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Particles Explanation


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Explanation of how to use some of the many particles used in Japanese grammar.

Explanation of how to use some of the many particles used in Japanese grammar.

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  • 1. PARTICLES The words that hold a Japanese sentence together
  • 2. The function of particles
    • Particles in Japanese join parts of the sentence together.
    • A particle can tell us a lot about the word before it.
  • 3. Particles – a summary WA Topic marker MO Also NO Possessive DE ‘ by’ / do ‘at’ a place WO Object marker TO With / and NI ‘ at’ with time NI ‘ to’ a place
  • 4. Flickr photo by Davi M は Note : This particle is actually written with hiragana “ ha ”
  • 5. The Topic Marker は
    • は   [wa] tells us the topic of the sentence.
    • It tells us W H A T is being discussed.
    • It is hard to translate into English but it is similar to saying ‘ as for … ’.
  • 6. Examples for は
    • ぼく  は  12さい です。
    • I am 12 years old. ( As for me, I’m 12).
    • ひろ  は  せんせい です。
    • Hiro is a teacher. ( As for Hiro, [he’s] a teacher.
  • 7. The Possessive の Flickr photo by Spitzgogo
  • 8. The Possessive の
    • の   [no] can act like ‘apostrophe s’ in English.
    • It tells us who owns something.
    • It also serves to join 2 no uns together when they relate to each other. Eg . Tomorrow morning, Tuesday next week, and so on.
  • 9. Examples for の
    • ぼく  の  なまえ は ひろ です。
    • My name is Hiro.
    • せんせい  の  ほん です。
    • It is the teacher ’s book.
    • にほんご  の   せんせい。
    • Japanese Teacher (teacher of Japanese)
  • 10. The object marker を Flickr photo by tanakawho Flickr photo by El Negro Magnifico
  • 11. The object marker を
    • を   [wo] tells us the object of the verb.
    • If the verb is ‘do’, it tells us what we are doing. If the verb is ‘eat’, it tells us what we are eating.
    • ‘ Eat a hamburger’ – hamburger is the object
    • ‘ Play tennis’ – tennis is the object.
  • 12. Examples for を
    • まど  を  あけてください。
    • Please open the door.
    • ひろ は おんがく  を  ききます。
    • Hiro listens to music.
  • 13. Flickr photo by B Tal Flickr photo by an untrained eye Movement “ to ” a place に
  • 14. The particle に
    • に   [ni] tells us the place we are going to .
    • Example :
    • かわ  に  いきます。 Go to the river
  • 15. Time “at” which something occurs に Flickr photo by Joe Penniston Flickr photo by Robbert van der Steeg
  • 16. The particle に
    • It also tells us the time we do something . It comes after the TIME or DAY of the week.
    • Example :
    • ろくじ  に  おきます。 Wake up at 6:00
  • 17. The “location” of something: “ in” / “on” に Flickr photo by John Althouse Cohen
  • 18. The particle に
    • It also indicates the location of something . “on the table” etc.
    • Example :
    • いす の うえ  に  あります。  It is on the chair.
  • 19. Flickr photo by L. Marie “ Also” も Flickr photo by Caucas’
  • 20. The particle も
    • も means “also”
    • It can replace を or は but can be used together with に or へ
  • 21. Examples for も
      • すし を たべます。さしみ も たべます。
      • I eat sushi. I also eat sashimi.
      • とうきょう に いきます。おおさか  に も  いきます。
      • I will go to Tokyo.   I will also go to Osaka.
  • 22. The particle で
    • で tells us how we get somewhere . Like “ by means of ”, “ using ”
    • Tells us “ where ” we d o something
      • Listen to music in de house!!!
  • 23. What you use to do something Flickr photo by Destinys Agent で
  • 24. Where u do de activity で Flickr photo by moriza
  • 25. How you get somewhere Flickr photo by rAmmoRRison で
  • 26. Examples for で
      • バス  で  いきます 。
      • Go by bus.
      • ぎんこう  で  はたらいています。
      • Work at the bank.
      • こうえん  で  あそびます。
      • Play in the park.
  • 27. “ with” after a person / animal と Flickr photo by jm3 Flickr photo by onkel wart
  • 28. The particle と
    • と is used between nouns to mean “and”
    • と also indicates who or what you do something “with”
  • 29. Examples for と
      • いす  と  つくえ が あります。
      • There is a chair and a desk.
      • いぬ  と  あそびます 。
      • Play with the dog.
      • あした、ともだち  と  テニスを します。
      • Tomorrow, I will play tennis with my friend.