Particles Explanation


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Explanation of how to use some of the many particles used in Japanese grammar.

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Particles Explanation

  1. 1. PARTICLES The words that hold a Japanese sentence together
  2. 2. The function of particles <ul><li>Particles in Japanese join parts of the sentence together. </li></ul><ul><li>A particle can tell us a lot about the word before it. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Particles – a summary WA Topic marker MO Also NO Possessive DE ‘ by’ / do ‘at’ a place WO Object marker TO With / and NI ‘ at’ with time NI ‘ to’ a place
  4. 4. Flickr photo by Davi M は Note : This particle is actually written with hiragana “ ha ”
  5. 5. The Topic Marker は <ul><li>は   [wa] tells us the topic of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>It tells us W H A T is being discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>It is hard to translate into English but it is similar to saying ‘ as for … ’. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Examples for は <ul><li>ぼく  は  12さい です。 </li></ul><ul><li>I am 12 years old. ( As for me, I’m 12). </li></ul><ul><li>ひろ  は  せんせい です。 </li></ul><ul><li>Hiro is a teacher. ( As for Hiro, [he’s] a teacher. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Possessive の Flickr photo by Spitzgogo
  8. 8. The Possessive の <ul><li>の   [no] can act like ‘apostrophe s’ in English. </li></ul><ul><li>It tells us who owns something. </li></ul><ul><li>It also serves to join 2 no uns together when they relate to each other. Eg . Tomorrow morning, Tuesday next week, and so on. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Examples for の <ul><li>ぼく  の  なまえ は ひろ です。 </li></ul><ul><li>My name is Hiro. </li></ul><ul><li>せんせい  の  ほん です。 </li></ul><ul><li>It is the teacher ’s book. </li></ul><ul><li>にほんご  の   せんせい。 </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese Teacher (teacher of Japanese) </li></ul>
  10. 10. The object marker を Flickr photo by tanakawho Flickr photo by El Negro Magnifico
  11. 11. The object marker を <ul><li>を   [wo] tells us the object of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>If the verb is ‘do’, it tells us what we are doing. If the verb is ‘eat’, it tells us what we are eating. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Eat a hamburger’ – hamburger is the object </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Play tennis’ – tennis is the object. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Examples for を <ul><li>まど  を  あけてください。 </li></ul><ul><li>Please open the door. </li></ul><ul><li>ひろ は おんがく  を  ききます。 </li></ul><ul><li>Hiro listens to music. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Flickr photo by B Tal Flickr photo by an untrained eye Movement “ to ” a place に
  14. 14. The particle に <ul><li>に   [ni] tells us the place we are going to . </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>かわ  に  いきます。 Go to the river </li></ul>
  15. 15. Time “at” which something occurs に Flickr photo by Joe Penniston Flickr photo by Robbert van der Steeg
  16. 16. The particle に <ul><li>It also tells us the time we do something . It comes after the TIME or DAY of the week. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>ろくじ  に  おきます。 Wake up at 6:00 </li></ul>
  17. 17. The “location” of something: “ in” / “on” に Flickr photo by John Althouse Cohen
  18. 18. The particle に <ul><li>It also indicates the location of something . “on the table” etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>いす の うえ  に  あります。  It is on the chair. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Flickr photo by L. Marie “ Also” も Flickr photo by Caucas’
  20. 20. The particle も <ul><li>も means “also” </li></ul><ul><li>It can replace を or は but can be used together with に or へ </li></ul>
  21. 21. Examples for も <ul><ul><li>すし を たべます。さしみ も たべます。 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I eat sushi. I also eat sashimi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>とうきょう に いきます。おおさか  に も  いきます。 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I will go to Tokyo.   I will also go to Osaka. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The particle で <ul><li>で tells us how we get somewhere . Like “ by means of ”, “ using ” </li></ul><ul><li>Tells us “ where ” we d o something </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen to music in de house!!! </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. What you use to do something Flickr photo by Destinys Agent で
  24. 24. Where u do de activity で Flickr photo by moriza
  25. 25. How you get somewhere Flickr photo by rAmmoRRison で
  26. 26. Examples for で <ul><ul><li>バス  で  いきます 。 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go by bus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ぎんこう  で  はたらいています。 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work at the bank. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>こうえん  で  あそびます。 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play in the park. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. “ with” after a person / animal と Flickr photo by jm3 Flickr photo by onkel wart
  28. 28. The particle と <ul><li>と is used between nouns to mean “and” </li></ul><ul><li>と also indicates who or what you do something “with” </li></ul>
  29. 29. Examples for と <ul><ul><li>いす  と  つくえ が あります。 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a chair and a desk. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>いぬ  と  あそびます 。 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play with the dog. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>あした、ともだち  と  テニスを します。 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tomorrow, I will play tennis with my friend. </li></ul></ul>