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A sign is the combination of the signifier (something that stands for something else) and the signified (the thing that the sign stands for)
The relationship between signifier and signified is often arbitrary , especially in language. But some signifiers are indicative (e.g. where a cause signifies its effect); and others have an affinity with their signified (e.g. the icon of a pedestrian at a traffic stop)
Myths are “second order” sign systems that build on existing signs but transform the meaning of those existing signs, converting them into ideological tools. The sign of the first system becomes the signifier of the second. But the second-order sign system undercuts the historicity of the first