MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM Kumpulan 14 Hasilatul Hana Hamzah Siti Nor Sheereen Maarof Muhammad Aizad Hassan
WHY WE CALL IT AS MANGROVE? The word “mangrove’ may have originated from the Malay word ‘manggi-manggi’ for the mangrove plant Avicennia and combined with the Arab word ‘el gurm’, to become ‘mang-gurm’.
MANGROVE FOREST Found in coastal areas all over the tropics Primarily in brackish water salty and fresh mix Cover approximately 22 million hectares in tropical and subtropical coasts
DISTRIBUTION OF WORLDMANGROVES REGION AREA % (km2)South and SE Asia 75,170 41.4The Americas 49,096 27.1West Africa 27,995 15.4Australasia 18,788 10.4East Africa and Middle East 10,348 5.7
DISTRIBUTION OF WORLDMANGROVES COUNTRY MANGROVES % (1000 Ha) GlobalIndonesia 4250 30Brazil 1376 10Australia 1150 8Nigeria 970 7Malaysia 641 5Bangladesh 611 4Myanmar 570 4Vietnam 540 4Cuba 530 4Mexico 525 4
FUNCTIONS & THREATS Serve as an important buffer between sea and land Lessen impact of intense storms Reduce erosion and increase sedimentation Important coastal pioneer species Act as basis for a complex, biologically diverse, and productive ecosystem Increasingly threatened Human development is most intense along coasts
IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY Mangal Is the place where Community of organisms in the mangrove habitat Mangrove Trees that flourish in the mangal
CHARACTERISTICS OF MANGAL Inundation with tides Increasing salinity towards ocean Sandy clay soil Nutrient poor Nitrogen & Phosphorus are limiting Limiting mangrove growth only Organic nutrients deposited via siltation Fresh water streams & down-shore currents Most all are of terrestrial origin In sum: Mangal is a harsh place to live
MANGROVES? Trees and shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the tropics and subtropics; They grow in loose, wet soils, salt water, and are periodically submerged by tidal flows; Their distribution throughout the world is affected by climate, salinity of the water, fluctuation of the tides, type of soil; Unique ecosystem generally found along sheltered coasts Diverse - about 110 species - only about 54 species in 20 genera from 16 families constitute the "true mangroves", TYPES OF MANGROVE PLANT: The most common tree species are Rhizophora, Avicennia, Bruguiera, Sonneratia, Xylocarpus and Nypa species
HOW ABOUT THEIR ECOSYSTEM?1. Intertidal ecosystem; anaerobic environment; plants able to tolerate high salinity.2. High productivity; place where sediment is collected.3. Allows organic matter to be transported to other system eg. Coral reefs and sea grass; via the flushing action of the waves.4. The mangroves leaves, use the sunlight and convert carbon dioxide to other organic compounds via photosynthesis.5. Carbon absorbed by plants via photosynthesis and nutrients from the soil will be converted to raw materials for the growth of the plants.6. The living and dead mangrove leaves together with the roots will produce carbon and nutrients to be used by other organisms in the ecosystem.
ABIOTIC COMPONENT 1. Soil (sand+mud + silt) - ‘topsoil’ divided to sandy or clayey. 2. pH - neutral or slightly acidic due to the ‘sulfur reducing bacteria’ and the presence of acidic silt. 3. Oxygen - Dissolved oxygen : low – anoxic area - can only be home for anaerobic bacteria, which releases hydrogen sulfide gas (bad smell) when the bacteria bread-down the organic matter without oxygen.
ABIOTIC COMPONENT 4. Nutrient - Because the soil is perpetually waterlogged, there is little free oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria liberate nitrogen gas, soluble iron, inorganic phosphates, and methane, which makes the soil much less nutritious. 5. Wind and waves - windy and wavy depends on the movement of the sea water. 6. Light, temperature - low light and temperature at low ground. 8. Salinity - high content of salt.
SALT WATER PROBLEM If a normal plant is watered with sea water, it will die because the sea water will extract the water from the plant High salinity will increase the salt concentration in the plant tissues and this will damage the metabolic processes and leads to death.
ADAPTATION TO HIGH SALINITY 1. Waxy Leaves Leaf that has coated on the outer side with a waxy cuticle that prevents water loss.
ADAPTATION TO HIGH SALINITY 2. Salt exclusion at leaves ability of a mangrove to exclude salt at the surface of their leaves. So, that the salt content in the plant can be regulated.
ADAPTATION TO HIGH SEDIMENTATION 1. Prop roots An adventitious root that arises from the stem, penetrates the soil, and helps support the stem
ADAPTATION TO HIGH SEDIMENTATION 2. Pneumatophores Pneumatophores or breathing roots (Sonneratia) are roots from the underground root system, which appear laterally. These roots are used for respiration of the plant.
ADAPTATION TO HIGH SEDIMENTATION 3. Buttress root Buttress roots (Bruguiera) are roots from the tree trunk and expanded to a structure which looks like a ‘flattened blade’. These roots provide mechanical support for plants that grow in soft and instable substrates.
ADAPTATION TO HIGH SEDIMENTATION Stilt roots Stilt roots (Rhizophora), are roots from the tree and grow into the substrate. These roots are mechanical support for plants growing in silt and muddy substrate.
ADAPTATION TO REPRODUCTION 1. Vivipary normal Reproduction and growth while still attached to plant Fertilization Propagule growth (a ready-to-go seedling) Mature propagule Young propagule a.k.a. Hypocotyl
ADAPTATION TO REPRODUCTION 2. Maturity -> Drop off maternal plant 3. Float horizontally initially Dispersal to novel environments ideally 4. Float vertically with appropriate environmental conditions 5. Rooting and growth
ADAPTATION TO REPRODUCTION 6. Pollination Pollination method varies by species Wind (Rhizophora) bat or hawk moth (Sonneratia) birds and butterflies (Bruguiera) bees (Acanthus, Aegiceras, Avicennia, Excoecaria, Xylocarpus) fruit flies (Nypa) other small insects (Ceriops, Kandelia)
ZONATION Intraspecific Differences in Environmental Tolerances 1. Salinity variations and adaptations for excreting salt 2. Tidal Inundation and adaptations for gas exchange 3. Low soil stability, Shore morphology, and adaptations for rooting 4. Sedimentation rates and types
MANGAL HABITAT TYPES Riverine Often found in river deltas Constant influx of freshwater Great changes in salinity levels Basin Mangroves Inland, behind coastal mangroves Little change in tides, no wave action Often higher salinity than others (evaporation) Tide-Dominated Coastal front habitats Frequent sedimentation Unstable morphology due to coastal erosion
MANGROVE ANIMALS ADAPTATION Migratory Shorebirds. Different species of migratory shorebirds have different bill shapes and lengths allowing each species to probe the mud at different depths to find food. For the reason, large number of different shorebirds can feed on the same mudflat without competing with each other for food.
MANGROVE ANIMALS ADAPTATION The mudskipper is really a fish. It has modified fins which help it to move on land. When on land, it breathes through its damp skin and by holding water in its mouth. Huge eyes on top of it to see better, allowing it to hunt for prey and also to escape from predators. These structural adaptation help the Mudskipper cope with the mangrove environment, catch prey and escape predators!
MANGROVE ANIMALS ADAPTATION Tree-climbing Crabs. During high tide, the Tree-climbing Crab climbs up a tree avoid being eaten by predatory fish. Once out of the water, it must remain still to avoid being spotted by predators like the kingfishers and water monitor lizards. The above behavioural adaptations help the Tree- climbing Crab escape predators.
THREATS TO MANGROVESDegradation and Destruction of Mangroves
CAUSES OF MANGROVE DEGRADATION Degradation : change of a chemical compound to a less complex compound. Nature‐induced changes, tropical storms and tsunami. Diseases. Biological pests and parasites.
CAUSES OF MANGROVE DESTRUCTION Destruction : The action or process of causing so much damage to something that it no longer exists or cannot be repaired. Urbanization Agriculture Cutting for timber, fuel and charcoal Oil pollution