States Of Consciousness


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Continuum of Consciousness
- Controlled and Automatic Processes
- Altered States of Consciousness
- Psychoactive Drugs
- Sleep and Dreams
- Different Stages of Sleep (REM and N-REM)
- 4 Major Questions About Sleep
- Sleep Disorders
- The Unconscious Mind
- Unconsciousness

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States Of Consciousness

  1. 1. States of Consciousness Aiyana Cruz Jedd De Luna Reicelene Ignacio Aurora Nivera 2JRN3
  2. 2. Consciousness  Individual awareness of one‟s unique thoughts, memories, feelings, sensatio ns and environment Continuum of Consciousness  wide range of experiences from being aware and alert to being unaware and unresponsive
  3. 3. Continuum of Consciousness 1. Controlled Processes  Full awareness, alertness, and concentration  Usually interferes with other ongoing activities 2. Automatic Processes  Little awareness and take minimal attention  Do not interfere with other ongoing activities
  4. 4. Continuum of Consciousness 3. Daydreaming  Low level of awareness  Often occurs during automatic processes  Involves fantasizing/dreaming while awake  Occurs in situations that are boring or require little attention
  5. 5. Continuum of Consciousness 4. The Unconscious  “It contains all sorts of significant and disturbing material which we need to keep out of awareness because they are too threatening to acknowledge fully” – Sigmund Freud
  6. 6. Continuum of Consciousness 4. The Unconscious  Process of Free Association - a method of exploring a person's unconscious by eliciting words and thoughts that are associated with key words provided by a psychoanalyst  Dream Interpretation - the process of assigning meaning to dreams
  7. 7. Continuum of Consciousness 5. Unconsciousness  Total unawareness and loss of responsiveness to one‟s environment 6. Altered States  Awareness that differs from normal consciousness  Results from using any procedures: meditation, hypnosis, or psychoactive drugs
  8. 8. Altered States A. Meditation  The practice of focusing attention  To enhance awareness and gain more control of physical and mental processes  Increased alpha & theta rhythm – Feeling deeply relaxed and free from being stressed B. Hypnosis  Trance-like state  A procedure that opens people to the power of suggestion
  9. 9. Altered States C. Psychoactive Drugs  “recreational drugs”  A chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior
  10. 10. Altered States 4 Types of Psychoactive Drugs a. Stimulants: drugs that stimulate the central nervous system. b. Sedatives: drugs that slow down the central nervous system c. Narcotics: also called opiates; drugs that can relieve pain d. Hallucinogens: drugs that cause sensory and perceptual distortions
  11. 11. Continuum of Consciousness 7. Sleep and Dreams  Sleep – involves different levels of consciousness and psychological arousal, which occurs in 5 stages.  Dreams – astonishing visual, auditory and tactile images in sleep, which occurs in the REM stage.
  12. 12. Sleep Stages of Sleep  Distinctive changes in the electrical activity of the brain  REM stands for Rapid Eye Movement, because eyes move rapidly back and forth behind closed lids.  NREM stands for Non-Rapid Eye Movement
  13. 13. Stages of Sleep *Alpha Stage  Relaxed and drowsy stage  Alpha Waves – low amplitude and high frequency
  14. 14. Stages of Sleep Two Major Categories of Sleep A. Non-REM Sleep  Approximately 80% of sleep time Stage 1 (Theta Waves)  Transition from wakefulness to sleep  Lasts 1-7 minutes  Gradually lose responsiveness to stimuli and experience drifting thoughts and images  Theta Waves - lower amplitude and lower frequency than alpha waves  *Hypnic Jerk – falling sensation
  15. 15. Stages of Sleep Stage 2 (Spindles)  Muscle tension, heart rate, respiration, and body temperature gradually decrease  Difficult to be awakened  Sleep Spindles – brief high frequency bursts of brain activity
  16. 16. Stages of Sleep Stage 3 (Delta & Theta Waves)  Approximately 30-45 minutes  Delta Waves - very high amplitude and very low frequency (slowest & largest waves)  20-50% of brain-wave pattern
  17. 17. Stages of Sleep Stage 4 (Delta Waves)  Delta Waves - very high amplitude and very low frequency (slowest & largest waves)  Deepest stage of sleep  Heart rate, respiration, body temperature and blood flow reduced  Secretion of Growth Hormone (controls levels of metabolism, physical growth and brain development)
  18. 18. Stages of Sleep B. REM Sleep  Remaining 20% of sleep time Stage 5  Brain waves have fast frequency and low amplitude  Brain waves are very similar to beta waves (when awake & alert)  Heart rate and blood pressure 2x as high than Non-REM  Highly associated with Dreaming  Pardoxical Sleep – both asleep and highly aroused *Awake and Alert
  19. 19. Sleep  Sleep Architecture - represents the cyclical pattern of sleep as it shifts between the different stages
  20. 20. Dreams  Impulses and desires of the id are suppressed by the superego.  Because the guards are down during sleep, the unconscious has the opportunity to act out and express the hidden desires of the id.  However, the desires of the id can, at times, be so disturbing and even psychologically harmful that a "censor" comes into play and translates the id's
  21. 21. 4 Major Questions About Sleep 1. How much sleep?  There is a gradual change in the total time spent sleeping. A. Infancy & Childhood  Newborn – Approximately 17 hours (50% in REM)  Toddler – Approximately 10 hours (25- 30% in REM)  Time spent in sleep and in REM gradually declines
  22. 22. 4 Major Questions About Sleep 1. How much sleep? B. Adolescence & Adulthood  Maintain same amount of sleep time  Approximately 7.5 hours a day (same amount of REM sleep, 20% or less)  However, adolescents need more sleep (about 10 hours) to aid body changes in puberty stage C. Old Age  Total sleep time drops to about 6.5 hours a day, but same amount of REM sleep
  23. 23. 4 Major Questions About Sleep 2. Why do I sleep?  1/3 of each day in sleep A. Repair Theory  Day-time activities deplete key factors in brain or body that are repaired in sleep  Sleep is a restorative process
  24. 24. 4 Major Questions About Sleep 2. Why do I sleep? B. Adaptive Theory  Sleep evolved to prevent early humans and animals from wasting energy and exposing themselves to nocturnal predators  Humans have little night vision so sleep is evolved to avoid becoming prey
  25. 25. 4 Major Questions About Sleep 3. What if I miss sleep?  Physiological functions (e.g. heart rate, blood pressure, hormones secretion) are not significantly disrupted  Affects immune system  Interfere with performance and cause moodiness
  26. 26. 4 Major Questions About Sleep 4. What causes sleep?  „Master Switch‟ found in VPN (Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus)  Sleep and awake involve a complex interaction between circadian rhythms, brain areas, sleep-inducing chemicals, and body temperature
  27. 27. 4 Major Questions About Sleep 4. What causes sleep?  VPN – nucleus in hypothalamus that acts as master switch for sleep o On – VPN secretes GABA (neurotransmitter that turns off areas that keeps the brain awake) • Reticular Formation – one of areas turned off. A column of cells that stretches the length of the brain stem, arouses and alerts the forebrain (receive and process info. from senses) o Off – Certain brain areas become active
  28. 28. Rythms of Sleeping and Waking Biological Clocks  Internal timing devices that regulates physiological responses for different periods of time. Circadian Rhythms  physical, mental and behavioral changes that follow a roughly 24-hour cycle, responding primarily to light and darkness in an organism‟s environment
  29. 29. Rythms of Sleeping and Waking Circadian Rhythms  regulates sleep-wake cycle, hormone release, body temperature and other important bodily functions  controlled by the Master Clock that consists of a group of nerve cells in the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus, or SCN  Suprachiasmatic Nucleus – regulates secretion of melatonin
  30. 30. Sleep Disorders  Somnambulism/Sleep Walking – sitting, walking or performing complex behavior while sleeping.  Night Terrors – extreme fear, agitation or screaming while asleep. A state of panic experienced when sound asleep.  Restless Leg Syndrome – uncomfortable sensations in legs causing movement and loss of sleep  Nocturnal Leg Cramps – painful cramps in calf or foot muscles
  31. 31. Sleep Disorders  Circadian Rhythms Disorders – disturbances of sleep-wake cycle such as jet lag and work shifts. Jet Lag – experienced by travelers whose internal clock is not synced with the external clock time in their new location, which results in fatigue, disorientation, lack of concentration and reduced cognitive skills
  32. 32. Sleep Disorders  Hypersomnia – Excessive day time sleepiness  Enuresis – urinating while asleep in bed  Insomnia – inability to get to sleep, stay asleep or get good quality sleep.  Sleep Apnea – consist of loud snoring and stopped breathing.  Nacrolepsy – consist of sudden onset of REM sleep during otherwise waking hours.
  33. 33. References Ciccarelli, S. & White, J. (2012). Psychology (3rd. Ed.). Upper Sadle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Cherry, K. (2013). What is Consciousness. Retrieved, July 1, 2013, from: ousness/f/consciousness.htm Dietrich, A. (2007). Introduction to Consciousness. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan Dream Moods. (2012). Dream Theorists: Sigmund Freud. Retrieved, July 20, 2013, from:
  34. 34. References McLeod, S. (2009). Unconscious Mind. SimplyPsychology. Retrieved, July 1, 2013, from: mind.html Peters, B. (2011). What is sleep architecture?. Retrieved, July 18, 2013, from: eepdisorder/a/What-Is-Sleep-Architecture.htm Plotnik, R. (1998). Introduction to Psychology (5th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company. National Sleep Foundation. (2013). How much sleep do we really need?. Retrieved, July