Information Systems Approach

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Information Systems Approach

  1. 1. INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPROACH Of Karl Weick
  2. 2. Basic Features <ul><li>Emphasis on organiz ing rather than organiza tion </li></ul><ul><li>Biological metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>Compares organizing with information processing, making sense of information inputs that are ambiguous (equivocal) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication among participants is vital to making sense </li></ul>
  3. 3. Effective Organizations Require <ul><li>Requisite variety : the degree of complexity and diversity within the organization needs to match the level of ambiguity of the data it processes </li></ul><ul><li>Interconnectedness, as measured by “ double interact ” loops. </li></ul><ul><li>Double interact is basic unit of inter-connectedness, a communication cycle of act-response-adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>“ Loose coupling ” of interacts within an organization enhances flexibility, adaptability </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations open to environment adapt more effectively: they continually “re-chart the organizational chart” in response to external developments. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Social-Cultural Evolution (1) Enactment <ul><li>Lack of firm boundaries between organization and environment </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations can create their own environment </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to act as ineffectiveness: chaotic action better than organized inaction </li></ul><ul><li>Action is a precondition of sense-making </li></ul><ul><li>Action changes the environment </li></ul>
  5. 5. Social-Cultural Evolution (2) Selection <ul><li>retrospective sensemaking, and we do main two tools </li></ul><ul><li>We can only interpret past action; new action leads to new interpretations as basis for planning; </li></ul><ul><li>Existing rules OK when equivocality is low, but inadequate for high ambiguity; </li></ul><ul><li>Act-response-adjustment : increased cycles (double interacts) of communication reduce equivocality </li></ul><ul><li>People typically use rules to process unambiguous data, and communication cycles for equivocal information. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Socio-Cultural Evolution (3) <ul><li>RETENTION </li></ul><ul><li>Has to do with organizational memory. Too much retention, reliance on the past, creates a network of rules and reduces flexibility. But some degree of retention is necessary for stability </li></ul>
  7. 7. Critique <ul><li>Danger that the biology metaphor becomes an ideology : some who regard organizations as actual living organisms have taken the way the body IS as evidence of how an organization OUGHT to be </li></ul>

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