Office Accomodation


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Office Accomodation

  1. 1. Introduction The office should be established at such a place where customers can reach without any inconvenience. As far as possible, the central part of the city is an ideal place for office location. As the success of any business concern depends upon the location of its office, the Office Manger is required to study the following: 1. Location of an office 2. Office Building 3. Office Layout 4. Office Environment 5. Office Furniture
  2. 2. Advantages of Urban Location Easy contact with other offices Increased image Easy access Transport facilities Banking, post office and other facilities Recreational facilities Other amenities Employee preference
  3. 3. Disadvantages of Urban Location Over crowding and congestion Difficulty to expand business Higher cost Demand for more pay Polluted atmosphere
  4. 4. Advantages of Sub-urban Location Lower cost of living Low rent and taxes Quiet and hygienic atmosphere Scope for office expansion and modernisation Less overcrowding and less congestion
  5. 5. Disadvantages of sub-urban location 1. Inadequate service facilities such as banks, post and telegraph offices, railway stations, markets 2. Inadequate transport facilities, airport/port/railways 3. Lack of communication facilities
  6. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Convenience to customers Transportation facilities Safety and climate Postal, telegraphic and banking facilities Availability of sufficient space Need of the business
  7. 7. The structure of office building also affects the office environment. If the office building restricts the entrance of light, air, etc. then the office environment will not be healthy.
  8. 8. 1. It represents a wise investment decision, especially, where part of the building is rented on good terms. 2. It lends prestige to the organization and enhances its credit worthiness besides improving its image in the eyes of the customers. 3. As permanency is assured, the address need not be changed again due to growing needs of the business, since the design of own building takes care of the future needs. 4. The building can be planned on the basis of present and possible future needs.
  9. 9. Drawbacks of own building 1. Ownership of building also presents other problems to the management, like payment of taxes and settlement of disputes with tenants, if part of it is rented. 2. Own building may require huge investment which may not be within the easy reach of small or medium-sized business. 3. High costs of maintenance may also prove too much for a small or medium-sized business.
  10. 10. Advantages of leased building 1. Maintenance responsibility 2.No investment decision responsibility 3.Ease in location change
  11. 11. Limitations of leased building 1. High rents 2.Wastage of space 3.Not need-based 4.Frequent shift
  12. 12. Checklist for accommodation requirements 1. Location 2. Site 3. Building 4. Physical factors
  13. 13. Principles of Layout 1. Work should flow continuously forward, as nearly as possible in a straight line. 2. Departments that have similar functions or frequent contact with each other should be located near one another to reduce travel time. 3. Central services groups, such as stenographic pools, should be conveniently located near the employees and departments who use them. 4. Furniture and equipment should be arranged in a straight line, with any angular placement of desks and chairs reserved for supervisory personnel.
  14. 14. Principles of Layout 5. Space allowances should be adequate for work needs and employee comfort. 6. Furniture and equipment of uniform size make for greater flexibility and more uniform appearance . 7. All the same employees should face in the same direction, with supervisors placed to the rear of work groups. 8. Desks should be arranged so that no employee is compelled to face an objectionable light source.
  15. 15. Principles of Layout 9. Units that utilize noisy equipment, such as data processing or telex machines should be located in separate rooms to avoid disturbing other work groups. 10.Work groups that have frequent contact with the public should be located in an easily accessible place. 11. Large rectangular blocks of space facilitate work flow and provide greater flexibility.
  16. 16. Principles of Layout 12. Departments in which work is necessarily untidy should be kept away from public view. 13. Suitable light and air conditioning for all employees should be provided. 14. Necessary private offices should be located where they are least interfered. 15. Personnel and equipment needs, both present and future, should be considered when determining space requirements and layout.
  17. 17. Principles of Layout 16.Water fountains , bulletin boards , and vending machines should be placed where they will cause the least congestion or distraction. 17.Rest rooms and lounge areas should be conveniently located.
  18. 18. Procedures for effective layout for the office 1. Office Manager should become familiar with general organizational arrangements. 2. He should analyze, the principal procedures and work flows. 3. He should discuss with each supervisor or department head their needs for space, the direction and plan of work flow for all operations in the office. 4. The blue print referred should be prepared and a scale drawing of the space under consideration should be prepared, showing the location of such items as windows, doors and columns.
  19. 19. Procedures for effective layout for the office 5. A tentative plan of office layout should be presented by arranging cut outs or models on the scale drawing or by pencilling in with a template the location of various items of furniture and equipment. 6. The proposed plans should be presented to those supervisors and department heads concerned and solicit their opinions and suggestions for improvements. 7. All items of furniture and equipments on the layout plan should be identified.
  20. 20. Office Layout – Recent Trends 1. Landscaped offices 2. Movables partitions a. Ceiling high partitions b. Half partitions up to the height of door c. Folding partitions up to the ceiling d. Counter high partitions that segregate general office from the private office. 3. Modular units
  21. 21. Open Office and Private Office
  22. 22. Advantages of Open Office 1. Better space utilization is possible, because space has not been lost by partitions. 2. The section heads or supervisors feel easy to watch the office. It is also possible to reduce the number of supervisors. 3. The layout of the office can be altered or changed without any expense. 4. There is more economy in arrangement of light. 5. Easy communication from department to department is possible.
  23. 23. Disadvantages of Open Office 1. Work will be affected by visitors and movement of the staff themselves. 2. There will be internal noise, because of the conversation in the office by staff themselves or visitors. 3. Infections and disease may spread quickly. 4. A big hall may not be efficiently supervised. 5. The office will appear to be a crowd place. 6. Secrecy cannot be maintained. 7. Top executives may not feel comfortable in the open office.
  24. 24. Advantages of Private Office 1. There is increase in efficiency on account of absence of noise. 2. Confidentiality can be maintained as greater privacy is possible. 3. It promotes personal atmosphere. 4. It adds value and prestige to the individuals.
  25. 25. Disadvantages of Private Office 1. Lot of space is wasted for partitions. 2. It affects the flow of work. 3. More supervisors are needed to watch the work done in office. Thus supervision becomes more expensive. 4. It is more expensive to build separate offices. 5. There will be more expenses to provide adequate light. 6. Cleaning of the office becomes a tedious work.
  26. 26. Disadvantages of Private Office 7. The office layout will be a complicated one. 8. More expensive furniture arrangement is needed than the open office or general office. 9. Extra means of communication is needed for each room. 10.Assistants, messengers have to waste time to see whether the concerned man is there or not in the private room.
  27. 27. The environment, in which the office employee performs office services is known as office environment. Office environment includes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Working place Working condition Working hours Working equipments Training facilities Incentive payment system etc.
  28. 28. The advantages of a good office environment to the employees 1. Ease in work 2. Simplicity in work 3. Improvement in mental and physical fitness
  29. 29. The advantages of a good office environment to the concern 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Increase in production Increase in profits Increase in efficiency Improvement in employees relations Reduction in employees turnover Reduction in employees absenteeism Increase in the goodwill.
  30. 30. Physical Conditions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Lighting Ventilation Colour Conditioning Air-Conditioning Reduction of Noise Cleanliness Safety Provisions
  31. 31. * Lighting * 1. The light must be sufficient for the work but not too strong, otherwise glare will result. 2. There should be no dark shadows cast. 3. The lighting system should be efficient, i.e. the required lighting should be given at the minimum cost. 4. The lighting fittings should be made sturdy and of good appearance when both lit and unlit. 5. It should be possible to vary the amount of light as required.
  32. 32. Lighting 6. The walls should be decorated in light shades in order to gain the maximum light reflection. 7. Furniture with light finishes should be chosen, with the desk tops having a similar finish to avoid too great a contrast when papers are laid on them. 8. To avoid glare, light should be suitably shaded or diffused so that an angle of at least forty five degrees is created between the worker’s eyes and the lights. 9. Desks should have matt, not polished or glossy surfaces, and glossary cards and paper should not be used.
  33. 33. Good quality light Good quality light is relatively free from glare and diffused evenly about the seeing area. Brightness should be fairly uniform rather than varying greatly from one portion of office to another. Shadows have to be minimized, though it is not possible to eliminate them in total.
  34. 34. Types of glare 1. Direct glare – it is produced by a sharply contrasting light source within the field of vision. 2.Reflected glare – it occurs when light strikes a bright or polished surface.
  35. 35. Sources of light 1. Incandescent light 2. Fluorescent light
  36. 36. Normal lighting The office must try to use natural lighting or day light. Large windows, adequate number of skylights, bright colouring of walls and the ceiling may be used to get the maximum advantage of natural. Provisions should be made to prevent direct sunlight falling upon the surface. Light should come from behind the left shoulder of an employee. Natural lighting is not only economical but also healthy.
  37. 37. Artificial lighting The cost of installation and maintenance of artificial light is high. The natural light may be supplemented with the artificial light. Artificial lighting is used where the rooms do not allow natural light to penetrate in adequate quantity. However, artificial lighting is not healthy and strains the eyes of employees.
  38. 38. Types of artificial lighting 1. Direct lighting 2.Semi-direct 3.Indirect lighting 4.Semi-indirect 5.General
  39. 39. Benefits of good lighting 1.Increased output 2.Better quality of work 3.Reduction of fatigue 4.Better employee morale
  40. 40. * Ventilation *  Ventilation refers to supply of free air at the right temperature and of right humidity.  Ventilation is one of the most common office problems; draughts can cause more strong feeling than any other aspect of the environment.  The requirements of good ventilation are that there should be a constant flow of fresh air to remove staleness without causing draught.
  41. 41. * Colour Conditioning *  Colours convey feelings.  Different colour combinations not only add to the appearance of a room, but also has a psychological effect on the people who are working in it.  Bright and cheerful colours have a cheering effect on them resulting in more and better work.  Soft, cool colours are the most suitable for offices.  Colour can also be used to provide some degree of individuality; each section, department or entire floor of an office can be given its own colour scheme.
  42. 42. * Air-Conditioning * Air-conditioning system falls into two categories – Package and Central. Advantages: 1. It helps to protect the product or equipment in the plan. 2. It helps safeguard their health. 3. It helps to keep production costs low. 4. It helps maintain employees’ efficiency.
  43. 43. * Reduction of Noise * Internal noise is created by: 1. Movement of machines. 2. Movements and conversation of clerks, peons, visitors etc. 3. Cracking doors 4. Calling bells, telephone bells. 5. Shifting of furniture from one place to another.
  44. 44. Reduction of Noise External noise is created by: 1. Street sound 2.Noise from moving vehicles 3. Noise due to the opening and closing of doors and windows.
  45. 45. Control of noise 1. Office can be located in a quite place. 2. Sound absorbing materials for office floors, ceiling and walls can be used. 3. Doors can be fitted with door closers and rubber lining or with hydraulic controls. 4. From the main office, telephone switch boards should be housed far away.
  46. 46. * Cleanliness * It is the office manager’s task to see that the offices are kept clean, the cleaners employed are properly supervised and that they are provided with adequate equipment.
  47. 47. * Safety Provisions * 1. Sanitary requirements 2. Over-crowding 3. Drinking water 4. Spittoons 5. Toilets 6. Canteen 7. Rest rooms
  48. 48. Fire Precautions 1. Fire exits shoild be marked clearly. 2. All members of staff should be informed individually on how to find the nearest fire exit in the event of a fire alarm. 3. The fire alarm should be tested regularly. 4. Adequate fire extinguishers should be installed. 5. Staff should be trained to use fire extinguishers.
  49. 49. Fire Precautions 6. Fire extinguishers should be inspected regularly to ensure that they are in proper working order. 7. Each member of staff should be provided individually with a carefully prepared procedures sheet explaining what to do in the event of a fire. 8. The telephone operator should be aware of the procedure in case of fire.
  50. 50. Fire Precautions 9. Fire drills should be held regularly. 10. An automatic fire alarm system should be installed. 11. Ash trays should be provided to avoid placing lighted cigarette stumps in waste paper baskets. 12. The main electric switch in the building should be switched off when the offices are not occupied.
  51. 51. Fire Precautions 13. Flammable materials should not be left in the sun. 14.A fire prevention code should be issued to all staff incorporating items such as switching off all machines at night and unplugging them from the power points; ensuring that all heaters/fires are switched off.
  52. 52. Four main criteria in choosing office furniture 1. Is it functional? 2.Is it attractive? 3. Is it hard wearing? 4.Is it cost within the budget?
  53. 53. Factors to be considered when buying office furniture Design Saving in space Appearance Comfort of the office worker Capital quality Durability Fire risk Weight Hygiene Safety
  54. 54. Desk Materials 1. Wood 2. Metal 3. Fibreglass Types of desks 1. Executive desks 2. Special purpose furniture 3. Built-in furniture 4. General clerical desks 5. Modular desks
  55. 55. Meaning of 5S Seiri – Sorting Out Seiton - Systematic Seiso – Spic and Span Seiketsu - Standardizing Shitsuke – Self-discipline
  56. 56. Benefits of 5S System 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Improved quality Achieve work standardization Decreased changeover time Improved safety Reduced storage costs Reduced cycle time Reduced machine down time Boost employee morale as well as work environment Helps to quickly identify the root cause of a problem. Helps to determine the relationship between root causes of a problem. 11. Can be learned quickly and does not require statistical analysis to be used.
  57. 57. Cost saving 1. 5S reduces the wastages of tools and materials. 2. It cuts down time spent for ordering and saves time for productive works; 5S is also time keeper. 3. It can be reduced production time and prevent late delivery. 4. It contributes positively to safety. 5. It establishes spacious, comfortable and visually excellent work place. 6. It requires faithful compliance to ruling. 7. Passage ways are clearly defined, preventing disorderliness of flow.
  58. 58. Standardization 1. It requires everyone to follow procedure ruling to execute his duty. 2. It makes procedure clear. 3. 5S standardization stabilizes process work, quality and cost. 4. It promotes work satisfaction and work moral. 5. It provides a clean, bright work environment.