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Six cigma AJAL

Six cigma AJAL







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  • 8/18/2001 CSE8314
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Six cigma AJAL Six cigma AJAL Presentation Transcript

  • 2  Rapidly growing GDP of 7.5%-8%  Services sector has more than 50% weightage in GDP  Structural drivers for growth  Large population and favorable demographic trends  Skilled and well-educated labor force  Rising integration into global trade and investment  Improving macro policies and institutional framework  Various studies predict that India will become the 3rd largest economy in the world by 2050  But there are challenges  Need for simplification of rules and regulations  Infrastructure A brief look at the Indian Economy Put the Right Information in the right Place. RIP it!
  • 3  Rapidly growing exports  1991 – US $128 million  2005 – US $17.2 billion  2008 (projected)- US$ 50 billion  Employs over 1,100,000 people  Over 400 Fortune 500 companies outsource their software development & maintenance to India Snapshot of the Indian Software Industry (Source: NASSCOM) Applying Six Sigma to software development makes product development and other projects transparent to both management and customers. Transparency requires an important cultural change. As a result, after transparency is achieved, completing accurate project estimations while meeting both deadlines and customer requirements becomes a lot easier.
  • 4 Liberalization of the economy & the seeds of IT boom in India  Abolition of licenses  Rationalization of taxes  Export thrust  Reduction of import tariffs  Abolition of wealth tax  Foreign exchange reforms Systems Design and Development 1. Bottom-up 2. Top-down 3. Modular X’s Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Y’s INPUTINPUT PROCESSPROCESS OUTPUTOUTPUT
  • 5 The Six Sigma Evolutionary Timeline 1736: French mathematician Abraham de Moivre publishes an article introducing the normal curve. 1896: Italian sociologist Vilfredo Alfredo Pareto introduces the 80/20 rule and the Pareto distribution in Cours d’Economie Politique. 1924: Walter A. Shewhart introduces the control chart and the distinction of special vs. common cause variation as contributors to process problems. 1941: Alex Osborn, head of BBDO Advertising, fathers a widely-adopted set of rules for “brainstorming”. 1949: U. S. DOD issues Military Procedure MIL-P-1629, Procedures for Performing a Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis. 1960: Kaoru Ishikawa introduces his now famous cause-and-effect diagram. 1818: Gauss uses the normal curve to explore the mathematics of error analysis for measurement, probability analysis, and hypothesis testing. 1970s: Dr. Noriaki Kano introduces his two-dimensional quality model and the three types of quality. 1986: Bill Smith, a senior engineer and scientist introduces the concept of Six Sigma at Motorola 1994: Larry Bossidy launches Six Sigma at Allied Signal. 1995: Jack Welch launches Six Sigma at GE.
  • 6 Time Line 1985 1987 1992 1995 2002 Dr Mikel J Harry wrote a paper relating early failures to Quality. MOTOROLA Allied Signal General Electric Johnson & Johnson, Ford, Nissan, Honeywell “[Six Sigma] is the most important training thing we have ever had. It’s better than going to Harvard Business School.” J.F. Welch
  • 7 Pilot's Six Sigma Performance Width of Landing Strip 1/2 Width of Landing strip If pilot always lands within 1/2 the landing strip width, we say that he has Six Sigma capacity. Six sigma will be able to help in dealing with all these challenges to
  • 8 The Quality Chain Project and IT development processes support the project’s products Customers may be internal or external More efficient & effective use of resources Minimize errors Meet or exceed stakeholder expectations More rework, waste, & errors Negative impact on project goal & objectives Poor quality can be an embarrassment!
  • 9 New Outsourcing Fever Booming Software/IT IndustryBooming Software/IT Industry
  • 10 Software Safety ♦ Software safety is a software quality assurance activity that focuses on the identification and assessment of potential hazards that may affect software negatively and cause an entire system to fail. ♦ If hazards can be identified early in the software process, software design features can be specified that will either eliminate or control potential hazards.
  • 11
  • 12 Problems with Software and Sigma ♦Software generally has low product volume compared with manufactured products –But what if we measure units, tests, objects, screens, functions, etc? ♦Software development process has very high variance –Does it need to? –Is that necessarily bad?
  • 13 What Are These Changes? datadata otherother documentsdocuments codecode TestTest ProjectProject PlanPlan changes inchanges in technical requirementstechnical requirements changes inchanges in business requirementsbusiness requirements changes inchanges in user requirementsuser requirements software modelssoftware models
  • 14 Software Quality Assurance Formal Technical Reviews Test Planning & Review Measurement Analysis & Reporting Process Definition & Standards
  • 15 The Software Configuration programsprograms documentsdocuments datadataThe piecesThe pieces
  • 16 Software Process Overview ♦ cross platform building ♦ Dashboards – continuous testing ♦ Mailing List – Developer communication ♦ Stored developer communication ♦ keep track of bugs and feature requests
  • 17 The IT Project Quality Plan
  • 18 Eight Wastes of Software Development ♦ Partially Done Work ♦ Extra Processes ♦ Extra Features ♦ Task Switching ♦ Waiting ♦ Motion ♦ Defects ♦ Underutilization of Employees Note: Seven Wastes of SD defined by Mary Poppendieck
  • 19 Monitor and Control Quality Control Activities Quality Control Activities should focus on the inputs and outputs of each process. This can be viewed in terms of the systems concept.
  • 20 Quality Control Tools
  • 21 Effect Measurement Methods People unable employee Untrained employee Lack of training Inefficient trainer Mistakes in estimating Severity problems Narrative data Problem in the method of data analysis The method is not suitable with the data category The method is not working with the system perfectly Lack of knowledge about the system Lack of knowledge about the method
  • 22 Notes Make any notes here: . Tip: First start with Outputs and Customers. Next set process boundaries and do the process map steps and then list inputs and suppliers Start End Design and development Coding Testing Analysing the requirements Promotion Maintenance and updating SIPOC INPUTSSUPPLIERS PROCESS OUTPUTS CUSTOMERS Critical to Client MetricCritical to Client MetricRegion : Product : Number of processes : Process : FTE : 1. Org 1 2. Org 2 3. Org 3 4. Org 4. *Interviews with the clients,Mails and Supporting docs by the client. •Requirement Specification. • The software with forms and the requirement specification. •The software, Requirement specifications, supporting documents and Technical documents. •Software with content,Client mails mentioning the competitors. •Software/ application, content/functions to be updated, re-Analysis reports. Completed softwares 1. Org 5 2. Org 6 3. Org 7.
  • 23 Why the necessity of any Quality Management System ? ♦ To get high Customer satisfaction index ♦ To maintain Competitive lead ♦ To adopt best quality practices ♦ Win global outsourcing contracts Process reengineering goes a step further than quality assurance:
  • 24 Process Name: W ho Step Elapsed Time As-Is Process Map Analysing the requirements 1st week 2nd week 3rd week 4th week 5th week 6th week 7th week 1 2 Design and development 3 Coding 4 Testing 5 Promotion 6 Maintenance and updating
  • 25 Moments of Truth (MOT): Any time a customer draws a critical judgement, positive or negative, about the service, based upon a service experience (or lack of it). Value-Added (VA): • Is the customer willing to pay for it? • Is it done right the first time? • Essential work that moves one step closer to the final product. Value-Add Enabler: step that is required to do VA Non-Value Add (NVA): Steps considered non-essential to produce and deliver the product or service to meet the customer’s requirements. The customer is NOT willing to pay for the step. “As-Is” Process Map Analysis 1 2 3 5 6 74 % TotalTotal % Steps Process Step Discussing with the customer about the require- ments Complete analysis Specification building Designing Developing Understanding the design (by programmer) Writing the Codes (by technical writer) Design Materials Production Process (Outputs)(Inputs) Products
  • 26 “As-Is” Process Map Analysis 8 9 10 12 13 14 1511 % TotalTotal % Steps Process Step Intensive testing Complete testing Making an advertising campaign Making an Attractive website as to show models of software Providing maintenance Frequent updating Reanalysis reports Refreshing the website with the new updates Development ProcessArchitecture Requirements (Outputs)(Inputs) Software Applying to Software
  • 27 Moments of Truth (MOT): Any time a customer draws a critical judgement, positive or negative, about the service, based upon a service experience (or lack of it). Value-Added (VA): • Is the customer willing to pay for it? • Is it done right the first time? • Essential work that moves one step closer to the final product. Value-Add Enabler: step that is required to do VA Avg. Time (Mins) Value-Added Nonvalue-Added – Failure Int. / Ext. – Control/Inspection – Delay – Prep/Set-Up – Move Total 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Total % Total % Steps
  • 28 Business Process Reengineering “Reengineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance such as cost, quality, service and speed * * Hammer., Champy.J., (1993), Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution., Harper Collins, London $ Cost of Poor Quality Process reengineering goes a step further than quality assurance:
  • 29 Levels of Software Process Maturity Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)
  • 30 Change Cont rol STOPSTOP
  • 31 The BATON Solution Vantage Service Manager IT modeling, monitoring, visualization and data integration from Business Perspective Proven Methodology and simplified data analysis leveraging structured methodology and extensive intellectual property Metrics Driven Operational Improvements
  • 33 Body of Knowledge Certification Self Assessment Roles & Career Development Curriculum
  • 34 Questions
  • 35 Thank You !
  • 36 Back up
  • 37 To achieve six sigma: 6 Sigma -> 3.4 defects per million 5 Sigma -> 230 defects per million. 4 Sigma -> 6210 defects per million. ♦ In 1980’s, Motorola coined “six-sigma” to describe their higher quality efforts
  • 38 Examples of the Sigma Scale In a world at 3 sigma. . . ♦ There are 964 U.S. flight cancellations per day. ♦ The police make 7 false arrests every 4 minutes. ♦ In MA, 5,390 newborns are dropped each year. ♦ In one hour, 47,283 international long distance calls are accidentally disconnected. In a world at 6 sigma. . . ♦ 1 U.S. flight is cancelled every 3 weeks. ♦ There are fewer than 4 false arrests per month. ♦ 1 newborn is dropped every 4 years in MA. ♦ It would take more than 2 years to see the same number of dropped international calls.
  • 39 Lean ♦ Originated in Toyota- Toyota Production System ♦ Is not just about business process review but a methodology for changing organisational culture based on ‘systems thinking’. ♦ Continuous improvement ,Respect for people ♦ Processes designed around what the customer wants ♦ Identifies waste in a process, efficiency gains come from eliminating waste. ♦ Software development methodology ♦ Customer satisfaction by rapid, continuous delivery of useful software ♦ Working software is delivered frequently (weeks rather than months) ♦ Working software is the principal measure of progress ♦ Even late changes in requirements are welcomed Agile Six Sigma ♦ Originated in Motorol ♦ A six-sigma process is one in which 99.99966% of the products manufactured are statistically expected to be free of defects
  • 4040 TAKING OF THE BLINDERS… “In strategy it is important to see distant things as if they were close and to take a distanced view of close things” Miyamoto Musashi The Book of Five Rings
  • 4141 MURPHY’S LAW:MURPHY’S LAW: What can go wrong, will go wrong. The possibility of something going wrong is much greater than its going right. One can act upon a problem, however small it is, only when the problem is first accepted. Action presupposes a decision, a will, and the will can exists, only when there is recognition. KARMA:KARMA: “Everything will be all right if my karma is good”. Karma does not work that way, the theory of karma is not fatalism. It does not justify passing the buck. It pins down the responsibility upon us. so accept problem as it occurs.
  • 4242 “What ever a leader does, other people do. The very thing. What ever the upholds as authority, an ordinary person follows that”. - BHAGAVATGITA. KRISHNA TO ARUGUNA:KRISHNA TO ARUGUNA: If you runaway from this battle field, all others will also follow you. If you fail to do what is to be done, others will also do exactly that, because you are leader, whether you like it or not. - Set our Example.
  • 43 Data Driven Decision Y = f(x) • Y • Dependant • Output • Effect • Symptom • Monitor • X1…… Xn • Independent • Input-Process • Cause • Problem • Control
  • 44 GE Six Sigma Economics $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 1996 1998 2000 2002 6 Sigma Projest Success Cost Benefit (in millions) Source: 1998 GE Annual Report, Jack Welch Letter to Share Owner and Employees - progress based upon total corporation cost/ benefits attributable to Six Sigma.
  • 45 Two Processes DMAIC – Existing Process Define Measure Analyze Improve Control DMADV – New Processes – DFSS Define Measure Analyze Design Verify
  • 46 DMAIC
  • 47 Overview of Six Sigma CHANGE THE WORLD TRANSFORM THE ORGANIZATION GROWTH COSTS OUT PAIN, URGENCY, SURVIVAL Six Sigma a PHILOSOPHY Six Sigma as a Process Six Sigma as a Statistical Tool.
  • 48 6 Sigma Training Master Black BeltMaster Black Belt Mentor, Trainer, and Coach of Black Belts and other in the Organization Black BeltsBlack Belts Leader of teams implementing the Six Sigma Methodology on projects. Green BeltsGreen Belts Delivers successful focused projects using the Six Sigma Methodology on tools. Team Members/Team Members/ Yellow BeltsYellow Belts Participates on and supports the project teams, typically in the context of his or her existing responsibilities.