Method for Assessing Organisational Readiness for InternalUse of Social Media in Information Intensive Organisations Aimee Jacobs Supervisors: Dr. Keiichi Nakata & Prof. Kecheng Liu Saturday, 11 August 2012 www.henley.reading.ac.uk
Presentation Overview• Background Overview – Social Media – Organisational Readiness – Organisational Semiotics Techniques• Analysis & Findings• Putting it together…the bigger picture.
Overview of Social Media“a group of Internet-based applications that build on theideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, andthat allow the creation and exchange of User GeneratedContent” (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010 pg. 61).
Social Media use in Organisations• Organisations use social media tools for marketing and customer relations• Social media (SM) tools offer organisations an alternative way to communicate, connect, cooperate and collaborate through rich user experience.
SM Tools and Possible UsesSM Tool Potential UsesForums Internal discussions; practical and process questions, and general staff issues (Cook 2008)Blogs General information tool (Tredinnick 2006) Knowledge management, business intelligence, project management (Cook 2008)SNS Connectivity, knowledge sharing, strengthen relationships (Cook 2008)Wikis Commercial content management systems (Tredinnick 2006) Knowledge management and information sharing (Jansen 2009)Social bookmarking Classification of knowledge and information (Tredinnick 2006)Virtual worlds Meetings, training, and socializing with colleagues (Cook 2008)Podcasts Briefings and recordings of conference calls (Davidson 2006) Provide information and presentations and sharing of information (Zhang 2009)Media Sharing Informal virtual learning or training (Cook 2008)
Social Media ChallengesSlow rate of adoption – policies and procedures that inhibit change – privacy and security issues – organisational culture being directly opposed to the open source and collaborative methods – lack an understanding of how to use the different tools – fail to realise their benefits (Newman, A. and J. Thomas 2009) – measure the effectiveness (HBR 2010)
Need for Organisational Readiness• OR reduces the risks of failure in adoption (Snyder-Halpern 2001)• Level of preparedness and identify gaps (Armenakis et al. 1993)• Precursor of resistance and adoption behaviours and is vital before attempting to implement and manage any kind of change (Armenakis et al. 1993) (Kotter, 1996).• Strongest predictor of employee commitment and more likely to commit (Ingersoll, et al., 2000).• Higher levels of readiness lead to lower innovation risks and more successful innovation outcome (Snyder-Halpern 2001).
Research Aim and ObjectivesAim of researchTo develop a method to aid in assessing organisational readinessprior to using social media tools for internal business activitiesObjectiveIdentify factors of readiness for technology through systematicmethod using Organisational Semiotics techniques – Containment Analysis – Organisational Morphology – Collateral Analysis
Organisational Semiotics• Applies semiotic concepts by focusing on signs and sign systems which are created in business operations• Views an organisation as an IS comprised of social normsApplied• Used to investigate the relationships of the human, technical and business aspects• Used to help identify essential patterns of activities needed for social media use within an organisation• Used to help provide a systematic approach to organisational readiness
Containment Analysis Informal • ‘Organisational onion’ Meanings, intentions and beliefs • Way to capture the Formal informal, formal and Form and rules technical social norms that form the system Technical Automation
Organisational Morphology • OM is a way to analyse an organisation through (behaviour)-level (Liu 2000). • Morphology of the tasks and functions through identification of three types of norms: - Substantive (SA) - Communication (C) - Control (CA) • Healthy organisation = Substantive Activities > Communication + Control Activities
Collateral Analysis • Co-design method bridging the gap between an operational IT system and current business requirements (Simoni 2004) • Used to analyse the relationship between system units of a complex system (Liu 2000) • Helps identify the sub-unit systems by taking apart the larger complex system around the focal system (Liu 2000) Focal system would be the proposed system- social media in use
Analysis of scoping study using“organisational onion” Purpose: Informal To understand how knowledge- Improved Innovation Increased intensive firms are currently Communication Productivity communicating with external and Knowledge internal clients with a particular Team-building Transfer Formal focus on the use of SM Communication Procedure Accountability Control SM Usage Policies Method: • A small survey was distributed to obtain general information Technical about the current situation of Internet Access Mobile Technology SM implementation in business •8 Respondents- Security/Privacy Technical Architecture, Solutions Architecture, Service development lead, Senior Executive (VP), Innovation Portfolio & Strategy manager and Respondents’ concerns related to SM usage Enterprise Architect
Analysis - Organisational Morphology Communication Focal System Substantive Activities Control Activities Activities Social Media Information sharing in Use Blogging and micro- SM usage policies and Knowledge management- blogging, communication transfer/sharing/creation bookmarking, tagging, procedures, networking, co- accountability, authoring, virtual organisational culture, meetings and peer - monitoring briefings, media Team-building sharing Innovation Morphological View of Organisational Activities using Social Media
Collateral Analysis for Social Media Introduction (adapted from (Liu 2000))
Identified in Literature Identified through OS analysisTechnology OS Method Internal Use of Social Readiness Sub-factor Sources Applied Media Readiness Factors Factors (Klein et al., Technical and SM experts, Human resources 2001; Lehman OO, CA training et al., 2002; Financial resources Molla et al., CA FinancialResources 2005b; Salasin Physical/Technology et al., 1977; Internet access, pcs, mobile OO, CA resources Snyder-Halpern technology 2002). Awareness/knowledge of change (Klein et al. Awareness 2001; Molla et al. 2005b; Staff cohesion Salasin et al.Org climate /openness to change 1977; Snyder- CA Halpern 2002; Resistance to change Wanberg et al., 2000) Mission and Goals (Snyder-Processes Halpern 2002) OM New processes (Salasin et al.Values 1977; Snyder- VF Values Halpern 2002) Discrepancy (need for ( Holt et al., Discrepancy change) 2007; Lehman 2002; Molla etMotivational Pressure to change CA al. 2005b;readiness Salasin et al. Personal attributes 1977; Wanberg et al. 2000)Legend: CA= Collateral Analysis, OO= Organisational Onion , OM= Organisational Morphology, VF, Valuation Framing
Identified through OS analysis Identified in Literature Technology OS Method Internal Use of Social Media Readiness Sub-factor Sources Applied Readiness Factors Factors (Holt et al. 2007; Klein et al. 2001; Molla et al.Benefit OO Benefit 2005b; Salasin et al. 1977)Management (Holt et al. 2007; Kleinsupport et al. 2001)Participation in (Molla et al. 2005b;the change Wanberg et al. 2000)process Security/privacy OO, OM concerns OO, OM Policies Organisational Communication OO, OM Controls procedures OO, OM Accountability CA FallbackLegend: CA= Collateral Analysis, OO= Organisational Onion , OM= Organisational Morphology, VF, Valuation Framing
Summary • Organisations may want to use social media tools but face some challenges, therefore may not be ready for use • Organisational readiness assessment can help identify level of preparedness and identify gaps • Change management techniques can be used to raise level of preparedness • The factors identified so far include: resources, organisational climate, processes, motivational readiness, benefit, values and organisational control factors (security/privacy, policies, communication procedures, accountability and fallback)