was a shepherd of sheep to the 20 years. While its cattle grazed they say that touched the wooden flute or intoned songs with the accompaniment of the cítara. At the age of twenty and plunged in a mystical dream an angel indicates him the road of the cliffs of Bilibio (Haro) in which a hermit by name Félix or Happy will instruct him so that he continue his example. He was with him for 3 years.
Later returned to Suso where lived like the hermit, being already very admired. Later longing for greater severity and isolation, lived 40 years, doing austere penitence in that famous and high cave that so much themselves scallop to pending average of the top of Brown Head, road of San Lorenzo, where every year the neighbors of the towns of the valley in pilgrimage by the summer rise. Died in the year 574 having lived 101 years.
That gave meaning to life Its way of life goes charging fame of holiness and is called by Dídimo, bishop of Tarazona, for to be ordered priest and to name him parson of Berceo. Here one of the most curious facts of its legendary biography is produced: since these administrative tasks did not seem to insert with its character and delivered all the donations property from the parish to them you needed was accused of embezzlement for which was destitute by the bishop Dídimo.
Again it returns to his earthly mounts despoiled of every attribute and lives like solitary hermit while goes growing his halo of holiness. They are attributed him diverse miracles and they begin to respond numerous pilgrims to know him and there were other hermits that remained in this small valley to continue their teachings and to form a community.
Contributions made It based on its old age a monastery dúplice (of friars and of nuns) in Suso that great fame gave him. Almost all the members of this religious community were Saints, like the Saint Potamia, San Roast it, San Sofronio, San Citonato and San Geroncio. It is almost sure that all they were buried in that place, around Suso. Because of its teachings, the community grew and the lower monastery was founded or of Yuso, that harbored a great library and the first words in Spaniard
Santo Domingo de la Calzada
It was the secular one and one of the major impellers of the Way of Santiago. Domingo García was born in Viloria of Rioja (Burgos) in 1019 and died in Santo Domingo de la Calzada (La Rioja) on May 12 of 1109.
He was a son of a farmer called Ximeno García and of his wife Orodulce, this one was the one who decided that he should call Domingo, provided that he had born the day of the Gentlem.
After the death of his parents, tried to be admitted into Valvanera's monastery because he wanted to be a Benedictine monk but the abbot said to him that this it was not his way. Nevertheless, Domingo he didn´t give himself defeated and continued looking for another opportunity in San Millán's monastery of the Cogolla, but with little success.
After this he moved back as hermit to Ayuela's forest (near Santo Domingo) taking a contemplative life until 1039. Hereabouts the Way of Santiago was happening, one of the more important routes of peregrination of Europe. On this year the Cardinal Gregorio, was sent to Calahorra to attack a plague of lobsters that was destroying the territories, when Domingo found out was not late at all in meeting him, who made to him see that his mission was to help the needy and outlandish patients. Together they constructed a bridge of wood on the river Oja to facilitate the traffic of the pilgrims towards Compost Her, they constructed a major church that the one that Domingo had arranged in Ayuela and they arranged the causeway. By this labor he is known as Domingo of the causeway.
After Gregorio dying, he returned to Ayuela's zone and tackled a labor of settling since the bandits had taken possession of the forest. He felled forests, plowed lands and I reconstruct the bridge that he had done previously, since it had not born the being of wood but he turned it to doing of stone, with the help of hundreds of hands.
Also he constructed a complex integrated by a hospital, a well and a church, where at present one finds the House of the Saint, used as lodging of pilgrims.
In the year 1090, Alfonso VI of Castile and of Le ó n, seeing Domingo's reputation that was spreading over all his kingdom, wanted to entrust him the construction of the bridges that were going from Logro ñ o to Santiago de Compostela. He had initiated the task with the help of his disciple Juan of Imperial sand grouse, Domingo was meeting without forces and he found in him someone to whom being able to transmit the heredity.
The church of Holy Maria was Domingo's last great work that was dedicated by the bishop of Calahorra in 1106. The church of Santo Domingo de la Calzada, was buried to the range of cathedral little later.
Values that he lives
When he was younger, he was taking care of the sheeps, but as he was growing, was realizing that this was not his vocation, that what indeed wanted was to study.
His parents saw that it was not a caprice and accepted it.
He went to Valvanera's monastery because he wanted to be a Benedictine monk, he could neither read nor write and the abbot received him fondly, but he warned him of that he him was not going to turn out to be easy, though he was all the same to him because he had many desires of learning. He was reconciling his studies with the prayer and was going to say the Virgin, in order that it was helping him to understand what the books were
With him saying. But he was not imagining that his effort was not going to remain enclosed between the walls of a monastery. He was called to put his talents to the service of the others, being " Light in the Way ".
One day received the news with which his father was very sick, and was towards Viloria. When he came to the village his father already had died and he decided to remain to help his mother in that so hard moment. Nevertheless, he was beginning very much of less the life of the monastery, so his mother, who knew it well and only she wanted his happiness, she gaves to him permission in order that he was returning to Valvanera and was remaining there forever.
But the abbot made clear to him to Domingo that the God's ways were not those that he had chosen and that his life was not going to be that of a monk. Domingo sought for another opportunity in San Millán's monastery, and the abbot nothing mas to see it, realized that that boy not tape-worm does of monk and did not leave him to remain.
After understanding the plans that God tape-worm for him, fell in the account of which his real vocation was it of serving the others. On Sunday on having seen the penuries of the pilgrims who were happening for that forest I walk towards Santiago, he could not avoid leave his loneliness and help them in everything what could.
When he met Gregorio, he made him see clearly that his mission was to attend in the hospitals the needy and outlandish patients, for it he constructed a hospital, a well and a church, beside constructing a bridge on the river Oja and arranging and to extend the causeway for which pilgrims were travelling.
With the others
He wanted to deliver his life to God but even he had not found the way since the life in the monastery did not give him proved. The response came to him soon, when in Berceo they said to him that a hermit was living there. Without thinking, he went to his meeting and the good man received it fondly and comprehension.
With God Together with him he learned to live with God in loneliness. And when the hermit understood that Domingo already was prepared, he made it alone.
Contributions to the society
Thanks to the life of Santo Domingo, we have found out about his good works in favour of the pilgrims and about miraculous treatments happened in the villa, for example:
Healing of the French gentleman possessed by the demon that was freed of the malignant spirit before the sepulcher of the saint.
Healing) of a German pilgrim of the 15th century called Bernardo, who recovered of a purulent infection of the eyes on having visited the tomb of Santo Domingo.
Healing of a Norman who recovered the sight on having visited the cathedral.
Also we have still had other more important miracles as that of the rooster and the hen, which tells the history of a 18-year-old German young man called Hugonell, who was doing the Way of Santiago. At the inn where he was lodging there was employed a young girl who falls in love with him and asks him of loves, to what the boy refuses. Driven to despair and with anxieties of revenge she guards in the husk of the young man a glass of silver and then she accuses him of theft. The young man Hugonell and his parents prepare to divide to continue the peregrinaje, when the justice comes and verify the accusation registering the husk of the boy. There is found culprit and reprobate to the gallows. The parents cannot do anything for him any more that to pray to Santiago. On having approached the body hung of their son to say goodbye they hear how this one speaks to them from the gallows and says to them that he is alive for the grace of the Saint.
Happy and satisfied they are going to communicate the news to the sheriff who just in this moment is supping on sumptuously a few birds. The sheriff naturally jokes of what hears and launches the known phrase: " Your son is so alive as this rooster and this hen that me was preparing to eat before you were importuning me ". And in this moment, the birds jump of the plate and put to sing and crackle happy. Thanks to this miracle the cathedral of Santo Domingo de la Calzada is the only one that has two birds a rooster and a hen inside the enclosure.
This year We celebrate the year To retire calceatense, that is celebrated on the occasion of The Centenary IX of the death of Santo Domingo of the Causeway.
William of Ockham was born in a small village in Surrey near East Horsley, in England.
William of Ockham joined the Franciscan order at a young age. He is believed to have studied theology at the University of Oxford from 1309 to 1321, but never completed his master's degree.
William of Ockham
He was an English franciscan friar and scolastic philosopher.
He is considered, along with Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus, and Averroes, to be one of the major figures of medieval thought and was at the centre of the major intellectual and political controversies.
William also produced significant works on logic, physics, and theology.
Saint Francis of Assisi An example of simplicity and solidarity
Francis was born in Assisi; in a rich family of a cloth trader.
He had everything so his only objective is have fun.
He went to the war because he wanted to be a knight. He’s trapped and carried to jail.
He became sick, and giving him time to wonder about changing his life.
“ Francis, rebuild my church ”
A meeting with a leper changed his mind.
Discovers that Jesus invites him to have a life based on SIMPLICITY and SOLIDARITY.
He used to go praying to a ruined church, to discover what God wanted him to do.
He heard that god tells him: “Francis, rebuilt my church”. And he starts to fix that church, deciding to have simple life.
Renounced to his heritage and started his new simple life taking care of lepers.
A lifestyle: Simplicity and Solidarity
Some young people began to gather around Francis, people who sold everything they had to gave it to poor.
They were devoted to take care of poor, to predicate the bible, to work in neighbor's yards and when they hadn’t any job, they used to beg for money.
They always obeyed the bishop everywhere they were.
The number of people increases more and more.
In 1209, the Pope Inocence III, passed the rule of this simple and solidarity lifestyle.
In 1212, Claire of Assisi founded a similar order for women.
Francis died the 3 rd of October of 1226.
Henry David Thoreau
He was born in Massachusetts in the 19th century. He was an american author.
During his early life he worked as a pencil maker.
Henry grew up very close to his older brother John, who taught school to help pay for Henry's tuition at Harvard.
While at Walden, Thoreau did an incredible amount of reading and writing, yet he also spent much time "sauntering" in nature.
He even supported John Brown's efforts to end slavery after meeting him in Concord, as in A Plea for Captain John Brown.
His book, so he spent the nine years, surveying and making pencils at times but primarily writing and rewriting Walden before trying to publish it. He supported himself by surveying and making a few lectures, often on his experience at Walden pond.
Thoreau died of tuberculosis in 1862, at the age of 44. His last words were said to be "Moose" and "Indian."
He was a French Philosopher during the XX century. He was also a law professor, sociologist and Christian anarchist. His main idea was that technology was a threat to human freedom and faith.
During II World War, he was the leader of the French Resistance and he was awarded with the title “Righteous among the Nations” because of his efforts to save Jews. He was converted to Christianity at the age of 22. He always had a simple life and he always rejected technology because he thougth that it was taking over many aspects of human life.
He wrote several books about “technological society”. One of his most important books is Anarchy and Christianity (1991). He said that Anarchism and Chritianism followed the same goals. Other important work by Jacques Ellul was “The Technological Society”
The Amish are a Christian group. They are known mainly for their simple lifestyle, their modest and traditional clothes and their rejection to the moderns comforts.
The Amish lifestyle is dictated by a strict group of rules, the Ordnung, which are different in each community, and even inside a community, between districts. What is right in one community might not be ok in another one. The Amish don’t consider all technology bad, even they can demand the acceptation of some technologies in the Amish lifestyle. Because of the fact that the Amish don’t have a central government; the communities often have different ideas about what technology should be accepted
The strictest Amish are Nebraska Amish, Troyer Amish and Swartzendruber Amish. The language that they use at home is the “Pennsylvania Dutch” and they use English when they aren’t in their communities. Their best products are their eiderdowns and their farming products. Typically, an Amish man will be well shaved while he is single. When he gets married he will have a beard. The Amish only baptize adults, so the children when they grow can choose their way of life. Until that the children are taught to work hard since they are very little. Although the Amish pay taxes, they don’t have Social Security and they don’t accept help from the government nor in health neither in nourishment.
There are 22 closed Amish communities in the USA and in Ontario (Canada). The biggest is in Ohio, the second one is Pennsylvania. There are 228,000 Amish in the USA and 1,500 in Canada. The Amish who left their old habits often stay near their community. They don’t have influenced the modern society; on the contrary, there are some new technologies that they have adopted.
In 1681, William Penn received some lands from the King of England, he invited to the religious minorities which were persecuted to live in his new colony called Pennsylvania. A lot of Swiss, Swedes and Germans Anabaptists settle in farms in the east of Pennsylvania. The majority of the Anabaptist immigrants followed Menno Simons. They were called Mennonites. A minority followed Jacob Amman teaching, they were called Amish.
Mahatma Gandhi was born in India in a rich family, in 1869. In 1893 he went to South Africa to fight a legal case for a Moslem businessman. When he was going to came back to India a new law appeared in the country: “Indians will not be able to vote for government any more” so he decided to stay there to fight for their rights. When he was 13 years old his parents married him with Kasturba Makharji. At the age of 18 years he was sent to London to study law. He left in India her wife and his two-year-old son. In 1891 he returned to India and he tried to work as a lawyer but he wasn’t successful.
In 1915 he returned to India with many of his friends. He established an ashram where he took a simple life, wearing tradicional clothes of India, made in cotton boycotting the occidental clothes. Until his death he taught to the lower class how to make their own products, he also defended their rights and, thanks to his influence, he stopped the war between Moslems and Hindus, although India was divided in the actual India and Pakistan In 1948 Nathuram Godse killed Gandhi when he fired him three shots.
Gandhi was the person who fought for the Indians’ rights in South Africa and India. To defend the people against the poverty he taught the lower class to be self-sufficient. He also tried to abolish the unjust laws. He fasted to finished with the war between Moslem an Hindus. His way to demonstrate was without violence. He was elemental in the independence of India against the United Kingdom. Gandhi had a simple life, making his own clothes and been vegetarian.
The word hippie comes from the English word hipster. This new subculture has some values from the Beat Generation and from the German naturalism. They used to listen to psychedelic rock and folk, they supported the sexual revolution and they believed in free love. Some people participated in the use of drugs like the marihuana, the LSD and others hallucinogens.
They tended to opt for voluntary simplicity, either for spiritual-religious, artistic, political, or environmental. At the end of 60´s in USA the hippies made a big group of young, then they passed fashion and the next generations were called neo-hippies. While some smalls group of original hippies and neo-hippies are developing the same lifestyle but whit some modifications and they are living in the city or in the field.
Anyway we should differentiate the different attitude between Beats and hippies. The first were cynical, they believed in the existentialist philosophy and used to dress all in black or brown, the hippies had a more positive attitude and dressed in colorful clothes. The hippie movement come from the culture of the Ancient Greeks. A key figure of the union between these two movements is Allen Ginsberg who is associated with the beats as a poet and is also associated with the hippie movement.
However, other hippies continued to maintain a commitment to this way of life and ideals. A popular myth said that the movement had lose, but in fact continued to exist in communities installed in several countries. The evolution of some hippie communities has led to eco-villages. Even today, many of these hippies go to festivals and meetings to celebrate life and love, for example the Peace Festival.
The hippie philosophy had an important impact on culture. It influenced the music, film, literature and art. Also some hippy values such as tolerance, sexual freedom and their search for alternative forms of spirituality. On the other hand the hippies anticipated the New Age movements multiple reconstruction and maintenance of local cultures and also the environmental movement. The idea about the society was to build an alternative society, an idea that have had significant influence on some subcultures.
There are hippies who emphasize more on a bohemian lifestyle, other groups with a trend set by the alternative spirituality and eventually other communities that are involved in radical activism and the environmentalism. They used to adopt a lifestyle based on peace and love. Often they are against traditional values and bureaucracy.
1.- VICENTE FERRER´S BIOGRAPHY(1920-2009)
Vicente Ferrer was born in Barcelona (Spain) on April 9, 1920
He found in Jesus' Company, an organization that attracted him, left the studies and joined the order.
His first works 1952-1968
. On February 13, 1952, he came to Mumbai as missionary Jesuit.
“ The miracle of giving " was consisting of a small economic aid and the technical necessary advice to obtain water for the cultives
Hard times. 1968-1969
“ The father Vicente Ferrer will go abroad for a few short vacations and will be received well again in the India." Indira Gandhi
Order of expulsion that received on April 27, 1968
Anantapur: The definitivy adventure. 1969-2008
Vicente Ferrer was born the Foundation in the India. In 1996 Vicente Ferrer created the Foundation in Spain to assure the economic continuity of the project.
2.- Values of his life
From small he was feeling identified and with desire of helping to the most disadvantaged and poor.
2.2.-To the other ones
“ We do not forget never that if to a poor do not give him bread, dies ” so that it upset in the help to the other.” Can ensure that the love to the other ones was the sense of his life.
Felt identified with God by his humility, the love to the other ones, the help to the other, to want to live in poverty, the charity…
I do not create in the punishment neither in the fault. All would have to listen the proper heart and look for a proper thought, to the margin of creeds and hierarchic structures.”
A council of Ferrer to live in peace is to have the conviction that everything has to finish no only well, but very well. Because God can not remain badly.
3.-Contribution to the society
The Foundation Vicente Ferrer work to improve the conditions of life of the communities more underprivileged.
DÁLITS OR INTOUCHABLE.
In the rural Indian, the Dálits constitute a community marginate: his work like farmers, low payed and irregular, prevents his access to some conditions of worthy life.
TRIBAL GROUPS and BACKWARD CASTES
The Foundation Vicente Ferrer is extending his work to the tribal groups and to the members of the designated backward cast, people very humble that suffers a clear situation of marginality and poverty.
The Foundation is in the first phase of the work with the s tribes Chenchu, that occupy the state of Andhra Pradesh. The men collect honey, the women rubber, honey, fruits and roots. The forests had fed them and allowed survive. The situation has changed recently because of the reduction of the surface forests and to the exhaustion of the products wild. At present, this community registers the main indexes of poverty of all the state of Andhra Pradesh.
- She was born in Skopje (capital of the Republic of Macedonia) . -She was the youngest of the children of her family. - She was baptized at the age of eight years old. - When she was twelve years old she wanted to be a missionary. Mother Teresa ( 1910 – 1997)
- - At the age of thirty it became missionary. - In December, she started her trip to the Indies , where she taught in the school for women St. Mary. - Characterized by her charity, she lived her consecration to Jesus between her partners with happiness.
- In 1950 she founded the feminine order of " Missionary of the Charity " and her masculine branch " Brothers of the Charity " in 1963. - In 1979 she received the Nobel Prize of the Peace.
- After of meeting for last time with the Pope , she returned to Calcutta where she passed her last weeks of life. - Victim of a heart failure died on 5 of September in 1997. - Thousands of persons of the whole world congregated in the India to see off the Holy one of the Sewage.
- She was beatified in 2003 by Juan Paul II.
+ The Mother Teresa receives in life numerous prizes and recognitions, between them: - 1971 : The first Prize John XXIII of the peace. - 1978 : Prize Balzan to the humanity, peace and brotherhood between the people. - 1979 : Prize Nobel of the Peace.
- “I do not pray to obtain success. Only I ask for loyalty”.
-”If we want that our message of love is listened, we have to send it. In order that a lamp is still flushed, we have to be still spilling oil”.
- “Keep close to Jesus . He loves you. Let us pray . God bless you”.
This presentation has been done by the group of 1st Year of A level students Tomas Mingot High School 2009/2010