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Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
Malnutrition
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Malnutrition

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biology form 4 chapter 6

biology form 4 chapter 6

Published in: Education
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  • 1. Introduction Malnutrition is failing health that result from not eating a balance diet over a long period of time. Malnutrition refers to undernutrition resulting from inadequate consumption or excessive loss of nutrients It can also refer to overnutrition resulting from overeating or excessive intake of specific nutrients.
  • 2. Some Effects of Malnutrition Kwashiorkor  Caused by protein deficiency  Often due to poverty in developing nations. Families cannot afford to feed their young children with high protein food after the children have stopped feeding on mother‟s milk  It can be prevented by giving sufficient food containing protein food to young children  Symptoms are: ○ Swelling of the legs ○ Underweight ○ “moon face” ○ Swollen abdomen („pot belly‟) ○ Thin muscles but fat present ○ Dry, sparse, thin hair ○ Apathetic, little interest in his surrounding ○ Stunted growth
  • 3.  Marasmus  Caused by deficiency of energy and protein foods in children  Symptoms of marasmus are: ○ Underweight ○ „Old man face‟ ○ Thin muscles, thin fat ○ Stunted growth
  • 4. Excessive Intake of Lipids Atherosclerosis  Caused by diets rich in saturated fats and cholesterol  The cholesterol deposited below the inner lining of the arterial wall to form plagues. The plagues gradually become thicker and harder  If the coronary artery to the heart is partially blocked, the person may feel intense chest pain during strenuous physical exercise or emotional stress.  This is because inadequate oxygen is being supplied to the heart muscles for increased activities
  • 5. Continue… As the coronary artery becomes more blocked, there is insufficient supply O2 to the heart muscles. This leads to a heart attack (myocardial infarction)
  • 6.  Hypertension  Blood pressure is the force of the blood exerted on the walls of the blood vessels  The normal blood pressure for an adult is 120/80 mmHg  May be due to narrowing of the lumen of arteries and reduced elasticity  The heart has to pump harder to force the blood through the vessels  Hypertension usually gives a measurement of blood at 140/90 mmHg or higher  It may cause rupture of small arteries in the brain leading to stoke, heart enlargement, heart attack and renal failure  Sometimes known as the „silent killer‟. The affected person who does not go for regular medical check-ups may not be aware of it until a stroke or heart attack occurs.
  • 7.  Prevention  A healthy, balanced diet low in saturated fats and cholesterol with sufficient antioxidant vitamins (vit. A, C and E), whole grain cereals, nuts, leafy vegetables and fruits may help to prevent cardiovascular disease  Regular moderate exercise
  • 8. Excessive Intake ofCarbohydrates Diabetes mellitus  Caused by the failure of the pancreas to produce hormone insulin to regulate blood glucose levels.  The kidneys are unable to reabsorb the glucose. Excess glucose is removed in the urine.
  • 9. Prevention Moderate daily exercises, maintaining proper weight, eating a balanced diet containing unrefined carbohydrates and not smoking People with mild forms of diabetes can control their diet and limit the amount and type of carbohydrate They should avoid taking simple sugars In more severe cases, diabetics require daily insulin injections Diabetes is not treated, can lead to kidney failure, cataracts, blindness (diabetes meningitis) and heart disorder. Wounds will also be slow to heal
  • 10. Effects of CalciumDeficiency Osteoporosis  Generally associated with aging. Factors that increase the risk include low dietary intake of calcium and vit. D  It is also caused by decreasing levels of hormones, for eg. Oestrogen in females after menopause  In osteoporosis, there is a progressive loss of bone density and mineral content. The bones become thinner, more porous and fracture easily, especially at the hips, backbone and wrist
  • 11. Prevention It is suggested that people in mid-twenties and older consume dairy products daily Regular moderate exercises and not smoking
  • 12. Rickets Rickets is a softening of bones in children due to deficiency or impaired metabolism of vitamin D, phosphorus or calcium, potentially leading to fractures and deformity. The predominant cause is a vitamin D deficiency, but lack of adequate calcium in the diet may also lead to rickets (cases of severe diarrhoea and vomiting may be the cause of the deficiency). Although it can occur in adults, the majority of cases occur in children suffering from severe malnutrition, usually resulting from famine or starvation during the early stages of childhood.
  • 13. The End~ Appreciate what we have in our life ~

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