BUILDING MATERIALS AND
CONSTRUCTIONTECHNOLOGY - IV
AKSHAY ANAND
AISHWARYA DEOPUJARI
BHAVYA SHARMA
MAYANK KATYAL
SAARANSH T...
 A dropped ceiling is often a secondary
ceiling, hung below the main (structural)
ceiling. It may also be referred to as ...
 Visual - color, texture, pattern, shape
 Control diffusion of:
 light
 sound
 Conceal MPE
 Accommodate: lights, dif...
 Exposed Structural & MPE
 TightlyAttached
 Suspended
 Interstitial
 Exposed Structure & MPE
 Industrial, warehouse, …
▪ Economy & ease of maintenance
 Timber, trusses, etc.
▪ Often for a...
Exposed Structure Ceiling
“Joint” Preparation for Sprayed on Textured Ceiling
Textured Ceiling
Exposed Timber & MPE Services
 Attached directly to joists or slabs
 Special arrangements / accommodations for:
 Structural members (beams, girders)
...
 Suspended from the Structure
 Generally by wires
 Materials: drywall, plaster, fibrous (acoustic)
Structure
Suspended ...
Suspended Plaster Ceiling (note the delamination of the finish coat)
Acoustic “Lay-in Panels”
•Exposed Metal Grid
•2x2 or 2x4 Lay-in Panels
•MPE “sized” to fit grid or
cut into the acoustic t...
Main Runners
•Provide Main Ceiling Support
•Generally 4’ o.c.
•Attached to “Hangers”
•Additional hangers may be
required t...
Diffuser sized 2x2
“Recessed” Grid
Ceiling mounted - lights, sprinkler,
smoke detector, communication
Multiple Tile Finish...
Common Support Grid Profile
Suspended Ceiling
used as a
Fire Resistant Membrane
The Integrity
of the Fire
Resistant Rating
Must be Maintained
at the
C...
Suspended Acoustic Ceiling with a Gypsum ‘Fire’ Ceiling Above
 Common with elaborate MPE systems
 Hospitals & laboratories
 Purpose:
 Accommodate extensive MPE systems
 Provide ac...
 Flooring is the general term for a permanent
covering of a floor, or for the work of installing such
a floor covering.
...
 Functions:
 Visual
 Acoustics
 Light
 Wearing Surface
 Considerations
 Life / durability
 Skid resistance
 Sanit...
 Distribution of electrical /communications
 Methods
 Conduit
 Cellular Raceways
 Cellular Decking
 Raised Flooring
Under-floor Electrical Services
Placed in the concrete slab
 Softer base.
 Types of Soft flooring:
1. Carpets
2. Rugs
3. Resilients
 Types of installations:
 Installation
 Glued...
 Insulates against drafts
 Decreases noise
 More comforting feel
 Quality
 Pile (nap): visible surface of carpet
 De...
 Types based on materials:
NYLON: most popular, durable , easy to maintain,
limited colors.
POLYPROPYLENE:
 strong,
 no...
 Polyester bend:
• made from recycled plastics,
• resists stains and fading
 Acrylic:
• feels and looks like wool
• low ...
Glued Carpet abutting Terrazzo
Edge Strip
 Wool:
• soft
• durable
• long lasting
• expensive
• moth sensitive
• shrinkage
• allergies
• hard to clean
 Cut Pile
 Formal looking plush, velvet,
smooth, may flatten
 Saxony
 Similar to cut but yarns have
been twisted more ...
 Level Loop
 Loops are all same height, may have flecks of
darker color, durable
 Multi-level Loop
 Two or three loop ...
 Extends life of carpet
 Shock absorber
 Less than ½” thick
 Use of a Soft material
 Padded carpet
 Cushioned resilient flooring
 Resilient underlayment
 Selection of surroundin...
 Skid Resistance
 Measure by its static coefficient of friction (SCOF)
 Skid resistance – desirable to minimize slippin...
 Resistant to:
 Wear
 Moisture
 Noisy -conduct sound
 Types
 Concrete, stone, brick, tile, terrazzo
 Advantages
 Low initial cost
 Durable
 Common Uses
 Parking decks
 Warehouses
 Industrial
Exposed Concrete with a pattern & tinting
 Types
 Marble
 Granite
 Slate
 Sandstone etc.
 Installation
 Setting Bed
 Grouted joints
MARBLE
 Green Marble
 Golden Marble
 Rain Forest Brown Marble
 Rain Forest Golden Marble
 Rain Forest Green Marble
 ...
Marble
Granite
 Typically laid on face (but can be laid on edge)
 Often with a setting bed
With Grouted Joints Without Grouted Joints
Paver Patterns
 Fired Clay tiles
 Multiple shapes/sizes
 Installation
▪ Setting Bed (typical)
▪ Thin Set
▪ Grout Joints
 Fired Clay
 Often Glazed Finish
 Floors &Walls
 Multiple sizes & colors, smaller tiles shipped with backing
sheets
Reinforced ‘Mesh’
Bridge Cracks in Floor
Laying Ceramic Tile
Applying Adhesive with a Notched Trowel
Spacers Being Installed
Tile Placement
Cutting Tile
Small tile shipped with backing sheet
Decorative Ceramic Tile
 Ground/polished concrete
 Typ. granite or marble chips w/ colored cement
 Divider strips
▪ At changes in color/texture...
Brass Divider Strips
 Strip Flooring
 Tongue and groove
 Nailed to sub floor
 Pre-finished or unfinished
 Random Plank
 Wider than strips...
 Materials
 white & red oak, pecan, maple, pine, ….
 Types
 Wood Strip Flooring - blind nailed
 Square edge - fastene...
Blind Nailed Strip Flooring
Multiple Floor Finishes
wood, tile, & carpet
 Vinyl Composition
 Thin (1/8”), rolls or tiles (VCT)
 Will show substrate irregularities
 Multiple colors & patterns
...
 Indoor air quality: problems often caused by finish
materials and coatings ( glues, binders, fabrics, etc.)
 Mold & Mil...
Building materials and construction technlogoy- FALSE CEILING & FLOORING
Building materials and construction technlogoy- FALSE CEILING & FLOORING
Building materials and construction technlogoy- FALSE CEILING & FLOORING
Building materials and construction technlogoy- FALSE CEILING & FLOORING
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Building materials and construction technlogoy- FALSE CEILING & FLOORING

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This presentation is on false ceiling and flooring types.
It incorporates all the methodologies and 'know how's' an architecture student should be aware of.
Hope you find this informative.

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Building materials and construction technlogoy- FALSE CEILING & FLOORING

  1. 1. BUILDING MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTIONTECHNOLOGY - IV AKSHAY ANAND AISHWARYA DEOPUJARI BHAVYA SHARMA MAYANK KATYAL SAARANSH TANGRI
  2. 2.  A dropped ceiling is often a secondary ceiling, hung below the main (structural) ceiling. It may also be referred to as a drop ceiling, T-bar ceiling,false ceiling, suspended ceiling, grid ceiling, drop in ceiling, or drop out ceiling .  The area above the dropped ceiling is called plenums pace.
  3. 3.  Visual - color, texture, pattern, shape  Control diffusion of:  light  sound  Conceal MPE  Accommodate: lights, diffusers, communication, sprinkler…  May assist with  fire resistance  distribution / return of HVAC
  4. 4.  Exposed Structural & MPE  TightlyAttached  Suspended  Interstitial
  5. 5.  Exposed Structure & MPE  Industrial, warehouse, … ▪ Economy & ease of maintenance  Timber, trusses, etc. ▪ Often for appearance  Flat Plate  Painted - hotels & apartments  Minimal MPE services in ceiling  Economy and reduces story height
  6. 6. Exposed Structure Ceiling “Joint” Preparation for Sprayed on Textured Ceiling Textured Ceiling
  7. 7. Exposed Timber & MPE Services
  8. 8.  Attached directly to joists or slabs  Special arrangements / accommodations for:  Structural members (beams, girders)  MPE systems
  9. 9.  Suspended from the Structure  Generally by wires  Materials: drywall, plaster, fibrous (acoustic) Structure Suspended Ceiling •Drywall •Plaster •Acoustic (incombustible fibers) Support Wires Ceiling Plenum space for ducts, pipes, conduit ... Support System •Metal Framing •Furring Channels •“Metal Grid
  10. 10. Suspended Plaster Ceiling (note the delamination of the finish coat)
  11. 11. Acoustic “Lay-in Panels” •Exposed Metal Grid •2x2 or 2x4 Lay-in Panels •MPE “sized” to fit grid or cut into the acoustic tile •Economical
  12. 12. Main Runners •Provide Main Ceiling Support •Generally 4’ o.c. •Attached to “Hangers” •Additional hangers may be required to support MPE “loads” Cross Tees •Intermediate Support •“Rest”/ attach to Mains •Spacing depends on tile “Difficult” to access Wall Angle •Attaches to wall
  13. 13. Diffuser sized 2x2 “Recessed” Grid Ceiling mounted - lights, sprinkler, smoke detector, communication Multiple Tile Finishes Available
  14. 14. Common Support Grid Profile
  15. 15. Suspended Ceiling used as a Fire Resistant Membrane The Integrity of the Fire Resistant Rating Must be Maintained at the Ceiling Penetrations Combination Light/Diffuser
  16. 16. Suspended Acoustic Ceiling with a Gypsum ‘Fire’ Ceiling Above
  17. 17.  Common with elaborate MPE systems  Hospitals & laboratories  Purpose:  Accommodate extensive MPE systems  Provide access for maintenance & updating services
  18. 18.  Flooring is the general term for a permanent covering of a floor, or for the work of installing such a floor covering.  Floor covering is a term to generically describe any finish material applied over a floor structure to provide a walking surface. TYPES OF FLOORING:  Hard flooring  Soft flooring  Flooring supporting under floor services
  19. 19.  Functions:  Visual  Acoustics  Light  Wearing Surface  Considerations  Life / durability  Skid resistance  Sanitation  Noise  Fire (resistance, combustibility)  Other (conductivity,..)
  20. 20.  Distribution of electrical /communications  Methods  Conduit  Cellular Raceways  Cellular Decking  Raised Flooring
  21. 21. Under-floor Electrical Services Placed in the concrete slab
  22. 22.  Softer base.  Types of Soft flooring: 1. Carpets 2. Rugs 3. Resilients  Types of installations:  Installation  Glued directly to substrate, or  Pad & tackless strip
  23. 23.  Insulates against drafts  Decreases noise  More comforting feel  Quality  Pile (nap): visible surface of carpet  Density: how close the tufts are made together, more important than depth  Heat setting  Twist  Depth
  24. 24.  Types based on materials: NYLON: most popular, durable , easy to maintain, limited colors. POLYPROPYLENE:  strong,  nonabsorbent,  resists stains and static,  colorfast,  cheap,  crushes easily,  limited colors,  heat sensitive
  25. 25.  Polyester bend: • made from recycled plastics, • resists stains and fading  Acrylic: • feels and looks like wool • low static level • resists mildew • subject to pilling
  26. 26. Glued Carpet abutting Terrazzo Edge Strip
  27. 27.  Wool: • soft • durable • long lasting • expensive • moth sensitive • shrinkage • allergies • hard to clean
  28. 28.  Cut Pile  Formal looking plush, velvet, smooth, may flatten  Saxony  Similar to cut but yarns have been twisted more giving less formal appearance  Frieze  Informal, curly texture, shows minimal marks
  29. 29.  Level Loop  Loops are all same height, may have flecks of darker color, durable  Multi-level Loop  Two or three loop heights, sculpted or embossed effect, good in high traffic areas  Cut and Loop Pile  Sculptured effect from some looks cut and some braided, very durable
  30. 30.  Extends life of carpet  Shock absorber  Less than ½” thick
  31. 31.  Use of a Soft material  Padded carpet  Cushioned resilient flooring  Resilient underlayment  Selection of surrounding material  Dense ceiling material below (plaster, drywall)  Mount ceiling on resilient clips or spring hangers
  32. 32.  Skid Resistance  Measure by its static coefficient of friction (SCOF)  Skid resistance – desirable to minimize slipping  Flame Resistance  Most flooring required to meet minimum criteria  Exit corridors typically have higher requirements
  33. 33.  Resistant to:  Wear  Moisture  Noisy -conduct sound  Types  Concrete, stone, brick, tile, terrazzo
  34. 34.  Advantages  Low initial cost  Durable  Common Uses  Parking decks  Warehouses  Industrial
  35. 35. Exposed Concrete with a pattern & tinting
  36. 36.  Types  Marble  Granite  Slate  Sandstone etc.  Installation  Setting Bed  Grouted joints
  37. 37. MARBLE  Green Marble  Golden Marble  Rain Forest Brown Marble  Rain Forest Golden Marble  Rain Forest Green Marble  Plain Green Marble GRANITE  Paradise Granites  Asian Granite  Black Galaxy Granite slab  Paradiso Granite  Kashmir Gold Granite  Himalayan Blue Granite  Raw Silk Granite  Indian Jubrana Granite
  38. 38. Marble
  39. 39. Granite
  40. 40.  Typically laid on face (but can be laid on edge)  Often with a setting bed With Grouted Joints Without Grouted Joints
  41. 41. Paver Patterns
  42. 42.  Fired Clay tiles  Multiple shapes/sizes  Installation ▪ Setting Bed (typical) ▪ Thin Set ▪ Grout Joints
  43. 43.  Fired Clay  Often Glazed Finish  Floors &Walls  Multiple sizes & colors, smaller tiles shipped with backing sheets
  44. 44. Reinforced ‘Mesh’ Bridge Cracks in Floor Laying Ceramic Tile
  45. 45. Applying Adhesive with a Notched Trowel
  46. 46. Spacers Being Installed
  47. 47. Tile Placement
  48. 48. Cutting Tile
  49. 49. Small tile shipped with backing sheet
  50. 50. Decorative Ceramic Tile
  51. 51.  Ground/polished concrete  Typ. granite or marble chips w/ colored cement  Divider strips ▪ At changes in color/texture, expansion/contraction
  52. 52. Brass Divider Strips
  53. 53.  Strip Flooring  Tongue and groove  Nailed to sub floor  Pre-finished or unfinished  Random Plank  Wider than strips  Screwed to sub floor, covered with wood plugs  Parquet  Small pieces arranged in different designs  Pre-finished squares for easy installation
  54. 54.  Materials  white & red oak, pecan, maple, pine, ….  Types  Wood Strip Flooring - blind nailed  Square edge - fasteners visible (or filled)  Parquet  Pre-finished or finished in-place (except parquet)
  55. 55. Blind Nailed Strip Flooring
  56. 56. Multiple Floor Finishes wood, tile, & carpet
  57. 57.  Vinyl Composition  Thin (1/8”), rolls or tiles (VCT)  Will show substrate irregularities  Multiple colors & patterns  Low cost, moderate durability  Installation - glued
  58. 58.  Indoor air quality: problems often caused by finish materials and coatings ( glues, binders, fabrics, etc.)  Mold & Mildew: can be a problem in carpets, wall coverings, & fabrics  Vinyl common in finishes: manufacture of vinyl releases significant amounts of air pollution  Recycling of interior materials in its infancy

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