Conditionals

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Conditionals

  1. 1. English Conditionals Zero Conditional: Certainty The Zero conditional is used for things that are always true as long as the condition is met. IF Condition Result Situation present simple present simple If you heat water to 100 degrees celsius, it boils. fact- universal present simple present simple If I drink coffee, I get a headache. fact- personal English Conditionals: First Conditional First Conditional: A real possibility in the future A First Conditional sentence is one connecting two future actions, where one must take place before the second is possible. Take a student who wants to go to university but hasn't got the results of their exams yet. They cannot go to university until they have received their results. In the case of a good student who is expected to get good grades, then there is a good possibility of achieving the marks required to get to university, so the following sentence could be used: IF Condition Result present simple WILL + base verb If she gets good grades, she will go to university. We are talking about the future, but we use a present tense for the condition and will for the result. In this case, the person is sure about going to university. We can use other modal verbs in the result part of the sentence: IF Condition Result Possibility she gets good If she will go to university. If the condition is met, then she definitely will go grades, If he gets good grades, he may go to university. He is not sure about going to university. she gets good she should go to The speaker is expressing his or her opinion, giving If grades, university. advice. If he gets good grades, he can go to university. This means that it is possible. she gets good If she could go to university. This means that it is possible, but not that likely. grades,
  2. 2. If he gets good grades, he might go to university. This means that it is possible, but not that likely. We can also use different present forms in the condition part of the sentence: IF Condition Reason for tense Result present simple an action in the future If I see her, I'll ask her about it. present progressive an unfinished present action If they are still working, I'll go home. present progressive a future arrangement If they are going, I'll stay at home. present perfect a finished action related to now you have finished your If I'll clear away the plates. meal, WILL + base verb making an agreement WILL + base verb I will let you have Friday If you will work late today, off. expressing displeasure because someone insists on WILL + base verb WILL + base verb doing something If you will drive too fast, the police will stop you.
  3. 3. English Conditionals: Second Conditional Second Conditional: Imaginary Present or Unlikely Future The Second Conditional can be used used to talk about imaginary present situations, where we are imagining something different from what is really the case. We can also use it to talk about things in the future that are unlikely to happen, as the condition is unlikely to be met. We use the past tense in the condition part and would for the result. IF Condition Time Result Possibility past simple present WOULD + base verb impossible If I had the time, I would learn Italian. I don't have the time, so I'm not going to learn Italian. past simple future WOULD + base verb unlikely I won the I would travel around the There's a very small chance of winning the lottery, so If lottery world. the trip is unlikely We can use other modal verbs in the past tense in the result part of the sentence: IF Condition Result Certainty past simple WOULD + base verb I had the Although unlikely to happen, the speaker is sure that they would If I would learn Italian. time, do it given the opportunity. I had more If I might learn Spanish. Although unlikely to happen, it is only a possibility anyway. time, I had more I should learn some Although unlikely to happen, the speaker is saying that it would be If time, more about IT. a good idea, but is not committed to it. I had more If I could learn Hindi. Although unlikely to happen, it is only a possibility anyway. time With the verb to be, there are two forms that can be used with I, he, she & it: IF Condition Result I, he, she, it Were If I were you, I'd marry her. I, he, she, it Was
  4. 4. If I was you, I'd marry her. English Conditionals: Third Conditional Third Conditional: Imaginary Past The third conditional is used when we are talking about the past and imagining something different from what actually happened: Condition Result What actually happened Past Perfect WOULD HAVE + Past Participle If I had known, I would have helped. I didn't know and didn't help. IF Condition Result Certainty WOULD HAVE+ past past perfect participle Although this didn't happen, the speaker is sure about If I had known, I would have helped. the result. Although this didn't happen, the result is only a If I had known, I could have helped. possibility. Although this didn't happen, the result is only a If I had known, I might have helped. possibility. Although this didn't happen, it is only a good suggestion If you had known, you should have helped. or piece of advice.
  5. 5. Conditionals: Summary Here is a chart to help you to visualize the basic English conditionals. Do not take the 50% and 10% figures too literally. They are just to help you. probability conditional example time 100% zero conditional If you heat ice, it melts. any time 50% first conditional If it rains, I will stay at home. future 10% second conditional If I won the lottery, I would buy a car. future 0% third conditional If I had won the lottery, I would have bought a car. past Mixed conditionals In the mixed conditional sentences we can combine the second and third conditional. If he had left immediately, he would be here now. (He didn't leave immediately and isn't here.) If I had studied hard when I was young, I wouldn't be a porter now. (I didn't study and I am a porter.) If we hadn't told him the way while he was preparing for his journey, he would get lost now. (We told him and he isn't lost.) Inverted conditionals We can also make conditional sentences by changing the word order in the if clause. Had he booked the hotel room, he wouln't have slept at the camp. (If he had booked ... ) Were I in your position, I would accept it. (If I were ... ) This form is less common, quite formal and is mostly used in writing. Note If is the most frequent expression in the if clauses, but other expressions are also possible. even if, provided (that), unless, on condition (that), in case You will leave tonight even if you don't want to.
  6. 6. You can have your birthday party provided that you aren't noisy. We'll sell you the ranch on condition you pay in cash. You should take a dictionary with you in case you forgot some words. Unless you do something, she won't come back. (If you don't do anything, ... )
  7. 7. Exercises Zero conditional Complete the zero conditional sentences with the verb in brackets. Use contractions where possible. it turns I go they don't have he's comes you aren't I don't know we don't do 1. If you press that button, the light(come) on. 2. It's easier to sleep if(you / not / be) stressed. 3. The teacher gets angry if(we / not / work) hard. 4. If(I / go) on a boat, I always feel sick. 5. His mother gets annoyed if(he / be) late. 6. If(I / not / know) a word, I look in my dictionary. 7. They play football if(they / not / have) any homework. 8. If you freeze water,(it / turn) to ice.
  8. 8. would start a business of my own. will take a long holiday and apply for a new job later. 2. If he calls me 'lazy' again I ... won't ever help him again if he's in trouble. go and tell his parents. 3. Philippa won't ever speak to me again if ... I let her down now. I would let her down now. 4. If the demand increases prices ... rise. will rise. 5. Our dog Gelert will start licking you if ... you pat him on the back. you will give it a cuddle. 6. Don't be offended. If Jane is annoyed she ... will start yelling at people. starts yelling at people. 7. If Jeremy doesn't answer the phone this time I ... won't call again. don't call again.
  9. 9. Second Conditional 1. If farmers in developing countries were given a decent price for their produce ... they would be able to build a better future for their family, community and country. they will be able to build a better future for their family, community and country. 2. If Belgium won the European Soccer Championship in the year 2000 ... the world will be amazed. the world would be amazed. 3. Consumers would be much better off if ... accurate product information would be printed on the packaging. accurate product information were printed on the packaging. 4. The children would be in a much better shape if they ... would take my bike to go to school. took my bike to go to school. 5. If I had a lot of money I ... bought myself a flashy MGf. would buy myself a flashy MGf. 6. Helen would be very upset if ... she knows about John's past. she knew about John's past.
  10. 10. Third Conditional 1. If only I had known about your difficult situation I will help you. would have helped you. 2. We wouldn't have gone bankrupt if ... we had conducted better market research. we conduced better market research. 3. If you hadn't given your approval ... this would never have happened. this would never happen. 4. Geraldine would never have left Jim if ... he were more reasonable and understanding. he had been more reasonable and understanding. 5. France would never have won the world cup if ... the final stage were played in Brazil. the final stage had been played in Brazil. 6. If we had had a better marketing strategy we ... would easily have conquered the German market. will easily conquer the German market.

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