Group F


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Chapter 16, 17 & 18

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Group F

  1. 1. Chapter 16, 17, 18 Karen Menecola, Amanda Moss, Darren McClure, Jennifer Morrow, Rachael Mckay
  2. 2. Amanda Moss – The Trade In News
  3. 3. “The Trade in News” discusses the communication networks in early modern Europe during the course of the 15th and 18th century. It specifically highlights the impact that the development of printing had on the patterns of communication and how it has brought society to the news publications it knows today
  4. 4. Before printing in Europe 4 different types of communication networks established: 1. Controlled by the Catholic Church 2. Controlled by the political authorities of states and principalities 3. Connected to the rise of commercial activity 4. Diffused to villages / towns through merchants, travelling entertainers (storytellers & ballad singers)
  5. 5. Changes From the 15th – 17th Century *2 crucial developments affecting communication networks 1. Various states established postal services which became very popular for the public and general use: - France (1464) & England – royal post charged private individuals to use it with permission - Central Europe – post network linking Habsburg to European cities • 1490 – imperial post system - the general public did not have access to these postal services (foreign and domestic) until the early 17th century
  6. 6. 2. Printing press played a new role in news distribution - “printed information leaflets, posters and broadsheets” (114) sold by hawkers and peddlers in the street - 2nd half of 16th century – periodical publications of news - mid 17th century – weekly appearance of journals - news paper production centres – Cologne , Frankfurt, Antwerp, Berlin (European trading routes) - news was more concerned with foreign news - England (1640) – newspapers focused on more local news - 1641 – 3 local newspapers were published weekly
  7. 7. The Periodical Press in the 18th Century - 1702 – England’s first daily newspaper – Daily Courant - more specialized papers – entertainment, cultural events, financial and commercial news -1750 – in total of all papers, 100,000 copies per week
  8. 8. Paper and Taxes - Political authorities imposed tax on newspapers to practice their control and power - The Stamp Act of 1712 - newspaper owners paid one shilling per printed sheet and one shilling per advertisement - many people were against this act - 1803 – taxes were cut  1860 - TAX FREE
  9. 9. 1. What is the name of the act passed for taxes on newspaper?
  10. 10. 2. What were the 2 developments affecting the communication network?
  11. 11. Karen Menecola – Electricity Creates the Wired World
  12. 12. Intro SO FAR: - media that physically carried information, for example, moving the medium moved the information (books, clay tablets, quipu) - invention of harnessable electricity, brought the first wave of a new communications revolution, with the telegraph and the telephone
  13. 13. Old Technology to New Technology -Marshall McLuhan: “messages travel faster than messengers” - “transportation” model to “transmission” - originally, they used - smoke signals - drum signals (talking drums) - heliographs (reflecting sunlight with metal) - torch signals that represented letters of the alphabet
  14. 14. Invention of the Telegraph - invented in 1840 - transformed words into electrical impulses - used Morse code – short dots and long dots which represented letters
  15. 15. Telegraph and Railroad - wherever the railroad went, the telegraph was built as well - the railroad found it very convenient for the telegraph provided the ability to monitor rail traffic and warn of breakdowns - telegraph became part of the railroads business: - forwarding orders - coordinated shipments - reported transactions
  16. 16. Impact on economy - end of the 18th century, the telegraph became a global system - the telegraph greatly influenced journalism and the newspaper - Michael Schudson states that it created 2 types of journalism: - the information press: directed to political, economical, and the business community - the entertainment press: dramatic, scandalous, and everyday life of the urban working class
  17. 17. Invention of the telephone - created in the third quarter of the 19th century - overcame several limitations of the telegraph: - not restricted to transmission of written documents - telegraph was limited to the literate - telegraph did not make its way into homes - telephone competed with the telegraph, but also complimented it
  18. 18. Invention of the Telephone (continued) -late 1880s telephone moved into wealthy private homes - 1890s, invention of switch boards and telephone into residential homes - “electrical literacy”
  19. 19. Rachael McKay– Telegraphy: The Victorian Internet
  20. 20. History of the Electric Telegraph - Name: Prof. Thomas Morse - Invented the American electric telegraph - Purpose: cosmopolitan use that was not restricted to railway lines
  21. 21. The Spread of the Electric Telegraph USA •1846 – Morse's experimental line ran 40 miles between Washington and Baltimore •1850 – 12,000 miles and 20 different companies •1852 – 23,000 miles + 10,000 under construction •1861 – completion of transcontinental telegraph line connection east to west coast
  22. 22. The Spread of the Electric Telegraph Britain: - 1839 - first electric telegraph line - 1848 – half of countries railway tracks have telegraph wires running alongside - 1850 – 2,215 miles of wire along railway lines - 1851 – Great Exhibition in London.
  23. 23. The Spread of the Electric Telegraph Internationally... (1852) - 1,493 miles – Prussia – buried telegraphic wires underground - 1,053 miles – Austria - 983 miles – Canada - 750 miles – France – were reluctant to disregard old optical telegraph technology - Operations in – Tuscany, Saxony, Spain, Russia, Holland, Australia, Cub a, Chile, and India
  24. 24. The Spread of the Electric Telegraph Inter-Continental: - 1849 – first interconnection treaty, special joint telegraph office - 1850 – Austro German Telegraph - Shortly after France, Belgium, Switzerland all established international agreements
  25. 25. The Underwater Telegraph Problem: To connect Britian with the rest of Europe they had to overcome the English Channel (150 miles wide) Solutions: 1. 1840 Wheatstone 2. 1843 Morse 3. Gutta-Percha
  26. 26. John and Jacob Brett Attempt #1: They took a very large spool of telegraph wire and coated it in ¼ inch of gutta-percha. They piled this on the back of their boat and dropped it in weighting it at regular intervals for it to sink to the bottom. Problems: - electrical properties of the water mixed with the cable resulting in incomprehensible messages - was easily broken apart did not sink on it's own (had to be weighted down)
  27. 27. Attempt #2: - With the help of Thomas Crampton, a railway engineer, they were able to design a new method. -They took 4 telegraph wires and coated them in gutta- percha, twisted them together, wrapped them in tar covered hemp and encased the whole thing in tar covered cords. -This new cord was much more durable and weighted so it would sink on it's own. -In November 1951 the first international, underwater telegraph line was available to the public.
  28. 28. By 1854: - London was sending daily telegrams to Paris - England had been linked to Ireland - England was connected with Germany, Russia , and Holland - Europe was linked with Africa
  29. 29. 1. Who invented the American electric telegraph??
  30. 30. 2. What were 2 major problems with the first attempt to underwater telegraphy by the Brett Brothers?
  31. 31. Darren McClure & Jennifer Morrow -The New Journalism
  32. 32. -Most major news papers in New York started from penny press - the two largest were the World and the Journal - quot;the new journalismquot; - World and Journal -> entertainment (the ideal of the quot;storyquot;) - old penny press style (eg Times) -> factuality (the ideal of quot;informationquot;)
  33. 33. Journalism as Entertainment - the New York World – Begun in 1859 - revived by Joseph Pulitzer in 1883 - When he bought it, its circulation was about 15 000 - by 1886, its circulation was over a quarter million - papers democratic position was an influence on its success - the innovation most responsible for the paper’s success in circulation was sensationalism
  34. 34. Journalism as Entertainment - sensationalism meant self-advertisement - for example: the use of illustrations - larger and darker headlines - the world came to embody the entertainment function of the newspaper - newspapers also responded to the changes in city population patterns
  35. 35. Journalism as Information: - quot;All the News That's Fit to Printquot; - the New York Times set the standard for mass- circulation journalism after 1896 - claimed highest circulation but didn't compete with the World or the Journal
  36. 36. Journalism as Information: - Times attracted aspiring wealth and status - became a badge of respectability - Information journalism vs Story journalism - a cover for class conflicts
  37. 37. 1. How has the division between informative and entertainment news changed?
  38. 38. 2. From this chapter, what 2 newspapers dealt with the ideal of the story?
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