Seven Different Traditions In The Field Of Communication
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Seven Different Traditions In The Field Of Communication



Chapter 2

Chapter 2



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Seven Different Traditions In The Field Of Communication Seven Different Traditions In The Field Of Communication Presentation Transcript

  • Seven Different Traditions in the Field of Communication Theory
  • Socio-Psychological Tradition
    • Emphasizes scientific perspective
    • Associated with Carl Hovland and the Yale team
    • Concentrated on the source and the content of persuasive messages, and the audience characteristics
    • Source credibility rests on expertness and character; expertness had the bigger effect on credibility, but did not last.
    • The “sleeper effect” : the impact of credibility does not last.
  • Cybernetic Tradition
    • Wiener coined the term, in the field of artificial intelligence
    • Introduced the concept of feedback
    • Claude Shannon established the idea of communication as information processing
    • Goal was to maximize line capacity with minimum distortion
    • Reduce uncertainty through redundancy; more redundancy=reduced capacity.
  • Rhetorical Tradition
    • Speech distinguishes humans
    • Confidence in efficacy of public address
    • Setting: one speaker addressing large audience with intention to persuade
    • Oratorical training for leader’s education
    • Power and beauty of language moves people emotionally and stir them to action
    • Rhetoric as male province
  • Semiotic Tradition
    • The study of signs (Richards, Ogden, Saussure).
    • Signs signify by indication, representation or by arbitrary convention (symbol)
    • Words are symbols (arbitrary)
    • Words do not have precise meanings
    • Meanings reside in people not words or symbols
    • A symbol is indirectly related to its referent
  • Socio-Cultural Tradition
    • Communication produces and reproduces culture
    • Sapir-Whorf hypothesis says structure of language shapes what people do and think
    • Language is not a neutral conduit
    • Through language, reality is produced, maintained, repaired and transformed.
  • Critical Tradition
    • Associated with Frankfurt School
    • Focus on history as the unjust distribution of power and suffering
    • Control of language (discourses) perpetuates power imbalances
    • Mass media dull sensitivity to repression
    • Blind reliance on scientific method and empiricism blunts critical thinking
  • Phenomenological Tradition
    • Intentional analysis of everyday life from the standpoint of the person who is living it
    • Emphasizes people’s perceptions and interpretations of their own subjective experiences
    • Rogers: 3 conditions for personality and relationship change – congruence, unconditional positive regard, empathic understanding
  • Ethical Tradition
    • NCA Credo for Communication Ethics:
    • Truthfulness, accuracy, honesty, reason
    • Accepts responsibility for short-term and long-term consequences of communication
    • Strives to understand and respect other communicators before evaluating and responding to their messages.