Elaboration Likelihood Model

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Chapter 15

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Elaboration Likelihood Model

  1. 1. ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL Of Richard Petty and John Cacioppo
  2. 2. TWO ROUTES TO PERSUASION <ul><li>Central : message elaboration – the extent to which a person carefully thinks about issue-relevant arguments contained in a persuasive communication </li></ul><ul><li>The more listeners work to attend to the message the less influenced they are by content-irrelevant factors </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral : shorthand method to accept or reject a message without any active thinking about the attributes of the issue or the object of consideration </li></ul><ul><li>The more listeners attend to content-irrelevant factors, the less the impact of the message </li></ul>
  3. 3. Note: Two Dimensions <ul><li>Messages can be constructed with a view either to elaborated or peripheral processing, or some mixture of the two </li></ul><ul><li>Messages can be interpreted through attention either mainly to elaborated or to peripheral features, or some mixture of the two </li></ul>
  4. 4. CUES <ul><li>Reciprocation – “ you owe me” </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency – “we’ve always done it that way” </li></ul><ul><li>Social proof – “everybody’s doing it” </li></ul><ul><li>Liking – “ love me, love my ideas”, </li></ul><ul><li>Authority – “just because I say so” </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity – “Quick, before they’re all gone” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Motivation <ul><li>Message elaboration requires motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation enhanced by personal relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation enhanced by need for cognitive clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Message elaboration requires ability </li></ul><ul><li>Ability may be impeded by distraction </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition may increase prospect for elaboration </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of elaboration <ul><li>Objective: considers facts on their own merit. Listeners who objectively elaborate will need to be impressed by the argument </li></ul><ul><li>Biased: predetermined conclusions color the supporting data </li></ul><ul><li>So elaboration is not always desirable from the point of view of the persuader. It has to generate favorable thoughts. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Arguments <ul><li>Strong arguments likely to lead to change that is: </li></ul><ul><li>persistent over time </li></ul><ul><li>resists counter persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>predict future behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Weak arguments may have boomerang effect leading to enduring rejection of argument. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Peripheral Cues <ul><li>Most messages processed peripherally </li></ul><ul><li>Tangible rewards, others’ reactions, and source credibility (likeability, character, expertise), emotionally engaging, are important. Some cues inhere in the listener (e.g. mood). </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to be short-lived </li></ul><ul><li>However, peripheral cues may sometimes stimulate elaboration, as do some in slide 4: e.g. “social proof” may involve argument by appeal to precedent. In other words, peripheral cues are not necessarily illogical </li></ul>
  9. 9. Critique <ul><li>Should it pay more attention to emotional appeal? </li></ul><ul><li>Not always straight forward to determine a “strong argument” </li></ul><ul><li>Theory grown unwieldy, less predictive </li></ul><ul><li>Might be better to have an “elaboration continuum” rather than a binary opposition between “elaboration” and “peripheral” appeals </li></ul>

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