Urinary System The urinary organ system contains organs located within the abdomen. These organs consist of: Two Kidneys The Bladder Two Ureters A Urethra
What are the kidneys The human body contains two kidneys one in each upper quadrant The kidneys are “bean-shaped organs.” Retroperitoneal Renal Capsule- the kidneys outer skin covering The kidneys consist of two main parts: Central-group of tubes called calyx and pelvis Outer Peripheral-Houses the cortex medulla, and medullarypyrmids
What are the kidneys Kidneys are made of nephrons. Nephrons are designed for filtering out the bloodstream Responsible for producing urine through several processes called: Filtration Reabsorption Secretion The Kidneys are participants in the regulation of red blood cells (RBC).
Picture of kidney Medullary Pyramid Cortex Renal capsule Pelvis Major Calices http://www.nsbri.org/HumanPhysSpace/focus4/ep-kidney.html
Functions Kidneys are responsible for cleansing blood and balancing fluid. Urine is manufactured to remove waste from the body. Nutrients and other useful substances filtered from urine are returned to the blood.
Hormones released by kidneys The kidneys release three hormones Erythropoietin which activates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells. Renin is a hormone that regulates blood pressure. Calcitriol aids to maintain calcium for bones and prevent abnormal chemical imbalances in body
Common Kidney Diseases Diabetic kidney disease- When nephrons are damaged because of an excessive amount of glucose. This disease is based on patients with diabetes. Glucose is produced and enter the blood. But with diabetes, the glucose does not break down acting as a poison in the blood.
Common Kidney Diseases High blood pressure (hypertension) damages the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys nephrons. Damaged blood vessel may not be able to filter out waste products from the blood if a patient is diagnosed with high blood pressure. If blood pressure is consistently high kidney function will continue to decline.
Treatments for Hypertension Physicians prescribe medications such as ACE and ARB. According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute advises that patients with diabetes or abnormal reduced kidney functionkeep blood pressure below 130/80. Also reducing stress and incorporating meditation in daily activities can help lower high blood pressure.
Treatments for Diabetic kidney disease A patient should frequently monitor blood glucose levels to keep it normal. This treatment can either prevent or delay diabetic kidney disease. Medications such as angiotensin-converting enzymes inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blocker can also be used to prevent or delay diabetic kidney disease
Healthy kidneys In order to keep healthy and productive kidneys try the following” Monitoring and controlling blood pressure Glucose levels Follow a low-protein diet Maintain healthy cholesterol blood levels Do not smoke Medications such as ACE and ARB can be prescribed by a physician.