Wireless access evolution


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Wireless Access Evolution

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  • Sure I will plan for that..and will be good to share knowledge and experience.
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  • you can invite me to your university/wireless networks laboratory in Seoul-South Korea. for an invited talk . we will discus about the current issues ....
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  • Thanks Prof. Ajal
    I will keep in touch definitely. I current working in this area ,and also working on wireless networks laboratory in Seoul-South Korea.
    Candidate MSc. Information Communication Engineering....my email: jmvulla@gmail.com
    My current issue is hidden node problem on 802.11n and power saving Technics on wireless nodes.
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    Vallivattom P.O., Konathakunnu (Via), Near Mathilakam
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  • well organised and helpful ! Thanks Prof. Ajal Jose
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  • Introduction to Telecommunications by Gokhale
  • 03/29/13
  • 03/29/13
  • Wireless access evolution

    1. 1. Wireless Access Evolution BYSubscribers AJAL.A.J  Broadband  Network  Broadband Simplification  New Services  Cost of  Efficiency Ownership  Voice Quality  Portability  Coverage  Capacity  Mobility Voice Broadband
    2. 2. Mobile wireless evolution: Introduction to Mobile wireless evolution: By AJAL.A.J
    3. 3. Before going 2 start with wireless evolution ,Lets review 3
    4. 4. Classes of transmission media 7.4
    5. 5. GUIDED MEDIAGuided media, which are those that provide a conduitfrom one device to another, include twisted-pair cable,coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable.Topics discussed in this section: Twisted-Pair Cable Coaxial Cable Fiber-Optic Cable
    6. 6. Figure Twisted-pair cable
    7. 7. Types (1) shielded twisted-pair (STP)Figure UTP and STP cables (2) unshielded twisted-pair (UTP).
    8. 8. UTP connector
    9. 9. Twisted pair Connectors RJ45 connectors
    10. 10. Coaxial cable
    11. 11. Outer conductor shields the inner conductor frompicking up stray signal from the air.For frequencies ranging from100KHz to 500MHz
    12. 12. BNC connectors
    13. 13. Coaxial cable connectorsBNC Connectors - Bayone-Neill-ConcelmanTypes of Connectors 1) BNC connector - to connect to a TV 2) BNC T connector - in ethernet networks3) BNC terminator - used in end of the cable to prevent the reflection of the signal.
    14. 14. Optical fiber
    15. 15. Propagation modes
    16. 16. Modes
    17. 17. Fiber construction
    18. 18. Fiber-optic cable connectors
    19. 19. Twisted-Pair Use metallic conductors that accept and transport signals in the form of electric current. Coaxial cableOptical Fiber Cable that accepts and transports signals in the form of light.
    20. 20. UNGUIDED MEDIA: WIRELESSUnguided media transport electromagnetic waveswithout using a physical conductor. This type ofcommunication is often referred to as wirelesscommunication.Topics discussed in this section: Radio Waves Microwaves Infrared
    21. 21. Electromagnetic spectrum for wireless communication
    22. 22. Propagation methods
    23. 23. Table Bands
    24. 24. Figure Wireless transmission waves
    25. 25. Note Radio waves are used for multicast communications, such as radio and television, and paging systems. They can penetrate through walls. Highly regulated. Use omni directional antennas
    26. 26. Figure Omnidirectional antenna
    27. 27. Note Microwaves are used for unicastcommunication such as cellular telephones, satellite networks, and wireless LANs. Higher frequency ranges cannot penetrate walls.Use directional antennas - point to point line of sight communications.7.27
    28. 28. Figure Unidirectional antennas
    29. 29. Note Infrared signals can be used for short-rangecommunication in a closed area using line-of- sight propagation.
    30. 30. Wireless Channels Are subject to a lot more errors than guided media channels. Interference is one cause for errors, can be circumvented with high SNR. The higher the SNR the less capacity is available for transmission due to the broadcast nature of the channel. Channel also subject to fading and no coverage holes.
    31. 31. ANY QUESTIONS ? ? ? Else , we can start with Mobile wireless evolution:
    32. 32. Introduction to wireless Communications Systems• In 1897, Guglielmo Marconi first demonstrated radio’s ability to provide continuous contact with ships sailing the English channel.• During the past 10 years, fueled by * Digital and RF circuit fabrication improvements * New VLSI technologies * Other miniaturization technologies (e.g., passive components) The mobile communications industry has grown by orders of magnitude.• The trends will continue at an even greater pace during the next decade.
    33. 33. Evolution of Mobile Radio Communications
    34. 34. Mobile Radiotelephone in the U.S.• In 1934, AM mobile communication systems for municipal police radio systems. * vehicle ignition noise was a major problem.• In 1946, FM mobile communications for the first public mobile telephone service * Each system used a single, high-powered transmitter and large tower to cover distances of over 50 km. * Used 120 kHz of RF bandwidth in a half-duplex mode. (push-to- talk release-to-listen systems.) * Large RF bandwidth was largely due to the technology difficulty (in mass-producing tight RF filter and low-noise, front-end receiver amplifiers.)• In 1950, the channel bandwidth was cut in half to 60kHZ due to improved technology.
    35. 35. • By the mid 1960s, the channel bandwidth again was cut to 30 kHZ.• Thus, from WWII to the mid 1960s, the spectrum efficiency was improved only a factor of 4 due to the technology advancements.• Also in 1950s and 1960s, automatic channel truncking was introduced in IMTS(Improved Mobile Telephone Service.) * offering full duplex, auto-dial, auto-trunking * became saturated quickly * By 1976, has only twelve channels and could only serve 543 customers in New York City of 10 millions populations.
    36. 36. • Cellular radiotelephone * Developed in 1960s by Bell Lab and others * The basic idea is to reuse the channel frequency at a sufficient distance to increase the spectrum efficiency. * But the technology was not available to implement until the late 1970s. (mainly the microprocessor and DSP technologies.)• In 1983, AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System, IS-41) deployed by Ameritech in Chicago. * 40 MHz spectrum in 800 MHz band * 666 channels (+ 166 channels), * Each duplex channel occupies > 60 kHz (30+30) FDMA to maximize capacity. * Two cellular providers in each market.
    37. 37. • In late 1991, U.S. Digital Cellular (USDC, IS-54) was introduced. * to replace AMPS analog channels π * 3 times of capacity due to the use of digital modulation 4 ( DQPSK), speech coding, and TDMA technologies. * could further increase up to 6 times of capacity given the advancements of DSP and speech coding technologies.• In mid 1990s, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA, IS-95) was introduced by Qualcomm. * based on spread spectrum technology. * supports 6-20 times of users in 1.25 MHz shared by all the channels. * each associated with a unique code sequence. * operate at much smaller SNR.(FdB)
    38. 38. Mobile Radio Systems Around the World
    39. 39. Examples of Mobile Radio Systems
    40. 40. First Generation (1G) 1G (First Generation Wireless Technology). Is the analog, voice-only cellular telephone standard, developed in the 1980s. It was invented by Martin Cooper of Motorola Corp in 1973. Before 1G technology was the mobile radio telephone or 0G (Zeroth G) 1G phones have been cloned
    41. 41. 1. Early Cell System Non-trunk radio system  Does not use multiplexing scheme  Each radio channel is fixed to a specific user or a group of users Trunk radio system  (synchronous or asynchronous) multiplexing scheme  Channels are shared and available to all users  Advantage: increased efficiency of spectrum usage  Disadvantage: more complex architecture required
    42. 42. 1. Early Cell System Trunk radio system (AMPS) BTS (base station): controls the air interface between the mobile station and MTSO  Mobile station: having frequency-agile machine that allows to change to a particular frequency designated for its use by the MTSO  MTSO: responsible for switching the calls to the cells providing  Interfacing with telephone network and backup  Monitoring traffic  Performing testing and diagnostics, network
    43. 43. Differences Between First andSecond Generation Systems Digital traffic channels – first-generation systems are almost purely analog; second-generation systems are digital Encryption – all second generation systems provide encryption to prevent eavesdropping Error detection and correction – second-generation digital traffic allows for detection and correction, giving clear voice reception Channel access – second-generation systems allow channels to be dynamically shared by a number of users
    44. 44. 1G 45
    45. 45. First Generation What we will look at  1st Generation technology  Analogue signals  Frequency Division  Handover  Infrastructure
    46. 46. First Generation Early Wireless communications  Signal fires  Morse Code  Radio Radio Transmitter 1928 Dorchester
    47. 47. First Generation 1st Generation devices  Introduced in the UK by Vodafone  January 1985  UK Technology (and Italy)  Total Access Cellular System (TACS)  This was based on the American design of AMPS  Used the 900MHz frequency range  Europe  Germany adopted C-net  France adopted Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT)
    48. 48. First Generation Operates  Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)  Covered in next slide  Operates in the 900MHz frequency range  Three parts to the communications  Voice channels  Paging Channels  Control Channels
    49. 49. PCS – 1G to 2G technology FDMA  Breaks up the available frequency into 30 KHz channels  Allocates a single channel to each phone call  The channel is agreed with the Base station before transmission takes place on agreed and reserved channel  The device can then transmit on this channel  No other device can share this channel even if the person is not talking at the time!  A different channel is required to receive  The voice/sound is transmitted as analogue data, which means that a large than required channel has to be allocated.
    50. 50. PCS – 1G to 2G technology FDMA Frequency
    51. 51. PCS – 1G to 2G technology FDMA  You use this technology all of the time!  Consider your radio in the house  As you want different information you change the frequency which you are receiving
    52. 52. PCS – 1G to 2G technology Voice calls  Are transferred using Frequency modulation  The rate at which the carrier wave undulates is changed  Encoding information  More resistant to interference than AM radio (www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0030280.html, 2004)
    53. 53. PCS – 1G to 2G technology 1G infrastructure PSTN Mobile Switching Centre
    54. 54. First Generation Infrastructure  Base Station  Carries out the actual radio communications with the device  Sends out paging and control signals  MSC  Takes responsibility  Controls all calls attached to this device  Maintains billing information  Switches calls (Handover)
    55. 55. First Generation Cellular Architecture  Allows the area to be broken into smaller cells  The mobile device then connects to the closest cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell
    56. 56. First Generation Cellular Architecture continued  Cellular architecture requires the available frequency to be distributed between the cells  If 2 cells next to each other used the same frequency each would interfere with each other Cell Cell Cell Cell Frequency 900 Cell
    57. 57. First Generation Cellular Architecture continued  There must be a distance between adjoining cells  This distance allows communications to take place Cell Frequency 900 Cell Frequency 920 Cell Cell Cell Cell Frequency 940 Cell Cell Frequency 960
    58. 58. First Generation Cellular Architecture continued  This is referred to as the “Minimum Frequency Reuse Factor”  This requires proper planning and can be an issue for all radio based wireless communications  Planning the radio cell and how far a signal may go Cell Cell Cell Cell
    59. 59. First Generation Radio Planning  Logically we picture a cell as being a Octagon  In reality the shape of a transmission will change depending on the environment  In this diagram of a cell you can see this  The building are the rectangles in dark green  The darker the shade of green the stronger the signal Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell
    60. 60. First Generation Radio Planning  Planning needs careful thought  You must cover the entire area with the minimum of base stations  Base stations cost the company money  They also make the potential for radio problems greater  Simulations can be used but accurate models of the area is required  Best solution is to measure the signals at various points  From this a decision can be made Cell Cell Cell Cell
    61. 61. First Generation Cellular infrastructure why ??  Cells with different frequencies allow devices to move between these cells  The device just informing what frequency they are communicating at  Cellular communications can only travel a certain distance  Discussed in the wireless LAN’s lecture  Cell sizes are flexible  Examples in the TUK TACS system were up to 50 Miles!
    62. 62. First Generation Cellular infrastructure  Once you get to the ‘edge’ of a cell you will need a handover  Handover allows the user to move between cells  After a certain distance the amount of data which is sent in error becomes greater than the data sent correctly at this point you need to connect to a new cell which is closer.  TACS carries this out by monitoring the amplitude of the voice signal
    63. 63. First Generation Cellular infrastructure  Communicating with BS1  Moving towards BS2 Tnm rasis snS ioB2 SBosm n i nT is s ar 1 BS1BS2
    64. 64. First Generation Cellular infrastructure  Power of signal now weakening BS1BS2
    65. 65. First Generation Cellular infrastructure  Paging signal stronger so hand over to new MSC BS1BS2
    66. 66. First Generation Handover  Once a handover is decided upon by the BS  The MSC is informed  All BS in the area of the current location are informed to start paging the device  The BS with the strongest signal is then handed over to  The call can continue  In reality a lot of calls were dropped whilst waiting for a handover to take place  Ending a call  A 8Khz tone is sent for 1.8 seconds  The phone then returns to an idle state
    67. 67. First Generation TACS  Problems  Roaming was not applicable outside of the UK  All of Europe was using different standards  Different frequencies  Different frequency spacing  Different encoding technologies  Security  Calls were easily ‘listened’ upon  Limited capacity of the available spectrum  Analogue signal meant a larger than required amount of the frequency had to be allocated to each call  Expansion of the network was difficult  This was unacceptable  GSM was introduced  Next weeks lecture!
    68. 68. First Generation Summary  1G systems  TACS  Frequency Use  Infrastructure  Handover  Problems
    69. 69. Cellular standards• Analog cellular: G1 cellular systems – AMPS: AT&T and Motorola; rapidly giving way to digital technology worldwide. – N-AMPS: narrow-band AMPS; Motorola. – NMT (Nordic mobile telephone) in scandinavia – TACS (Total access communication system) developed in England.
    70. 70. TDMA Design Considerations Number of logical channels per physical channel (number of time slots in TDMA frame): 8 Maximum cell radius (R): 35 km Frequency: region around 900 MHz Maximum vehicle speed (Vm):250 km/hr Maximum coding delay: approx. 20 ms Maximum delay spread (∆m): 10 µs Bandwidth: Not to exceed 200 kHz (25 kHz per channel)
    71. 71. 2G
    72. 72. 2G 73
    73. 73. Cellular standards continued• Digital cellular: G2 cellular systems – GSM (Global System for Mobile communication): dominates worldwide; adopted in 1987 for pan-Europe systems; operates in the 800 and 900 MHz ranges and is ISDN compatible; 4-cell reuse plan and each cell is divided into 12 sectors; used CDMA; supporting roaming from country to country. – D-AMPS (Digital AMPS): AKA US TDMA is the N. Am. Standard; operates in the same 800 MHz band as AMPS and uses the same 30 kHz bands as AMPS; 3:1improvement on band utilization over AMPS; co- exists with AMPS; data rate up to 28.8 bps.• Others: PDC (Japanese Digital Cellular), PCS (Personal digital system).
    74. 74. Spectrumonomics !
    75. 75. Cellular Communications• Mobile telephone service - a system for providing telephone services to multiple, mobile receivers using two- way radio communication over a limited number of frequencies.• Mobile wireless evolution: – First generation – Second generation – Third generation
    76. 76. Evolution of Mobile Radio Communications• Major Mobile Radio Systems – 1934 - Police Radio uses conventional AM mobile communication system. – 1935 - Edwin Armstrong demonstrate FM – 1946 - First public mobile telephone service - push-to-talk – 1960 - Improved Mobile Telephone Service, IMTS - full duplex – 1960 - Bell Lab introduce the concept of Cellular mobile system – 1968 - AT&T propose the concept of Cellular mobile system to FCC. – 1976 - Bell Mobile Phone service, poor service due to call blocking – 1983 - Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS), FDMA, FM – 1991 - Global System for Mobile (GSM), TDMA, GMSK – 1991 - U.S. Digital Cellular (USDC) IS-54, TDMA, DQPSK – 1993 - IS-95, CDMA, QPSK, BPSK
    77. 77. Example of Mobile Radio Systems• Examples – Cordless phone – Remote controller – Hand-held walkie-talkies – Pagers – Cellular telephone – Wireless LAN• Mobile - any radio terminal that could be moves during operation• Portable - hand-held and used at walking speed• Subscriber - mobile or portable user
    78. 78. • Classification of mobile radio transmission system – Simplex: communication in only one direction – Half-duplex: same radio channel for both transmission and reception (push-to-talk) – Full-duplex: simultaneous radio transmission and reception (FDD, TDD) • Frequency division duplexing uses two radio channel – Forward channel: base station to mobile user – Reverse channel: mobile user to base station• Time division duplexing shares a single radio channel in time. Forward Channel Reverse Channel
    79. 79. Paging Systems • Conventional paging system send brief messages to a subscriber• Modern paging system: news headline, stock quotations, faxes, etc. • Simultaneously broadcast paging message from each base station (simulcasting) • Large transmission power to cover wide area.
    80. 80. Cordless Telephone System• Cordless telephone systems are full duplex communication systems. • First generation cordless phone – in-home use – communication to dedicated base unit – few tens of meters • Second generation cordless phone – outdoor – combine with paging system – few hundred meters per station
    81. 81. Cellular Telephone Systems• Provide connection to the PSTN for any user location within the radio range of the system. • Characteristic – Large number of users , - Large Geographic area – Limited frequency spectrum , - Reuse of the radio frequency by the concept of “cell’’. • Basic cellular system: mobile stations, base stations, and mobile switching center.
    82. 82. • Communication between the base station and mobiles is defined by the standard common air interface (CAI) – forward voice channel (FVC): voice transmission from base station to mobile – reverse voice channel (RVC): voice transmission from mobile to base station – forward control channels (FCC): initiating mobile call from base station to mobile – reverse control channel (RCC): initiating mobile call from mobile to base station
    83. 83. Cellular Call Completion• Components of a signal: – Mobile Identification Number (MIN) - an enclosed representation of the mobile telephone’s 10-digit telephone number. – Electronic Serial Number (ESN) - a fixed number assigned to the telephone by the manufacturer. – System Identification Number (SID) - a number assigned to the particular wireless carrier to which the telephone’s user has subscribed.
    84. 84. Cellular Call Completion
    85. 85. Call Completion
    86. 86. How Cellular Telephony Works (continued)
    87. 87. Advanced Mobile Pone Service (AMPS)• A first generation cellular technology that encodes and transmits speech as analog signals.
    88. 88. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
    89. 89. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)• Each voice signal is digitized and assigned a unique code, and then small components of the signal are issued over multiple frequencies using the spread spectrum technique.
    90. 90. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)• A version of time division multiple access (TDMA) technology, because it divides frequency bands into channels and assigns signals time slots within each channel.• Makes more efficient use of limited bandwidth than the IS-136 TDMA standard common in the United States.• Makes use of silences in a phone call to increase its signal compression, leaving more open time slots in the channel.
    91. 91. Wireless Local Loop (WLL)• A generic term that describes a wireless link used in the PSTN to connect LEC central offices with subscribers.• Acts the same as a copper local loop.• Used to transmit both voice and data signals.
    92. 92. Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS)• A point-to-multipoint, fixed wireless technology that was conceived to supply wireless local loop service in densely populated urban areas and later on a trial basis to issue television signals.• A disadvantage is that its use of very high frequencies limits its signal’s transmission distance to no more than 4km between antennas.
    93. 93. Multipoint Multichannel Distribution System (MMDS)• Uses microwaves with frequencies in the 2.1 to 2.7 GHz range of the wireless spectrum.• One advantage is that because of its lower frequency range, MMDS is less susceptible to interference.• MMDS does not require a line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver.
    94. 94. Short Message Service (SMS)• Globally accepted wireless service that enables the transmission of alphanumeric messages between mobile devices and external systems• Available in US on GSM-based PCS as well as TDMA and CDMA based cellular systems• Short Message Service Center (SMSC) acts as a relay and store and forward system for messages• Point to point delivery of messages• Active mobile handset is able to receive or send a short message at any time, independent of whether a voice or data call is in progress• Utilizes out-of-band packet delivery and low-bandwidth message delivery• Guarantees delivery of the short message by the network. Temporary transmission failures are identified, and the message is stored in the network until the destination becomes available
    95. 95. 2.5G 103
    96. 96. 2.5G, which stands for "second and ahalf generation," is a cellular wireless technology developed in between itspredecessor, 2G, and its successor, 3G.
    97. 97. "2.5G" is an informal term, inventedsolely for marketing purposes, unlike "2G" or "3G" which are officially defined standards based on those defined by the International Telecommunication (ITU). The term "2.5G" usually describes a 2G cellular system combined with General Packet Radio Services (GPRS )
    98. 98. A 2.5G system may make use of 2G system infrastructure, but it implements apacket-switched network domain in addition to a circuit-switched domain.
    99. 99. 2.5 G 2G (GSM standard)—GPRS (General Packet Radio Service )was introduced in 2001. It added packet switching protocols to mobile communications technology and TCP/IP thus making possible the reading and sending of e-mails, instant messaging (IM), and browsing the Internet. SMS or short message service is heavily used. 2.5 G added MMS.
    100. 100. MMS Multimedia Message Service, a store-and-forward method of transmitting graphics, video clips, sound files and short text messages over wireless networks using the WAP protocol. Carriers deploy special servers, dubbed MMS Centers (MMSCs) to implement the offerings on their systems. MMS also supports e-mail addressing, so the device can send e-mails directly to an e-mail address. The most common use of MMS is for communication between mobile phones. MMS, however, is not the same as e-mail. MMS is based on the concept of multimedia messaging. The presentation of the message is coded into the presentation file so that the images, sounds and text are displayed in a predetermined order as one singular message. MMS does not support attachments as e-mail does. To the end user, MMS is similar to SMS.
    101. 101. 2.5G  An enhancement to 2G networks that allows them to operate in a "packet switched" manner  2.5G networks incorporate 2G technology with GPRS higher speeds to support data transport. 2.5G is a bridge from the voice-centric 2G networks to the data-centric 3G networks.  GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is a radio technology for GSM networks that adds packet-switching protocols. As a 2.5G technology, GPRS enables high- speed wireless Internet and other data communications. GPRS networks can deliver SMS, MMS, email, games, and WAP applications.
    102. 102. GPRS GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is a specification for data transfer on TDMA and GSM networks. The theoretical limit for packet switched data is approx. 170 kb/s. A realistic bit rate is 30-70 kb/s. . GPRS supports both TCP/IP and X.25 communications. It provides moderate speed data transfer, by using unused TDMA channels on a GSM network. GSM circuit switch connections are still used for voice, but data is sent and received in "packets" in the same way as it would be in the fixed internet environment. The advantage is that network resources are used more efficiently. Rather than maintaining a circuit for the duration of the connection, which ties up resources regardless of whether anything is actually being sent or received, GPRS only consumes resource when information packets are transmitted.
    103. 103. HSCSD  HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data) is a specification for data transfer over GSM networks. HSCSD utilizes up to four 9.6Kb or 14.4Kb time slots, for a total bandwidth of 38.4Kb or 57.6Kb.  14.4Kb time slots are only available on GSM networks that operate at 1,800Mhz. 900Mhz GSM networks are limited to 9.6Kb time slots. Therefore, HSCSD is limited to 38.4Kbps on 900Mhz GSM networks. HSCSD can only achieve 57.6Kbps on 1,800Mhz GSM networks.
    104. 104. HSCSD vs. GPRS  HSCSD has an advantage over GPRS in that HSCSD supports guaranteed quality of service because of the dedicated circuit-switched communications channel. This makes HSCSD a better protocol for timing-sensitive applications such as image or video transfer.  GPRS has the advantage over HSCSD for most data transfer because HSCSD, which is circuit-switched, is less bandwidth efficient with expensive wireless links than GPRS, which is packet-switched.  For an application such as downloading, HSCSD may be preferred, since circuit-switched data is usually given priority over packet- switched data on a mobile network, and there are few seconds when no data is being transferred.
    105. 105. ISM Frequency BandsThe three ISM frequency bands are the only ones available for unlicensed wirelesstransmission in the US. Only one band has world-wide availability.  Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) spread spectrum modulation  902-928 MHz  2.4-2.4835 GHz (home of microwave oven band)  5.725-5.850 GHz  under 1 watt transmitter output power  more bandwidth with higher frequencies, which support higher data rates.
    106. 106. Lifi….the latest technology in wireless communication• LiFi is a new class of high intensity light source of solid state design bringing clean lighting solutions to general.• With energy efficiency, long useful lifetime, full spectrum and dimming , LiFi lighting applications work better compared to conventional approaches.• This technology gives the general construction of LiFi lighting systems and the basic technology building blocks behind their function.
    107. 107. Advantages• Using this innovative technology 10,000 to 20,000 bits per second of data can be transmitted simultaneously in parallel using a unique signal processing technology and special modulation• As communication technology is expanding at a rapid pace we are running out of radio frequency spectrum but this new visible light spectrum has 10,000 times more capacity than radio frequency.•
    108. 108. • Cellular masts or base stations worldwide uses a lot of energy particularly for cooling and it operates at only five percent efficiency whereas LiFi technology can transmit data through the 14 billion light bulbs already installed worldwide. So it is virtually free .• The whole process of transmitting data through light is more energy efficient than using radio frequency.
    109. 109. Applications• Can be used in the places where it is difficult to lay the optical fiber like hospitals. In operation theatre LiFi can be used for modern medical instruments.• In traffic signals LiFi can be used which will communicate with the LED lights of the cars and accident numbers can be decreased.• Thousand and millions of street lamps can be transferred to LiFi lamps to transfer data.
    110. 110. Conclusion• The design and construction of the LiFi light source enable• efficiency,• long stable life,• full spectrum intensity• that is digitally controlled• and easy to use.
    111. 111. Any Questions ?Or else lets EDGE
    112. 112. Going through the Edge, from 2.5G to 3G
    113. 113. Going through the Edge, from 2.5G to 3G
    114. 114. 2.75 G 124
    115. 115. 2G/2.5G Voice & Data Handset still dominates the market while 2.75G istrying to fill the technology gap before 3G is mature.
    116. 116. Advancement of Cellular Technology Bluetooth™ WLAN All IP RAN 2G 2.5G 2.75G 3G 4G EGPRS EDGE Western Europe EDGE Phase2 Phase1 Rel4,5, 6 Rel99 and beyond FDD:WCDMA GPRS-136HS GSM EDGE UWB GPRS TDD:WCDMA EDGE EDGE Phase II Classic TD:CDMA SDR TDMA EDGE TD:SCDMA HSDPA Compact UMTS …. GAIT* PDC iDEN IMT2000 GERAN UTRAN cdma2000™ cdma2000™ CDMA 1XRTT 1XEV-DV cdma2000™ 1xEV-DO <9.6kbps <115kbps <384kbps <384kbps <2Mbps >2Mbps 2001 2002 2003 2004•GSM ANSI 136 Interoperability Team•GERAN – GSM EDGE Radio Access Network•UTRAN –UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
    117. 117. EDGE• Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) is a bolt-on enhancement to 2G and GPRS networks. This technology is compatible with TDMA and GSM networks. EDGE uses the same spectrum allocated for GSM850, GSM900, GSM1800 and GSM1900 operation.• Instead of employing GMSK (Gaussian minimum-shift keying) EDGE uses 8PSK (8 Phase Shift Keying) producing a 3bit word for every change in carrier phase. This effectively triples the gross data rate offered by GSM. EDGE, like GPRS, uses a rate adaptation algorithm that adapts the modulation and coding scheme (MCS) used to the quality of the radio channel, and thus the bit rate and robustness of data transmission. It introduces a new technology not found in GPRS, Incremental Redundancy, which, instead of retransmitting disturbed packets, sends more redundancy information to be combined in the receiver. This increases the probability of correct decoding.
    118. 118. EDGE provides data speed three times that of GPRS• EDGE is a mobile network radio technology that allows current GSM networks to offer 3G services within existing frequencies. As an evolution of GSM/GPRS, EDGE is an upgrade to GPRS data and GSMs voice networks..
    119. 119. 3GWhy 3G? 129
    120. 120. Why 3G?• Higher bandwidth enables a range of new applications!!• For the consumer – Video streaming, TV broadcast – Video calls, video clips – news, music, sports – Enhanced gaming, chat, location services…• For business – High speed teleworking / VPN access – Sales force automation – Video conferencing – Real-time financial information
    121. 121. 3G• 3G networks promise next-generation service with transmission rates of 144Kbps and higher that can support multimedia applications, such as video, video conferencing and Internet access. Both UMTS (WCDMA) and EDGE will support 3G services. 3G networks operate on a different frequency than 2G networks.
    122. 122. Emerging Third Generation (3G) Technologies The promise of these technologies is that a user can access all her telecommunication services from one mobile phone.• CDMA2000 - a packet switched version of CDMA.• Wideband CDMA (W-CDMA) - based on technology developed by Ericson, is also packet- based and its maximum throughput is also 2.4 Mbps.
    123. 123. 3G 3G—UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)--Can reach 384 kbps. The technology made video phones, watching streaming video, downloading music and getting broadband access possible. UMTS can be used on both mobile phones and computers. It is capable of transferring 385 kbps for mobile systems and up to 2Mbps for stationary systems.
    124. 124. 3G services in Asia• CDMA (1xEV-DO) – Korea: SKT, KTF – Japan: AU (KDDI)• WCDMA / UMTS – Japan: NTT DoCoMo, Vodafone KK – Australia: 3 Hutchinson – Hong Kong: 3 Hutchinson
    125. 125. IS-95 (CdmaOne) IS-95: standard for the radio interface IS-41: standard for the network part Operates in 800MHz and 1900MHz bands Uses DS-CDMA technology (1.2288 Mchips/s) Forward link (downlink): (2,1,9)-convolutional code, interleaved, 64 chips spreading sequence (Walsh-Hadamard functions) Pilot channel, synchronization channel, 7 paging channels, up to 63 traffic channels Reverse link (uplink): (3,1,9)-convolutional code, interleaved, 6 bits are mapped into a Walsh-Hadamard sequence, spreading using a user-specific code Tight power control (open-loop, fast closed loop)
    126. 126. Advantages of CDMA Cellular Frequency diversity – frequency-dependent transmission impairments have less effect on signal Multipath resistance – chipping codes used for CDMA exhibit low cross correlation and low autocorrelation Privacy – privacy is inherent since spread spectrum is obtained by use of noise-like signals Graceful degradation – system only gradually degrades as more users access the system
    127. 127. Drawbacks of CDMA Cellular Self-jamming – arriving transmissions from multiple users not aligned on chip boundaries unless users are perfectly synchronized Near-far problem – signals closer to the receiver are received with less attenuation than signals farther away Soft handoff – requires that the mobile acquires the new cell before it relinquishes the old; this is more complex than hard handoff used in FDMA and TDMA schemes
    128. 128. CDMA Design Considerations RAKE receiver – when multiple versions of a signal arrive more than one chip interval apart, RAKE receiver attempts to recover signals from multiple paths and combine them o This method achieves better performance than simply recovering dominant signal and treating remaining signals as noise Soft Handoff – mobile station temporarily connected to more than one base station simultaneously
    129. 129. RAKE Receiver RAKE Receiver has to estimate: o Multipath delays o Phase of multipath components o Amplitude of multipath components o Number of multipath components Main challenge is receiver synchronization in fading channels
    130. 130. Principle of RAKE Receiver
    131. 131. Forward Link Channels Pilot: allows the mobile unit to acquire timing information, provides phase reference and provides means for signal strength comparison Synchronization: used by mobile station to obtain identification information about cellular system Paging: contain messages for one or more mobile stations Traffic: the forward channel supports 55 traffic channels
    132. 132. Forward Traffic Processing Steps Speech is encoded at a rate of 8550 bps Additional bits added for error detection Data transmitted in 2-ms blocks with forward error correction provided by a convolutional encoder Data interleaved in blocks to reduce effects of errors Data bits are scrambled, serving as a privacy mask o Using a long code based on user’s electronic serial number
    133. 133. Forward Traffic Processing Steps Power control information inserted into traffic channel DS-SS function spreads the 19.2 kbps to a rate of 1.2288 Mbps using one row of 64 x 64 Walsh matrix Digital bit stream modulated onto the carrier using QPSK modulation scheme
    134. 134. Reverse Traffic Processing Steps Convolutional encoder at rate 1/3 Spread the data using a Walsh matrix o Use a 6-bit piece of data as an index to the Walsh matrix o To improve reception at base station Data burst randomizer Spreading using the user-specific long code mask
    135. 135. Third-Generation Capabilities Voice quality comparable to the public switched telephone network 144 kbps data rate available to users in high- speed motor vehicles over large areas 384 kbps available to pedestrians standing or moving slowly over small areas Support for 2.048 Mbps for office use Symmetrical/asymmetrical data transmission rates Support for both packet switched and circuit switched data services
    136. 136. Typical application: road traffic UMTS, WLAN, h oc DAB, GSM, ad TETRA, ... Personal Travel Assistant, DAB, PDA, laptop, GSM, UMTS, WLAN, Bluetooth, ... 1.4.1
    137. 137. Overlay Networks - the global goal integration of heterogeneous fixed and mobile networks with varying transmission characteristics regional vertical hand-over metropolitan area campus-based horizontal hand-over in-house 1.23.1
    138. 138. Influence of mobile communication to the layer modelApplication layer  service location  new applications, multimedia  adaptive applicationsTransport layer  congestion and flow control  quality of service  addressing, routing,Network layer device location  hand-over  authenticationData link layer  media access  multiplexing  media access controlPhysical layer  encryption  modulation  interference  attenuation  frequency
    139. 139. 3G Standards• 3G Standard is created by ITU-T and is called as IMT- 2000.• The aim of IMT-2000 is to harmonize worldwide 3G systems to provide Global Roaming.
    140. 140. Upgrade paths for 2G Technologies 2G IS-95 GSM- IS-136 & PDC GPRS IS-95B 2.5G HSCSD EDGE Cdma2000-1xRTT W-CDMA3G Cdma2000-1xEV,DV,DO EDGE TD-SCDMA Cdma2000-3xRTT 3GPP2 3GPP
    141. 141. 3G: Winners & Losers ?? UMTS  Huge delays (terminals availability)  Very expensive license fees  Clear evolution path  HSxPA (Peak Data Rates), LTE (Long Term Evolution) (Network Simplification) WCDMA  Compelling peak data rates (EV-DO)  Unclear evolution path  3xRTT? WIMAX?
    142. 142. UMTS Frequency Spectrum• UMTS Band : 1900-2025 MHz and 2110-2200 MHz for 3G transmission.• Terrestrial UMTS (UTRAN) : 1900-1980 MHz, 2010-2025 MHz, and 2110- 2170 MHz bands
    143. 143. IS-95ACDMA was commercially introduced in 1995 with IS-95A orcdmaOne. IS-95A is the CDMA-based second generation (2G)standard for mobile communication. The followingare the key aspects of this standard:• Support for data rates of upto 14.4 kbps• IS-95A has been used exclusively for circuit-switched voice• Convolutional Channel coding used• Modulation technique used is BPSK
    144. 144. IS-95BIS-95B or cdmaOne is the evolved version of IS-95A and isdesignated as 2.5G. IS-95B maintains the Physical Layer of IS-95A,but due to an enhanced MAC layer, is capable of providing for higherspeed data services. The following are the key aspects of thestandard:• Theoretical data rates of upto 115 kbps, with generally experiencedrates of 64 kbps• Additional Walsh codes and PN sequence masks, which enable amobile user to be assigned up to eight forward or reverse codechannels simultaneously, thus enabling a higher data rate• Code channels, which are transmitted at full data rates during adata burst• Convolutional Channel coding• Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) as the Modulation techniqueused
    145. 145. CDMA 2000 1X•Supports theoretical data rates of upto 307 kbps, with generallyexperienced rates of 144 kbps• The newly introduced Q-PCH of CDMA 2000 enables the mobile tobe informed about when it needs to monitor F-CCCH and the PagingChannel, thus improving on the battery life• Introduction of Radio Configurations – Transmission formatscharacterized by physical layer parameters such as data rates,modulation characteristics, and spreading rate. RCs help in providingfor additional data rates.• Quality and Erasure indicator bits (QIB and EIB) on the reversepower control sub channel. These help in indicating to the BS aboutbad frames or lost frames received at the mobile station, so that theycan be retransmitted• Code channels are transmitted at full data rates during a data burst• Convolutional and Turbo coding techniques used• Modulation technique used is QPSK
    146. 146. CDMA 2000 3X• Offering data speeds up to 2 Mbps• Using three standard 1.25 MHz channels within a 5 MHz band• Leveraging deployment experiences, and manufacturers’ learningcurves of today’s widely adopted, commercially available CDMA systems• Using Convolutional and Turbo coding techniques• Using QPSK as the Modulation technique
    147. 147. 1X EV-DO• Supporting data rates of up to 2.4 Mbps• Having no backward-compatibility with CDMA 2000• Including two inter-operable modes: an integrated 1x mode optimizedfor voice and medium data speeds, and a 1xEV mode optimized fornon real-time high capacity/high speed data and Internet access• Providing Adaptive Rate Operation with respect to channel conditions• Providing Adaptive modulation and coding• Providing Macro diversity via radio selection• Providing an always-on operation of 1xEV-DO terminals in the activestate• Using a multi-level modulation format (QPSK, 8-PSK, 16-QAM)
    148. 148. 1xEV-DV• Backward compatible with CDMA 2000.• EV-DV can be easily extended to operate in 3x mode under the framework of current system.• Forward peak data rate : 3.072 Mbps.• Reverse peak data rate: 451.2 kbps.• Addition of three new channels to f/w link and reverse link for packet data operation and its support.• Adaptive modulation and coding : QPSK, 8- PSK, 16-QAM• Variable frame duration• Mobile station can select one of N base stations.• DTX transmission supported for saving battery life.
    149. 149. 3G: Technology Summary Technology Convergence on Wideband-CDMA WCDMA  Successor to CDMA, 4 core standards – 1xRTT, 1x EV-DO, 1x EV- DV, 3xRTT  1xRTT provides 2x voice capacity increase over CDMA and a peak data rate of 144kbps  EV-DO Rev A provide peak data rates of 3.1 downlink / 1.8 uplink (800kbps typical) UMTS (Universal Mobile Telephone System)  Successor to GSM, based on W-CDMA  Peak data rates of up to 1920kbps (384kbps typical)  HSDPA peak data rate of up to 14.4Mbps
    150. 150. Global Subscriber Counts2.5 Bn GSM2 Bn1.5 Bn W-CDMA1 Bn0.5 Bn CDMA 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
    151. 151. The future of cellular radio: G3?• Market increases quickly over the years worldwide, often beyond projection.• Cost continues to drop: $.45/minute in the early 90s to 9.4 cents in 2000.• G3 proposals are under consideration – Calls for data rate from 144 kbps (fast moving) to 384 kbps (pedestrian). – Supports global roaming
    152. 152. 3. 5 G (HSPA) 162
    153. 153. 3.5G (HSPA)High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is an amalgamationof two mobile telephony protocols, High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA),that extends and improves the performance of existingWCDMA protocols
    154. 154. 3.5G features3.5G introduces many new features that will enhance the UMTS technology in future. 1xEV-DV already supports most of the features that will be provided in 3.5G. These include: - Adaptive Modulation and Coding - Fast Scheduling - Backward compatibility with 3G - Enhanced Air Interface
    155. 155. HSDPA EVOLUTION
    156. 156. 3.5G (HSDPA)High Speed Downlink Packet Access
    157. 157. Why HSDPA?Comparison Between 3G & 3.5G.  Data Rate ( 2Mbps -----> 10 Mbps)  Modulation ( QPSK -----> QPSK&16QAM)  TTI( 10ms ----> 2ms ) Reducing delay ” T T I ”. HSDPA Features Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request Fast cell site selection Adaptive Modulation and Coding
    158. 158. 3.5G3.5G or HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access) is anenhanced version and the next intermediate generation of 3GUMTS. It comprises the technologies that improve the Air Interfaceand increase the spectral efficiency, to support data rates of theorder of 30 Mbps. 3.5G introduces many new features that willenhance the UMTS technology in future. 1xEV-DV alreadysupports most of the features that will be provided in 3.5G. Theseinclude:• Adaptive Modulation and Coding• Fast Scheduling• Backward compatibility with 3G• Enhanced Air interface
    159. 159. CDMA2000 evolution to 3G IS-95B CDMA2000 1xEV-DO: Evolved Data Optimised Uses multiple code channels Third phase in CDMA2000 evolution Data rates up to 64kbps Standardised version of Qualcomm High Data Rate (HDR) Many operators gone direct to 1xRTT Adds TDMA components beneath code components Good for highly asymmetric high speed data apps IS-95B Speeds to 2Mbps +, classed as a “3G” system Use new or existing spectrum CDMA IS-95A CDMA2000 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DV 3xRTTIS-95A14.4 kbps 1xRTT CDMA2000 1x Evolved DVCore network CDMA2000 1xRTT: single carrier Fourth phase in CDMA2000 evolutionre-used in RTT Still under developmentCDMA2000 First phase in CDMA2000 evolution Speeds to 5Mbps+ (more than 3xRTT!) Easy co-existence with IS-95A air interface Possible end game. Release 0 - max 144 kbps Release A – max 384 kbps Same core network as IS-95
    160. 160. What next after 3G?• The future path has fractured 3G & 3G & 4G & WLAN & WLAN & WLAN & into a number of possibilities Brdcst Ad-hoc Brdcst 2.5G &• Operators and vendors must WLAN create viable strategies to 3G+ & 4G & 3G+ & prosper within this complexity 3G & WLAN WLAN & WLAN & WLAN Ad-hoc Ad-hoc GPRS/ 4G & EDGE 3G+ WLAN (2.5G)GSM W-CDMA 4G(2G) (3G)1990 2000 2010
    161. 161. 3.9G 172
    162. 162. Long-Term Evolution LTE (3.9G) andLTE-Advanced (4G)
    163. 163. After comparison the LTE-Advanced (4G) is better than LTE (3.9G) in some specifications such as:• LTE-Advanced 4G have Data rates up to 1Gbps in stationary scenarios, Coverage enhancements for high• frequency bands, LTE-Advanced will be a smooth evolution of LTE, Numerology and access technologies will be the same, Bandwidth up to 100MHz supported, Contiguous and non- contiguous carrier aggregation,• New technologies are being proposed, Enhanced MIMO, cooperative transmission, relaying etc.• LTE-Advanced is a very flexible and advanced system, further enhancements to exploit spectrum availability and advanced multi-antenna techniques.
    164. 164. LTE/WIMAX Overview
    165. 165. Two Key technologies are evolving to meet the Wireless Broadband Requirements 4G Air Interfaces Wide Area 1x HRPDA Mobile CDMA EVDO 3GPP2 2000-1X 1x EVDV 1x EVDV MOBILE Rel. C Rel. D BROADBAND GSM GPRS EDGE UMTS HSPA LTE 3GPPCoverage/Mobility 802.16e (Mobile WIMAX) Metro Area Mobile Industry Nomadic 802.16a/d (Fixed NLOS) 802.11n Fixed Wireless Industry (smart antennas) 802.11 Local Area 802.16 Mesh extns. Fixed (Fixed LOS) Dial Up DSL Experience 802.11b/a/g Data Rates (kbps) 100,000 + Higher Data Rate / Lower Cost per Bit
    166. 166. 4G (LTE)• LTE stands for Long Term Evolution• Next Generation mobile broadband technology• Promises data transfer rates of 100 Mbps• Based on UMTS 3G technology• Optimized for All-IP traffic
    167. 167. 4GWhy 4G? 179
    168. 168. 4G: Anytime, Anywhere Connection• Also known as ‘Mobile Broadband everywhere’• ‘MAGIC’ – Mobile Multimedia Communication – Anywhere, Anytime with Anyone – Global Mobility Support – Integrated Wireless Solution – Customized Personal Service• According to 4G Mobile Forum, by 2008 over $400 billion would be invested in 4G mobile projects.• In India, communication Minister Mr. Dayanidhi Maran, has announced a national centre of excellence to work in 4G arena.
    169. 169. 4G 4G—The fourth generation cell phone is being championed in Japan. It will boost the data rates to 20 Mbps. These speeds enable high quality video transmission and rapid download of large music files. The first 4G phones appeared in 2006.
    170. 170. 4G: Data rate Facts Transmission at 20 Mbps 2000 times faster than mobile data rates 10 times faster than top transmission rates planned in final build out of 3G broadband mobile 10-20 times faster than standard ADSL services. Companies developing 4G technology  Cellular phone companies: Alcatel, Nortel, Motorola,  IT Companies: Hughes,HP,LG Electronics
    171. 171. …and Beyond Technology Convergence on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) HSOPA  Improved bandwidth, latency over UMTS/HSxPA  Radio technology based on MIMO-OFDM, peak data rates of up to 70Mbps  Network simplification
    172. 172. Operator Objectives Voice+  Mobile Operators Growth to Wireless  Subscriber growth  Wireless Data / 3G  Wireline Substitution  Fixed Operators  Broadband Line Growth  Revenue Protection  Cable, Satellite, ISP  Network Leverage Data+ Growth to  New Markets Broadband  Video Play Network Goals are Similar Differentiation on Access & Business goals
    173. 173. Evolution of Cellular Networks 1G 2G 2.5G 3G 4G
    174. 174. Advantages of LTE
    175. 175. 3G/HSDPA vs. WIMAX/LTE Network Architecture Traditional Cellular Architecture Carrier Access Point (CAP) Architecture Internet PSTN Internet PSTN GGSN Media Gateway Data VoIP Gateway Gateway or IMS or IMS SGSN MSS Operator’s IP Network Base Station Controllers CAP Base Stations Access Points Controller Any off-the-shelf = IP network with = Lower Cost! Mobile IP support
    176. 176. “By 2012, 18 million laptops will have WIMAXbuilt-in” - Intel vehicles MP3 player CHANGING THE WAY WE: pdas indoor CPE outdoor CPE Video cameras set top boxes handsets laptops digital camerasWIMAX technology will in mostconsumer devices televisions Gaming consoles
    177. 177. Comparison of LTE Speed
    178. 178. LTE Architecture
    179. 179. Higher frequency selectivity Severer power limited conditionUnder these conditions, system should be optimizedwith considering the trade-off between cell throughput and cell coverage
    180. 180. Example 1: Self-deployment of eNodeBs • More autonomous deployment becomes obviously more interesting – Without planning of radio parameters – Also useful study item for home NodeB deployment • Start with minimal coverage and gradually increase cell size • Radio scanning to find unused resources • Negotiation with neighbor cells about spectrum resource usage
    181. 181. Example 2: Self Neighbor Scanning HeNB• Operator will have many thousands/millions of home eNB. – Human operation based configuration of each hEB is not economical.• Home eNB frequently scan – All neighbors of own or other PLMN ID • heNB capable of scanning neighboring macro cells/frequencies – All neighbors of other RAT • heNB capable of scanning neighboring UMTS/WIMAX cells – Scan results are sent to the central server
    182. 182. Home eNB frequently scan…
    183. 183. Example 3: Self Coordinating Interference Management• To coordinate scheduling in interfering cells, – Alt1: Semi-static restrictions for users close to cell borders • Self coordination between cells set by rules • Agreed in Release 8 as HII – Alt2: Short time-scale coordination • Very high speed of coordination for re-optimization based on load in different cells
    184. 184. Self Coordinating Interference Management
    185. 185. Example 4: HO Parameterization Optimization• Handover parameter optimization triggered by “performance problems”• Optimization of individual neighbor-to- neighbor parameters – E.g. HO hysterisis control• Slow optimization loop – Cautiously change parameter to avoid user perceivable degradation – Evaluate results through performance monitoring
    186. 186. HO hysterisis control
    187. 187. Example 5: UE Measured Performance Reporting
    188. 188. Example 6: Common Channel Self Optimization
    189. 189. RACH, PCH, BCH Power optimizations• Instead of drive tests: slow optimization based on UE reports – received signal strength, channel quality, neighbor signal strength – Ideally also location of UE• Cautious adjustment of power in one cell, monitoring of effects – search optimal settings, e.g. gradient descent
    190. 190. Example 7: Reduction of Energy Consumption by RAN
    191. 191. Reduction of Energy Consumption by RAN• Partial or complete eNB power down during low load, e.g. at night• Stored profiles used to reconfigure radio parameters for the new topology• Wake up based on timers or external triggers
    192. 192. Advantages in Femto cell deployment in a Radio Aspect
    193. 193. interference scenarios
    194. 194. LTE vs UMTS• Functional changes compared to the current UMTS architecture
    195. 195. NGN Context Evolved hardware technologies + Improved network bandwidth = Entertainment apps on mobile 208
    196. 196. When you are NOT mobile, you use 209
    197. 197. When you are mobile, you use 210
    198. 198. Millions of passengers per day! 211
    199. 199. Market promoters worlds 25th-largest consumer electronics producerand sixth-largest television producer (after Samsung, LG, Sony, Panasonic and Sharp). January 16- 2010 China Star Optoelectronics Technology (CSOT)’s 8.5-generation LCD panel project was officially launched 2005 The sales volume of TCL color TV sets ranked first place in the world.
    200. 200. also Refer ….1. Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, and Johan Skold, 4G LTE/LTE-Advanced for Mobile Broadband, Elsevier Ltd., 2011, pp.11-12,379-380.2. Christian Mehlfuhrer, Martin Wrulich, Josep Colom Ikuno, Dagmar Bosanska, Markus Rupp, SIMULATING THE LONG TERM EVOLUTION PHYSICAL LAYER, 17th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 2009) Glasgow, Scotland, August 24-28, 2009,pp.1.3. FAROOQ KHAN, LTE for 4G Mobile Broadband Air Interface Technologies and Performance, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009, pp.3.