Cultural Studies

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Cultural Studies

  1. 1. CULTURAL STUDIES Of Stuart Hall
  2. 2. Basic Ideas <ul><li>Cultural Studies is a reaction against the prevailing approach of Media Effects studies in academic research on media. </li></ul><ul><li>Its central concern is Hegemony – that is to say, the dominant ideologies in society that secure the consent of the governed to their own subordination </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hegemony <ul><li>Media act to support the basic Hegemony which is the ideology of democratic pluralism: i.e. the notion that </li></ul><ul><li>*power is equally distributed in society *politics adjudicates between different centers of power </li></ul><ul><li>*media is inform the electorate </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Roots of Cultural Studies <ul><li>Frankfurt School: corporate media tailor their messages to induce support for the capitalist system </li></ul><ul><li>Barthes’ semiotics: ideology is conveyed through sign systems </li></ul><ul><li>Foucault’s analysis of discourses in society that provide interpretive frameworks through which most people see the world; through discourses we learn what signs mean. People with power create “discursive formations” that become naturalized </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Media and Hegemonic Discourse <ul><li>Media representations of culture reproduce social inequalities </li></ul><ul><li>Corporations control the media </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate control excludes many voices </li></ul><ul><li>Complex ethical questions are not engaged </li></ul><ul><li>Media present restricted ranges of choice as though they were the only options </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Question of Audience <ul><li>Three ways of decoding messages encoded by the media are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate inside the dominant code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply a negotiable code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substitute an oppositional code </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Critique <ul><li>Hall exposes the limitations of context-independent “effects” research </li></ul><ul><li>Against the insistence of Marxists on economic determinants of social life, Hall elevates the role of culture as a mediating and sometimes as a determining factor </li></ul><ul><li>He shows that we cannot consider meaning without considering power </li></ul>

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