Valuation of Enterprise Social Media


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  • Key to social media technologies is web 2.0 which is a characterised by the change of the web from one that is static to one that is more interactive.
  • the use of emergent social software platforms within companies, or between companies and their partners or customers is known as Enterprise 2.0
  • Because this has grown organically – organisations do not have a clear understanding of how the adoption of these tools will impact the organisation and nor a methodology for adopting these tools
  • Based on the Literature Review some social and technical integration challenges were identifiedRequire users to participate(Chui, Miller et al. 2009) Busy knowledge workers may not use the new technologies (McAfee 2006)Forrester survey states that 52 percent are inactive users, 33 percent are passive spectators and 13 percent are actual creators (Li 2007)
  • Built on the concepts of Organisational Semiotics, the research programme MEASUR (Methods for Eliciting,Analysis and Specifying Users’Requirements) (Stamper 1993) was developed to aid in modelling and requirements specification. MEASUR is based on the idea that an organisation is an Information System and that the social norm is considered the appropriate unit of specification. Although MEASUR can be used in the various stages of system development; infrastructure analysis, system analysis and system construction, this research will focus on infrastructure analysis. Infrastructure analysis combines business strategy analysis and information planning. The aim of infrastructure analysis is to understand the social, organisational, cultural, and technical aspects the business problem in its context. It is particular useful for analysing complex and unidentified business problems. It also aids in capturing semantics and user intentions. These techniques can also be used to implement technical information systems that are flexible and adaptable to the organisational change. When conducting an infrastructure analysis, the first step in MEASUR is to apply the semiotic framework, followed by Problem Articulation Methods (PAM). PAM is one of the five approaches of MEASUR, others are SAM and NAM, Communication and Control Analysis, and Meta-Systems Analysis. Aids in the analysis of environment and is now being used for software design over technology and user center design.
  • Built on the concepts of Organisational Semiotics, the research programme MEASUR (Methods for Eliciting,Analysis and Specifying Users’Requirements) (Stamper 1993) was ...
  • Built on the concepts of Organisational Semiotics, the research programme MEASUR (Methods for Eliciting,Analysis and Specifying Users’Requirements) (Stamper 1993) was ...
  • In order to investigate the values that stakeholders place on the use of social media within their organisation for business activity, I used an online questionnaire based on OS valuation framing through the ten cultural aspects that impact stakeholders. A stakeholder is defined as a person, group of people, or organisation who can be positively or negatively impacted by or cause an impact on the actions of a company.
  • Valuation of Enterprise Social Media

    1. 1. Valuation of Social Media Technologies for InternalBusiness Activities Aimee Jacobs, Keiichi Nakata Informatics Research Centre 28 February 2013 © University of Reading 2011
    2. 2. Outline• Introduction – Overview of Social Media – Social Media adoption in business• Theory/Methodology – Organisational Semiotics (OS)• Valuation Framing Analysis• Results & Observations• Summary
    3. 3. Introduction• Web 2.0 “a network as platform, spanning all connected devices” (OReilly 2007, p. 17) and “a more mature, distinctive medium characterised by user participation, openness and network effects.”(Musser, O’Reilly et al. 2006, p. 4)
    4. 4. IntroductionPeople are rapidly moving towards the use of “Social Media” 90 Percentage Online Global Population 80 1.4 70 9.9 9.9 2.7 5.4 10.3 2.6 2.9 60 4.9 Dec-08 50 Dec-07 12.5 9.6 40 78 65 63 67 64 64 30 61 59 55 20 39 41 10 0 A y UK Au ce d ain ly n l il Ge ia ba an US lan pa az It a an l ra Sp o rm Br Ja er Gl Fr st it z Sw Percentage of rise in population for Social Networking sites of Total Online population (Nielsen_Online, 2009)
    5. 5. Introduction Reach and Usage by Country during Apr 2010 (Home & Work) Social Networking / Blog Sites (Nielsen, 2010) % Reach of Active Time per Person Country Users (hh:mm:ss) Brazil 86% 05:03:37 Italy 78% 06:28:41 Spain 77% 05:11:44 Japan 75% 02:50:50 United States 74% 06:35:02 United Kingdom 74% 05:52:38 France 73% 04:10:27 Australia 72% 07:19:13 Germany 63% 04:13:05 Switzerland 59% 03:43:58
    6. 6. Social Media and Internal Business Activities Employees have used SM in their personal lives and have brought this concept to the workplace (Cook 2008) •Features – Participation – Collectivism – Creativity – Mass collaboration – Co-creation“Enterprise 2.0 is the use of emergent social softwareplatforms within companies, or between companies and theirpartners or customers” (McAfee 2006)
    7. 7. Stages of Growth Model 6.. ransformation T 5. Social 4. Social Enterprise 3. Social Business 2. Internal Commerce Communications Enterprise wide 1. External New business information and What’s Communications models to meet decisions by next? Users aid in customer wire Communication buying and demands Corporate Collaboration fanpages and selling Connections tweets Evolution of SM – Stages of Growth Model Derived from Earls Model
    8. 8. SM Tools and Possible UsesSM Tool Potential UsesForums Internal discussions; practical and process questions, and general staff issues (Cook 2008)Blogs General information tool (Tredinnick 2006) Knowledge management, business intelligence, project management (Cook 2008)SNS Connectivity, knowledge sharing, strengthen relationships (Cook 2008)Wikis Commercial content management systems (Tredinnick 2006) Knowledge management and information sharing (Jansen 2009)Social bookmarking Classification of knowledge and information (Tredinnick 2006)Virtual worlds Meetings, training, and socializing with colleagues (Cook 2008)Podcasts Briefings and recordings of conference calls (Davidson 2006) Provide information and presentations and sharing of information (Zhang 2009)Media Sharing Informal virtual learning or training (Cook 2008)
    9. 9. Challenges• Social – IT dept threatened - less influence (Cook 2008) – Fear of loss of control or inappropriateness (McAfee 2006) – Interactive environment (Chui, Miller et al. 2009) (McAfee 2006)(Li 2007) – Managers inability to understand the forces of change (Chui, Miller et al. 2009) – Lack of understanding - create value (Chui, Miller et al. 2009) – Perception that internal hierarchies will flatten (Ledbetter 2008)• Technical – Integration with existing information systems (Cook 2008) – Data retrieval and analysis may be an issue (Passant 2007)
    10. 10. Motivation• Will the same challenges be applicable if the focus is on internal business activities?• If not, what challenges may occur?• Validate the findings from literature review in the context of internal business activities
    11. 11. Aim & Objective • Aim – To reveal the perceptions of the stakeholders in relation to the benefits and shortcomings of using social media for internal business activities in organisations • Objective – To understand the impact that the use of social media tools may have on an organisation’s stakeholders using a semiotic approach
    12. 12. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND FOUNDATIONS Organisational Semiotics Approach – focuses on the analysis of how information and human communication work in organisational contexts (Liu et al. 2001) by concentrating on the relations among the IT system, business process and organisation (Liu 2000) – semiotic concepts applied to the analysis and design of organisations and information systems (IS) through a range of methods and frameworks (Liu 2000) • Application of OS for SM… • Organisational Containment Analysis (Jacobs, et al., 2010) • The Semiotic Framework (Jacobs, et al., 2010) • Valuation Framing
    13. 13. MEASURMEASUR is a set of Methods for Eliciting, Analyzing andSpecifying User Requirements (Stamper, 1993) • PAM – Problem Articulation Method • Valuation Framing - Aids in capturing user perceptions of a technology that is or will be introduced into an organisation
    14. 14. Valuation Framing• Online survey distributed• 238 responses - 196 were valid and complete responses• 7-point Likert scale• 3 questions from each of the valuation aspects
    15. 15. Aspects DescriptionsSubsistence Physical livelihood, existences e.g. impact of the new system on job securityClassification Differentiation of people by sex, age, level of education e.g. whether the new system improve equal opportunity for allTerritoriality Impact of the new system may lead to an erosion of control, influence or loss of authorityTemporality Time division, synchronous, asynchronous e.g. issues of time zone differencesLearning Sharing knowledge, gaining awareness e.g. de-skill or more opportunity for learning new skillsRecreation Fulfilment, joy e.g. whether the job becomes more interesting or boringProtection Fairness, rights e.g. granting file rights access to the appropriate groups of people and maintain the confidentiality of informationExploitation Individual’s vs organisation interests e.g. cutbacks on operating costs with salary- cut, retrenchment or longer working hoursAssociation Grouping, alliances e.g. formation of teams to evoke competitiveness and sense of belonging of the employeesInteraction Interrelations, communications e.g. fostering collaborative attitudes in the work place Ten Cultural Aspects for Valuating Impacts on Stakeholders (Stamper, 1988)
    16. 16. Example questionsHow strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statement about job security andthe use of Social Media within your organisation?• It will have an impact on my job security. Strongly disagree ...........Strongly Agree• It will affect my livelihood. Strongly disagree ...........Strongly Agree• It will Not cause me to lose my job. Strongly disagree ...........Strongly AgreeHow strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statements about how the use ofSocial Media affects your job fulfillment?• It increases the level of fulfilment from my job. Strongly disagree ...........Strongly Agree• It will make my job more interesting. Strongly disagree ...........Strongly Agree• It will not make my job boring. Strongly disagree ...........Strongly Agree
    17. 17. Valuation Framing Results Stakeholders Consultant Analyst Technical Executive (81) Executive (44) Owner / Founder (6) Trainee Administrative Managerial Marketing / Specialist Senior Sales (6) Middle (2) (7) (5) (4) (2) (11) (28) Sum Subsistence 0.2 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.5 0.5 0.7 1.2 0.3 0.7 1.5 9.2 Classification 0.2 1.8 0.8 0.4 0.4 0 0.8 0.4 -0.8 0 0.2 4.2Aspects Territoriality 1 0.2 1.6 1.3 1.8 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 1.5 2.3 15.7 Temporality 1.2 -0.3 1.7 1.3 1.9 1.3 1.7 1.6 2.3 1.3 2 16 Learning 1.2 0.8 1 2.1 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.7 2.2 16.8 Recreation 0.7 0.3 1.2 1.5 1.9 0.7 0.6 1.3 0.9 0.7 1.8 11.6 Protection -0.5 -0.5 -0.8 -0.4 0.2 -0.5 0.1 -0.3 0.4 -0.6 0.7 -2.2 Exploitation 0.8 -1.2 0.2 0.7 0.9 0.5 0.4 0.7 1.8 0.5 0.7 6 Association 0.9 1.2 1.6 1.9 1.6 1.1 1.4 1.7 1.7 1.3 2.7 17.1 Interaction 0.5 1.3 1.2 1.7 1.2 1.1 1.5 1.4 1.1 1.3 1.8 14.1 Sum 6.3 4.5 9.5 11.3 13.3 7.4 10.1 11 11.1 8.4 15.8 VALUATION FRAMING FOR STAKEHOLDERS USE OF SM IN BUSINESS
    18. 18. Results & Observations• Organisational stakeholders value the use of social media for internal business activities• Organisational stakeholders feel the use of social media will have the highest positive impact in the aspects of association, learning and territoriality• Organisational stakeholders feel it will negatively impact them in regards to protection• It appears that entry level positions place the highest positive value for the use of social media for internal business activities.• Contrary to anecdotal data, upper management appears to value the use of social media for business activities• Limitations – Sample size – Classification of job types
    19. 19. SummaryResearch context Increase in social media usage among the Internet population Gradual and ad hoc introduction of SM into businessWhat has been done: Identified the value stakeholders place on SM use for internal business activitiesWhat is next:Further analysis of the use of SM tools with internal businessactivities to gain understanding of what social media is inbusiness and how best to introduce these tools – Semi-structured interviews with organisations and customers will be conducted for further analysis
    20. 20. Thank You Q&A