in effect with
• A retail presence on the Web.
• The virtual store is an online store that provides a list
of merchandise and an order form.
• Although most product Web sites include a
telephone number, some sites provide
communications only via e-mail or fill-in forms that
must be submitted.
• In such cases, a response may not be immediate. A
live text chat, in which the customer interacts in real
time with a company representative, may also be
• Visual Merchandising: The physical display of
goods in the most attractive and appealing
• Store Layout: the interior arrangement of retail
• Selling areas: where merchandise is displayed and
customers interact with sales personnel. (75-80% of
the total space)
• Sales support areas: devoted to customer services,
merchandise receiving and distribution,
management offices and staff activities.
• Floor Plan: A drawing showing arrangement
of physical space, such as showing the
positioning of merchandise groups and
customer services for a retail store.
• Grid Layout: A retail floor plan that has one
of ore primary (main) aisles running through
the store, with secondary (smaller) aisles
intersecting with them at right angles.
• Maze Layout: A free-flowing retail floor plan
arrangement with informal balance.
• Fixtures: Shelves, tables, rods, counters,
stands, easels, forms, and platforms on
which merchandise is stocked and displayed
• Merchandise presentation includes the ways that goods
are hung, placed on shelves, or otherwise made available
for sale in retail stores.
• Shoulder-out presentation: The way most garments are hung
in home closets with only one side showing from shoulder to
• Face-forward presentation (face-out presentation): Hanging
of clothing with the front fully facing the viewer. This should
always be done at entrances and aisles.
• Carousels: Circular racks that turn.
• Dump tables/bins: A rimmed table or bin used to hold sale
or special merchandise on the sales floor, especially in
discount operations; it has no formal arrangement.
• Four-way rack: A fixture with four extended arms, that
permits accessibility to hanging merchandise all the way
• Rounders: Circular racks on which garments are hung
around the entire circumference
• T-stand: Freestanding, two-way stand in the shape of a T,
that holds clothes on hangers, sometimes with one
straight arm and one waterfall.
• Waterfall: A fixtures with an arm that slants downward,
that contains knobs to hole face-forward hangers with
clothing at various levels.
• Displays: individual and notable physical
presentation of merchandise.
• Displays are intended to:
• Stimulate product interest
• Provide information
• Suggest merchandise coordination
• Generate traffic flow
• Remind customers of planned purchases
• Create additional sales of impulse items
• Enhance the store’s visual image
• Locations for interior displays:
• Just in the entrance
• Entrance to department
• Near cash/wrap
• Next to related items
• Across from elevators and escalators
• Ends of aisles
• More interesting if in odd numbers
• One-category, or line-of-goods
• Related groupings: go together or reinforce each
• Theme groupings: event, holiday, etc.
• Variety or assortment groupings: collection of
unrelated items all sold at the same store.
• Used to direct customer’s attention to the
• Use more light for dark colors, less light for light
• Beamspread; the diameter of the circle of light
• Beamspread techniques:
• Floodlighting: recessed ceiling lights to direct light over an
entire wide display area
• Spotlighting: focuses attention on specific areas or
targeted items of merchandise
• Pinpointing: focuses a narrow beam of light on a specific
• Objects added that support the theme of the
• Functional Props: used to physically support the
merchandise. (mannequins, stands, panels,
• Decorative Props: used to establish a mood or an
attractive setting for the merchandise being
featured (ex: mirrors, flowers, seashells,
• Structural Props: used to support functional and
decorative props and change the physical makeup
of displays. (boxes, rods, stands, stairways, etc)
• Includes individual letters and complete signs.
Often on some kind of holder.
• Can tell a story about the goods.
• Should try to answer customers questions.
• Should be informative and concise.
• Can include prices, sizes, department
• Seen from outside of the store.
• First contact with the customer.
• Can have a series of windows.
• Advantages of Window Displays:
• Establish and maintain an image
• Arouse curiosity
• Disadvantages of Window Displays:
• Expensive to design and maintain
• Requires space
• Merchandise can get ruined (sun ,etc)
Types of Window Displays
• Enclosed windows: have a full background
and sides that completely separate the
interior of the store from the display
• Ramped windows: floor is higher in back than in
• Elevated windows: from 1 to 3 feet higher than
• Shadowbox windows: small, boxlike display
Types of Window Displays
• Semi-closed windows: have a partial
background that shuts out some of the store
interior from those viewing the window
• Open Windows: have no background panel
and the entire store is visible to people
• Island windows: four-sided display windows
that stand alone, often in lobbies.
What is Ambush Marketing?
• A promotion tactic designed to associate a
company, product, or service with a particular
event, or to attract the attention of people
attending the event, without payment being
made for an official sponsorship.
What is Ambush Marketing?
• Not a guerilla,viral or stealth.
• It is an aerial advertising.
• Well planned effort.
• Used commonly at worldwide sporting
• Trading of the good will be without
being an official sponsor.
• Also called “parasitic” marketing.
Two Ways of Ambush Marketing
• 1. Direct Ambush Marketing: In 1994 football
world cup, MasterCard received exclusive rights
for using world cup logo, but a rival Sprints
Communication used the logo without
permission. This is direct attack but can be
defended by laws.
• 2. Indirect Ambush Marketing: Several ways
indirect ambush marketing can take place like
sponsoring the broadcast of the
event, sponsoring subcategories of the major
• Sponsor the Broadcast of the Event
• Sponsor Subcategories within the Event
• Purchasing Advertising Time Around Relays of
the Competitor’s Event
• Engage in Major Non-sponsorship Promotions
• Pourage Agreements
• Corporate Hospitality and Ticketing
Reasons to Use
• Ambush marketing is used by companies to
intrude upon public consciousness
surrounding a sports property. Thus, ambush
marketers avoid the cost of paying expensive
sponsorship fees while gaining the benefits of
associating with a sports property at the
expense of the sponsor.
First Ambushing Example
• In 1984, Fuji Film won the sponsorship rights for the Los
Angeles Olympic Games. Kodak responsed to it by
“ambushing” Fuji with a well planned campaign.
• Fuji took revenge on Kodak, which won the sponsorship
rights for the 1988 games.
You won’t need a “VISA”
• Visa was the official sponsor of the Winter Olympics at
Lillehammer (Norway) in 1994 and aired TV commercials
were they claimed that American Express cards were not
accepted at the Olympic Villa. However, American Express
aired ads which stated that American travelers did not
need any visa to travel to Norway.
“The Spirit of Australia”
• At the 2000 Sydney Olympics ; Qantas
Airlines’ slogan "The Spirit of Australia"
sounds strikingly similar to the games’
slogan "Share the Spirit." Qantas claims it’s
just a coincidence.
• At the 2006 Football World Cup, Dutch
brewer, Bavaria, gave away garish orange
lederhosen displaying its name to
hundreds of Dutch supporters attending
the match against the Ivory Coast.
Budweiser was the official beer. Stewards
at the match ordered the fans to remove
the garments before letting them in.
Pringles Ambushing at Wimbledon
• At outside of Wimbledon All
England Club, almost 24.000 cans of
Pringles were distrubeted to
• The packaging, which was
similar to can of tennis
ball, allowed to make
• To reinforce the campaign,
similar models to well
known tennis players
Roger Federer and Bjorn
Borg are used.
Protecting from Ambushing
• The sponsor should focus on effectively exploiting
and leveraging its purchased association with the
• Sponsoring both the event and the broadcast of the
• There should be detailed sponsorships contracts
• There are special laws introduced for major events
and Olympic Games to protect main sponsors.
• Official sponsors can sometimes bring pressure to
bear on the event owners to introduce anti-ambush
The Ethical Issue
• Is it ethical for a company to ambush an event?
• Why do brands with excellent reputations get into this?
• Are they justified?
• The questions arises as to whether or not practices such as
ambush marketing is ethical, illegal or simply smart business
practice. In order to decide this, an examination has to be
undertaken of what are regarded as ethical marketing practices, in
addition to examining what comprises ambush marketing,
followed by a comparison of the two.
The Ethical Issue
• Typically, sports property owners and sponsors view the
practice as being unethical,immoral and sometimes illegal.
On the other hand, many companies unable to afford
sponsorship fees will regard the practices involved as a
legitimate form of defensive, competitive behaviour and
perhaps even deny that what they are doing is ambush
• The law as it now stands seems unable to accommodate
the concerns of official corporate sponsors. There is no
limit to human ingenuity. As such, ambush marketing at
the margins will arguably always occur (Curthoys &
• As sport has become a central element of an emerging
global culture, marketers have recognised sports
sponsorship as an international communication tool of
commerce with the capability of providing a vehicle for
firms to procure a sustainable competitive advantage.