How infections can cause male infertility


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How infections can cause male infertility?
Sperm, Male factor infertility, infections and infertility in male.

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How infections can cause male infertility

  1. 1. How Infections Can Cause Male Infertility? By Aiswarya Lekshmi Biomedical Science
  2. 2. Summary What is infertility? How common is male infertility due to infections? Infections leading to infertility Factors leading to infertility How infections can cause male infertility? Why is it important to answer the above question?
  3. 3. What is Infertility? According to World Health Organisation… What is Male Infertility? Man’s incapacity to achieve successful pregnancy in a fertile female. Will I be successful this time!!!!! Courtesy:
  4. 4. How common is male infertility? Copyrights @ 2005 Dr. Rama's Infertility Fertility IVF Hospitals Hyderabad, India Infections 15 % How common is male infertility due to infections?
  5. 5. Infections leading to infertility Infections of male reproductive system Testicular involvement by orchitis directly impairs sperm production Male accessory gland (epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicles) and urethral infections by Obstruction or sub-obstruction Altered secretory function Release of inflammatory mediators Systemic infections: impair hormones, testicular function, and spermatogenesis (La Vignera et al., 2011)
  6. 6. Bacteria How it causes infertility? antioxidant capacity, chemoattraction, levels of protective cytokines, detached acrosomes, knobbed acrosomes, coiled tails. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Urethritis, epididymitis, orchitis, disseminated gonococcal infection Chlamydia trachomatis Urethritis, epididymitis, orchitis, inguinal swelling. Sperm tract obstruction, Break blood-testis barrier Impair sperm motility, Premature death of sperm LPS cause apoptosis mediated by caspase 3 (Sanocka-Maciejewska et al., 2005) Treponema pallidum Primary ulcer with local adenopathy, skin rashes, abortion, premature delivery Mycoplasma genitalium Urethral discharge (NGU). Attach to spermatozoa, cause female infertility Microorganisms involved in male infertility
  7. 7. Bacteria How it causes infertility? Mycoplasma hominis Impair motility, morphology & fertilization potential of spermatozoa Ureaplasma urealyticum Produce reactive oxygen species, reduced inducibility of acrosome reaction of sperm cells Enterobacteriaceae Non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, acute or chronic prostatitis Impair motility via sperm immobilization factor (SIF) (Prabha et al., 2010) causing structural damage, alter ejaculated sperm function Gram-positive cocci Prostatitis and epididymitis. Impair semen quality and quantity. Helicobacter pylori Anti-helicobacter antibodies react with the tails and the pericentriolar area of spermatozoa Mycobacterium spp. Damage testis, Social stigma and isolation. Microorganisms involved in male infertility (cont..)
  8. 8. Yeasts How it causes infertility? Candida albicans Superficial infection of the glans penis. Inhibit sperm motility, impair ultrastructure of spermatozoa Parasites Trichomonas vaginalis Non gonococcal urethritis. Proteinases released inhibit sperm motility Toxoplasma gondii Produce anti-sperm antibodies Filaria spp. Damage testes Plasmodium falciparum, Entamoeba hystolytica Testicular damage Secondary hypogonadism Microorganisms involved in male infertility (cont..)
  9. 9. Viruses Sperm aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation (Moretti et al., 2008), sperm apoptosis and necrosis Mumps virus Mumps orchitis , testicular atrophy. Herpesvirus (HSV-2 & HSV-1) Anogenital vesicular lesions and ulcerations. Poor sperm count and reduced motility Human papilloma viruses (HPV) Penile and anal warts; carcinoma of the penis. Impaired sperm motility and asthenozoospermia Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV), Hepatitis B & C viruses (HBV & HCV) Impairs sperm parameters, reduces forward motility(Cardona- Maya et al., 2011), HBV DNA integrate into sperm DNA causing mutations (hereditary) Microorganisms involved in male infertility (cont..)
  10. 10. Factors leading to infertility Problems with sperm production Abnormalities in spermatogenesis Problems with sperm quantity No sperm (azoospermia) Poor quantity of sperm (oligospermia) Problems due to obstruction Blockages - Tubal problems (Ductus deferens) Problems ejaculating Problems with sperm quality Low motility (asthenozoospermia) High percentage of abnormal sperm (teratozoospermia)
  11. 11. Requirements for fruitful fertilisation Spermatogenesis Seminal tract Sperm motility Capacitation Acrosome reaction Sperm-oocyte interactions © 2014 by the Society for Reproduction and Fertility
  12. 12. How infections can cause male infertility? Affect normal functioning of male reproductive system Disrupts blood-testis barrier Changes semen parameters Disrupts normal morphology, biochemistry and functioning of sperm Promotes reactions which produce ROS
  13. 13. Disruption of blood-testis barrier due to infection
  14. 14. Cleveland Clinic © 1995-2013
  15. 15. Sources of oxidative stress Cleveland Clinic © 1995-2013
  16. 16. Cleveland Clinic © 1995-2013 Sperm DNA damage
  17. 17. Dysregulated Apoptosis in Spermatozoa (Aitken et al., 2012) Infection DNA fragmentation as a consequence of apoptosis (Aitken et al., 2012)
  18. 18. Cleveland Clinic © 1995-2013 MAGI Immature / abnormal spermatozoa Protein Damage DNA Damage Biomembrane Damage Lipid Peroxidation Sperm Damage Infertility Prolonged stasis of spermatozoa in the epididymis or in transit The complect mechanisms of OS, DNA damage & Apoptosis
  19. 19. Reference: Agarwal, A. and Said, T. M. (2005) 'Oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in male infertility: a clinical approach.' BJU International, 95(4) pp. 503-507. Aitken, R. J. and Baker, M. A. (2013) 'Oxidative stress, spermatozoa and leukocytic infiltration: relationships forged by the opposing forces of microbial invasion and the search for perfection.' Journal Of Reproductive Immunology, 100(1) pp. 11-19. Garolla, A., Pizzol, D., Bertoldo, A., Menegazzo, M., Barzon, L. and Foresta, C. (2013) 'Sperm viral infection and male infertility: focus on HBV, HCV, HIV, HPV, HSV, HCMV, and AAV.' Journal Of Reproductive Immunology, 100(1) pp. 20-29. Kumar, R. (2008) 'Reproductive tract tuberculosis and male infertility.' Indian Journal Of Urology: IJU: Journal Of The Urological Society Of India, 24(3) pp. 392-395. La Vignera, S., Vicari, E., Condorelli, R. A., D'Agata, R. and Calogero, A. E. (2011) 'Male accessory gland infection and sperm parameters (review).' International Journal Of Andrology, 34(5 Pt 2) pp. e330-e347. La Vignera, S., Condorelli, R. A., Vicari, E., D'Agata, R. and Calogero, A. E. (2012) 'Sperm DNA damage in patients with chronic viral C hepatitis.' European Journal Of Internal Medicine, 23(1) pp. e19-e24. Pellati, D., Mylonakis, I., Bertoloni, G., Fiore, C., Andrisani, A., Ambrosini, G. and Armanini, D. (2008) 'Genital tract infections and infertility.' European Journal Of Obstetrics, Gynecology, And Reproductive Biology, 140(1) pp. 3-11.