1
6σ/ 6Σ -

and its application to software development

S.MUTHUKUMAR

AJAL. A. J

AP – CSE ; UEC

EPGP – IIM KOZHIKODE
JIT

6σ

TEI
Kaizen

SPC

Quality
Assurance
ProblemSolving tools

Customer
Satisfaction
Taguchi Methods

4
COPQ (Cost of Poor Quality)
- Inspection
- Warranty
- Scrap
- Rework
- Rejects

- More Setups
- Expediting Costs
- Lost Sa...
What are the forms of waste?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Waste of Correction
Waste of Overproduction
Waste of processing
Waste o...
Six Sigma - Three Dimensions
Customer

Define

Measur
e

Analyze

Improve

Process A

Process B

Vendor

Control

Driven b...
On target, minimum process variation
A Problem Statement should be SMART:






Specific - It does not solve world hunger
Measurable - It has a way to mea...
Booming Software/IT Industry

10
Process
Definition &
Standards

Formal
Technical
Reviews

Analysis
&
Reporting
Measurement

Test
Planning
& Review

Six Si...




Software safety is a software quality assurance
activity that focuses on the identification and
assessment of potent...
changes in
business requirements
changes in
technical requirements
changes in
user requirements

other
documents

software...
programs

The pieces

documents

data
Levels of Software Process Maturity

Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)
15


Software generally has low product volume
compared with manufactured products
 But

what if we measure units, tests, o...
Eight Wastes of Software Developme
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Partially Done Work
Extra Processes
Extra Features
Task Switch...
18
Six Sigma Improvement Methods

DMAIC vs. DMADV
Define
Measure
Analyze
Continuous Improvement

Reengineering

Improve

Desi...
Tools for DMAIC
Define

What is wrong?

Benchmark
Baseline
 Contract / Charter
 Kano Model
 Voice of the
Customer
 Qua...
Improve – Potential Solutions
How can we address the root causes we identified?
Address the causes, not the symptoms.

Ev...
Typical Ishikawa Diagram (Fishbone)
Region :
Product :
Number of processes :
Process :
FTE :

S

. UPPLIERS

1. Org 1
2. Org 2
3. Org 3
4. Org 4.

23

Critica...
Process Map
Process Name:
St
ep

W
ho

1

Analysing the
requirements

2

Design and
development

3

Coding

4
5

Promotion...
Process Map Analysis
1

Process Step

2

3

4

Discussing
with
Specification
the
building
customer
about
Complete
the
Desi...
“The Speed of the Leader
Determines the Rate of the Pack.”
 Focus on customers.
 Improved customer loyalty.
 Reduced cycle time.
 Less waste.

 How Six Sigma can be Beneficial ...
 Effective Supply chain management
 Knowledge of Competition & Competitors.
 Develop Leadership skill.
 Breakdown barr...
References
1
2

GE website http://www.ge.com (accessed on 20/Jan/2014)

3

Harry, M., and Crawford. D. (2005), “Six Sigma ...
Contact information

AJAL JOSE AKKARA
EPGP, IIM - KOZHIKODE
ec2reach@gmail.com
0487-2350675 - Res
890-730-5642 - cell
The Six Sigma Toolbox
 Standard Deviation
 Cause & Effect
 Ishikawa Diagram
 SIPOC
 Pareto Diagram
 80/20 Rule
 Var...
Six sigma ajal
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  • Six sigma ajal

    1. 1. 1
    2. 2. 6σ/ 6Σ - and its application to software development S.MUTHUKUMAR AJAL. A. J AP – CSE ; UEC EPGP – IIM KOZHIKODE
    3. 3. JIT 6σ TEI Kaizen SPC Quality Assurance ProblemSolving tools Customer Satisfaction Taguchi Methods 4
    4. 4. COPQ (Cost of Poor Quality) - Inspection - Warranty - Scrap - Rework - Rejects - More Setups - Expediting Costs - Lost Sales - Late Delivery - Lost Customer Loyalty - Excess Inventory - Long Cycle Times - Costly Engineering Changes Traditional Quality Costs: - Tangible - Easy to Measure Lost Opportunities The Hidden Factory Hidden Costs: - Intangible - Difficult to Measure
    5. 5. What are the forms of waste? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Waste of Correction Waste of Overproduction Waste of processing Waste of conveyance (or transport) Waste of inventory Waste of motion Waste of waiting Waste – absorb resources but creates no value. First step towards waste reduction is waste identification. Majority of six sigma projects focus on one or more of these areas.
    6. 6. Six Sigma - Three Dimensions Customer Define Measur e Analyze Improve Process A Process B Vendor Control Driven by customer needs Process Map Analysis LSL Led by Senior Mgmt Methodology Organization Tools US L • • •••• ••••••••••• • •••••• • ••••• • Regression Upper/Lower specification limits 35 100% 30 25 80% 60% 20 15 Enabled by quality team. Process variation 40% 10 5 20% 0 0% L K A Frequency F B C G R D Cumulative Frequency Pareto Chart 7
    7. 7. On target, minimum process variation
    8. 8. A Problem Statement should be SMART:      Specific - It does not solve world hunger Measurable - It has a way to measure success Achievable - It is possible to be successful Relevant - It has an impact that can be quantified Timely - It is near term not off in the future
    9. 9. Booming Software/IT Industry 10
    10. 10. Process Definition & Standards Formal Technical Reviews Analysis & Reporting Measurement Test Planning & Review Six Sigma is a disciplined, data-driven approach and a methodology for eliminating defects in any process -- from manufacturing to transactional and from product to service
    11. 11.   Software safety is a software quality assurance activity that focuses on the identification and assessment of potential hazards that may affect software negatively and cause an entire system to fail. If hazards can be identified early in the software process, software design features can be specified that will either eliminate or control potential hazards. 12
    12. 12. changes in business requirements changes in technical requirements changes in user requirements other documents software models Project Plan data Test code
    13. 13. programs The pieces documents data
    14. 14. Levels of Software Process Maturity Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) 15
    15. 15.  Software generally has low product volume compared with manufactured products  But what if we measure units, tests, objects, screens, functions, etc?  Software development process has very high variance  Does it need to?  Is that necessarily bad? 16
    16. 16. Eight Wastes of Software Developme 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Partially Done Work Extra Processes Extra Features Task Switching Time Waiting Motion Defects Underutilization of Employees Quality Cost Note: Seven Wastes of SD defined by Mary Poppendieck
    17. 17. 18
    18. 18. Six Sigma Improvement Methods DMAIC vs. DMADV Define Measure Analyze Continuous Improvement Reengineering Improve Design Control Validate
    19. 19. Tools for DMAIC Define What is wrong? Benchmark Baseline  Contract / Charter  Kano Model  Voice of the Customer  Quality Function Deployment  Process Flow Map  Project Management  “Management by Fact” Measure Data & Process capability 7 Basic Tools Defect Metrics  Data Collection, Forms, Plan, Logistics  Sampling Techniques     Improve Analyze How to get to six sigma When and where are the defects Cause & Effect Diagrams  Failure Models &  Effect Analysis  Decision & Risk Analysis  Statistical Inference  Control Charts  Capability  Reliability Analysis  Root Cause Analysis Systems Thinking  Control Design of Experiments  Modelling  Tolerancing  Robust Design  Process Map  Ishikawa Diagram (Fishbone) Display key measures Statistical Controls Control Charts  Time Series Methods Non Statistical Controls  Procedure adherence  Performance Mgmt  Preventive activities  Poke yoke 
    20. 20. Improve – Potential Solutions How can we address the root causes we identified? Address the causes, not the symptoms. Evaluate Clarify Generate y = f (x1, x2, x3 . . . xn) Critical Xs Divergent | Convergent Decision
    21. 21. Typical Ishikawa Diagram (Fishbone)
    22. 22. Region : Product : Number of processes : Process : FTE : S . UPPLIERS 1. Org 1 2. Org 2 3. Org 3 4. Org 4. 23 Critical to Client Metric Critical SIPOC INPUTS *Interviews with the clients,Mails and Supporting docs by the client. •Requirement Specification. • The software with forms and the requirement specification. •The software, Requirement specifications, supporting documents and Technical documents. •Software with content,Client mails mentioning the competitors. •Software/ application, content/functions to be updated, re-Analysis reports. PROCESS OUTPUTS CUSTOMERS Start Analysing the requirements Design and development Completed softwares Coding Testing Promotion Notes Maintenance and updating Make any notes here: End Tip: First start with Outputs and Customers. Next set process boundaries and do the process map steps and then list inputs and suppliers 1. 2. 3. Org 5 Org 6 Org 7.
    23. 23. Process Map Process Name: St ep W ho 1 Analysing the requirements 2 Design and development 3 Coding 4 5 Promotion 6 24 Testing Maintenance and updating Elapsed Time 1st week 2nd week 3rd week 4th week 5th week 6th week 7th week
    24. 24. Process Map Analysis 1 Process Step 2 3 4 Discussing with Specification the building customer about Complete the Designing require- analysis ments (Inputs) Design Materials Moments of Truth (MOT): Any time a customer draws a critical judgement, positive or negative, about the service, based upon a service experience (or lack of it). Value-Added (VA): • Is the customer willing to pay for it? • Is it done right the first time? • Essential work that moves one step closer to the final product. Value-Add Enabler: step that is required to do VA 25 5 6 Developing 7 Total % Total % Steps Writing the Codes (by technical writer) Understanding the design (by programmer) Production Process (Outputs) Products Non-Value Add (NVA): Steps considered non-essential to produce and deliver the product or service to meet the customer’s requirements. The customer is NOT willing to pay for the step.
    25. 25. “The Speed of the Leader Determines the Rate of the Pack.”
    26. 26.  Focus on customers.  Improved customer loyalty.  Reduced cycle time.  Less waste.  How Six Sigma can be Beneficial for You?  Data based decisions.  Time management  Sustained gains and improvements.  Systematic problem solving.  Employee motivation  Data analysis before decision making.  Faster to market.  Team building.  Improved customer relations.  Assure strategy planning.
    27. 27.  Effective Supply chain management  Knowledge of Competition & Competitors.  Develop Leadership skill.  Breakdown barriers between departments and functions.  Management training.  Improve presentation skills.  Integration of products ,services and distribution.  Use of standard operating procedures.  Better decision making.  Improving Projects Planning kills.
    28. 28. References 1 2 GE website http://www.ge.com (accessed on 20/Jan/2014) 3 Harry, M., and Crawford. D. (2005), “Six Sigma – The next generation”, Machine Design, February Issue, pp. 126-132 4 Lucas, J.M. (2002), “The essential Six-Sigma”, Quality Progress, January, pp. 27-31 5 Motorola website http://www.motorola.com (accessed on 20/Jan/2014) 6 Snee, R. D. and Hoerl, R.W. (2003), Leading Six Sigma: A Step by Step Guide Based on Experience at GE and Other Six Sigma Companies, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey 7 29 Dedhia, N.S. (2005), “Six Sigma Basics”, Total Quality Management, Vol.16, No.5, pp. 567-574 Thawani, S. (2004), “Six Sigma – Strategy for organizational excellence”, Total Quality Management, Vol.15 No.5-6, pp. 655-664
    29. 29. Contact information AJAL JOSE AKKARA EPGP, IIM - KOZHIKODE ec2reach@gmail.com 0487-2350675 - Res 890-730-5642 - cell
    30. 30. The Six Sigma Toolbox  Standard Deviation  Cause & Effect  Ishikawa Diagram  SIPOC  Pareto Diagram  80/20 Rule  Variance Analysis  Control Chart  Process Mapping  Kano Charting  Failure Mode Effect Analysis

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