computer & input devices


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Hardware is anything in the computer you can touch.
Software are the instructions that make the computer do things.
In early days, software was closely tied to hardware. It could only run on machines of a specific hardware and was useless on other machines.

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computer & input devices

  1. 1. PC Hardware Basic Guide computer & input devices BY AJAL.A.J
  2. 2. Hardware and Software • Hardware is anything in the computer you can touch. • Software are the instructions that make the computer do things. • In early days, software was closely tied to hardware. It could only run on machines of a specific hardware and was useless on other machines.
  3. 3. structure • general things about computers • looking at computer hardware • bus • input devices – keyboard – mouse – other
  4. 4. Computers • An old distinction is the following – A Mainframe is a computer that are used by many people in an organization. They access it through terminals. – A personal computer is a machine that is used by only one person at a time. In olden days it could only do one thing at a time. • A PC is a special type of personal computer.
  5. 5. What is a PC • The PC was first brought out by IBM in 1981 – IBM published the design. – Processor chips supplied by Intel. – Software to run it was bought from Microsoft – Microsoft had the right to have other companies use the operating system. • A PC is any computer that basically follows this tradition. – Intel processor – Microsoft software
  6. 6. Basic parts of a PC • Display do not open • Input no need to open – Keyboard – Mouse etc • System Unit may be opened – Logic system – Display system – Storage system – Input output system – Communication system
  7. 7. Opening the system unit • Voltages used in the PC are 3 to 12 V • Be aware of static electricity, touch first unpainted part of case first • Keep power cable plugged in a grounded socket • Never open sealed part of the power supply
  8. 8. Logic system I • Motherboard – green plastic sheet – with traces and slots – usually complying to a standard called “plug and play” • Jumpers can set key features – Jumper wires stick out of the motherboard – Can be shortened with jumpers – Do not change unless you have to
  9. 9. The logic system II • CMOS or flash memory – Powered by battery – holds the Basic Input Output System (BIOS) • Central Processing Unit (CPU), recognizable through its fan • Cache memory for CPU • Main memory socket • The Bus (see later)
  10. 10. BIOS • Is the software that makes the components of the PC work together • When the computer boots it tells you how to “enter setup” • There you can make changes to the BIOS setting • The way that you do this is not standardized – It usually is a simple menu. – Be careful
  11. 11. Usual things to set in the BIOS • Set the hardware clock • Set processor speed setting • Tell the machine what disks you have • Power management options • Automatic wake up • Boot sequence setting
  12. 12. Topic 4 - CMOS Settings • CMOS BIOS ROM • Stores the basic system configuration. The four major components of BIOS are – POST – Bootstrap Loader – CMOS Setup – BIOS ROM
  13. 13. Topic 4 - CMOS Settings • CMOS Battery – Battery is used to power up the Real time Clock Chip. – This chip maintains the system date and time. • System Configuration – The BIOS should find an operating system on a hard disk or floppy disk drive to start the computer. • Starting the Setup Program – The settings made in the BIOS setup program are stored in the nonvolatile RAM of the CMOS chip.
  14. 14. Topic 4 - CMOS Settings • Step-by-Step CMOS/BIOS Configuration – From the CMOS setup menu, select the menu point to examine or change setting and choose Standard CMOS setup to begin.
  15. 15. Topic 4 - CMOS Settings – From the standard CMOS configuration screen you can set Date, Time, Hard drives connected to the IDE interface, Floppy disk drive types for drives
  16. 16. Topic 4 - CMOS Settings • Advanced CMOS Configuration – Here, you can perform the Number Lock setting, keyboard repeats speed, type of video, settings for cache memory, and other special features.
  17. 17. Topic 4 - CMOS Settings • Recommended Advanced CMOS Settings – Depending on the BIOS version, you have to press the ESC key, to return to the main menu
  18. 18. Topic 4 - CMOS Settings • Power Management Configuration – After a user defined period of inactivity of devices like the monitor, the hard drive, or the CPU will go into different low power modes. » Standby mode » Suspend mode
  19. 19. Topic 4 - CMOS Settings • Built-In Ports/Peripherals Setup – It can enable or disable ports which built in new systems.
  20. 20. Topic 4 - CMOS Settings • Security/Passwords – Two types of passwords are – One must be entered to allow any use of the system – Another one must be entered to allow access to the BIOS/ CMOS setup • Saving and Recording BIOS/CMOS Settings – BIOS allows you to save the changes and it will reject the changes that happen accidentally. – Record the critical BIOS settings
  21. 21. Topic 4 - CMOS Settings • BIOS Upgrades – Change the physical chip or to change its contents with software • Flash BIOS Upgrade – Install the BIOS upgrade loader and BIOS image to a floppy disk • Incorrect CMOS Configuration – Restart by using the BIOS Setup auto-configure options, double-check drive configurations, save changes, and
  22. 22. Topic 4 - CMOS Settings • Incorrect Flash BIOS or Failed Update – If the update can't be installed, the motherboard might have jumpers that write-protects the flash BIOS. • Clearing the BIOS Password – It can be cleared by using a CMOS jumper that is present in the motherboard.
  23. 23. Thank you for your attention!