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  1. 1. UgandaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search Republic of Uganda Jamhuri ya Uganda Flag Coat of arms Motto: For God and My Country Anthem: "Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty"Capital Kampala(and largest city) English[1] Official language(s) Swahili Luganda, Luo, Runyankore,Vernacular languages Runyoro, Ateso, Lumasaba, Lusoga, Samia Baganda 16.9% Banyankole 9.5% Basoga 8.4% Bakiga 6.9%Ethnic groups (2002) Iteso 6.4% Langi 6.1% Acholi 4.7% Bagisu 4.6%
  2. 2. Lugbara 4.2% Bunyoro 2.7% other 29.6% Demonym Ugandan Government Dominant-party system - President Yoweri Museveni - Prime Minister Amama Mbabazi Independence - from the United 9 October 1962 Kingdom Area - 236,040 km2 (81st) Total 91,136 sq mi - Water (%) 15.39 Population - 2009 estimate 32,369,558[2] (37th) - 2002 census 24,227,297 - 137.1/km2 (80th) Density 355.2/sq miGDP (PPP) 2010 estimate - Total $42.194 billion[3] - Per capita $1,226[3]GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate - Total $17.703 billion[3] - Per capita $514[3]Gini (1998) 43 (medium)HDI (2010) 0.422 (low) (143rd) Currency Ugandan shilling (UGX) Time zone EAT (UTC+3) - Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3) Drives on the left ISO 3166 code UG Internet TLD .ug Calling code +25611 006 from Kenya and Tanzania.
  3. 3. Coordinates: 1°17′N 32°23′E / 1.28°N 32.39°EUganda ( /juː ɡ ændə/ yew-GAN-də or /juː ɡ ɑ ː ː ː ndə/ yew-GAHN-də), officially theRepublic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East Africa. Uganda is bordered on the east byKenya, on the north by South Sudan, on the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, onthe southwest by Rwanda, and on the south by Tanzania. The southern part of the countryincludes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, which is also shared by Kenya and Tanzania.Uganda takes its name from the Buganda kingdom, which encompasses a large portion of thesouth of the country including the capital Kampala.The people of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago, when Bantu-speaking populations migrated to the southern parts of the country.[4] Uganda gainedindependence from Britain on 9 October 1962.The official languages are English and Swahili, although multiple other languages are spoken inthe country.Contents[hide] 1 History 2 Government o 2.1 Corruption 3 Geography 4 Districts, counties and kingdoms 5 Economy 6 Poverty o 6.1 Womens poverty 7 Demographics o 7.1 Religion 8 Health 9 Culture and sport 10 Education 11 Cuisine 12 Human rights 13 See also 14 References 15 External linksHistory
  4. 4. Construction of the Owen Falls Dam in Jinja. Construction occurred between 1951 and 1954Main article: History of UgandaThe Ugandans were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago. Bantu-speaking populations,who were probably from central Africa, migrated to the southern parts of the country.[4][5] Thesegroups brought and developed ironworking skills and new ideas of social and politicalorganization. The Empire of Kitara covered most of the great lakes area, from Lake Albert, LakeTanganyika, Lake Victoria, to Lake Kyoga. Its leadership headquarters were mainly in whatbecame Ankole, believed to have been run by the Bachwezi dynasty in the fourteenth andfifteenth centuries, who may have followed a semi-legendary dynasty known as the Batembuzi.Bunyoro-Kitara is claimed as the antecedent of later kingdoms; Buganda, Toro, Ankole andBusoga.[6] The Nilotic Luo invasion is believed to have led to the collapse of the Chwezi Empire.The twins Rukidi Mpuuga and Kato Kintu are believed to be the first kings of Bunyonro andBuganda after the Chwezi Empire collapsed, creating the Babiito and Bambejja Dynasty. Niloticpeople including Luo and Ateker entered the area from the north, probably beginning aboutA.D. 120. They were cattle herders and subsistence farmers who settled mainly in the northernand eastern parts of the country. Some Luo invaded the area of Bunyoro and assimilated with theBantu there, establishing the Babiito dynasty of the current Omukama (ruler) of Bunyoro-Kitara.[7] Luo migration continued until the 16th century, with some Luo settling amid Bantupeople in Eastern Uganda, with others proceeding to the western shores of Lake Victoria inKenya and Tanzania. The Ateker (Karimojong and Iteso) settled in the northeastern and easternparts of the country, and some fused with the Luo in the area north of Lake Kyoga.Arab traders moved inland from the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa in the 1830s. They werefollowed in the 1860s by British explorers searching for the source of the Nile. Protestantmissionaries entered the country in 1877, followed by Catholic missionaries in 1879.[8] TheUnited Kingdom placed the area under the charter of the British East Africa Company in 1888,and ruled it as a protectorate from 1894.As several other territories and chiefdoms were integrated, the final protectorate called Ugandatook shape in 1914. From 1900 to 1920, a sleeping sickness epidemic killed more than 250,000people,[9] about two-thirds of the population in the affected lake-shore areas.[10]Uganda gained independence from Britain in 1962, maintaining its Commonwealth membership.The first post-independence election, held in 1962, was won by an alliance between the UgandaPeoples Congress (UPC) and Kabaka Yekka (KY). UPC and KY formed the first post-independence government with Milton Obote as executive Prime Minister, the Buganda Kabaka(King) Edward Muteesa II holding the largely ceremonial position of President[11][12] and
  5. 5. William Wilberforce Nadiope, the Kyabazinga (paramount chief) of Busoga, as VicePresident.[citation needed]In 1966, following a power struggle between the Obote-led government and King Muteesa, theUPC-dominated Parliament changed the constitution and removed the ceremonial president andvice president. In 1967, a new constitution proclaimed Uganda a republic and abolished thetraditional kingdoms. Without first calling elections, Obote was declared the executivePresident.[13]After a military coup in 1971, Obote was deposed from power and the dictator Idi Amin seizedcontrol of the country. Amin ruled Uganda with the military for the next eight years[14] andcarried out mass killings within the country to maintain his rule. An estimated 300,000 Ugandanslost their lives at the hands of his regime.[15] Aside from his brutalities, he forcibly removed theentrepreneurial South Asian minority from Uganda, which left the countrys economy in ruins.[16]Amins atrocities were graphically accounted in the 1977 book, "A State of Blood," which waswritten by one of his former ministers after he fled the country.Amins reign was ended after the Uganda-Tanzania War in 1979 in which Tanzanian forces aidedby Ugandan exiles invaded Uganda. This led to the return of Obote, who was deposed once morein 1985 by General Tito Okello. Okello ruled for six months until he was deposed after the so-called "bush war" by the National Resistance Army (NRA) operating under the leadership of thecurrent president, Yoweri Museveni, and various rebel groups, including the Federal DemocraticMovement of Andrew Kayiira, and another belonging to John Nkwaanga.Museveni has been in power since 1986. In the mid- to late 1990s, he was lauded by the West aspart of a new generation of African leaders.[17] His presidency has included involvement in thecivil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and other conflicts in the Great Lakesregion, as well as the civil war against the Lords Resistance Army, which has been guilty ofnumerous crimes against humanity including child slavery and mass murder. Conflict in northernUganda has killed thousands and displaced millions.[18]
  6. 6. Yoweri Museveni, President of UgandaGovernmentMain article: Politics of UgandaThe President of Uganda, currently Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, is both head of state and head ofgovernment. The President appoints a Vice President, currently Edward Ssekandi, and a primeminister, currently Amama Mbabazi, who aid him in governing. The parliament is formed by theNational Assembly, which has 332 members. 104 of these members are nominated by interestgroups, including women and the army. The remaining members are elected for five-year termsduring general elections.[19]Political parties were restricted in their activities beginning in 1986, in a measure ostensiblydesigned to reduce sectarian violence. In the non-party "Movement" system instituted byMuseveni, political parties continued to exist, but they could only operate a headquarters office.They could not open branches, hold rallies, or field candidates directly (although electoralcandidates could belong to political parties). A constitutional referendum canceled this nineteen-year ban on multi-party politics in July 2005. Additionally, the constitutional term limit for thepresidency was changed from the previous two-term limit, in order to enable the currentpresident to continue in active politics.Presidential elections were held in February 2006. Yoweri Museveni ran against severalcandidates, the most prominent of them being Dr. Kizza Besigye.On Sunday, 20 February 2011, the Uganda Electoral Commission declared the 24-year reigningpresident Yoweri Kaguta Museveni the winning candidate of the 2011 elections that were heldon the 18th of February 2011. The opposition were, however, not satisfied with the results,condemning them as full of sham and rigging. According to the results released, Museveni wonwith 68% of the votes, easily topping his nearest challenger Kizza Besigye. Besigye, who wasformerly Musevenis physician, told reporters that he and his supporters downrightly snub theoutcome as well as the unremitting rule of Museveni or any person he may appoint. Besigyeadded that the rigged elections would definitely lead to an illegitimate lead and that it is up toUgandans to critically analyse this.The EU Election Observation Mission reported on improvements and flaws of the Ugandanelectoral process: "The electoral campaign and polling day were conducted in a peaceful manner[...] However, the electoral process was marred by avoidable administrative and logisticalfailures that led to an unacceptable number of Ugandan citizens being disfranchised."[20]Museveni will be heading Uganda for another 5 years, with the next elections anticipated to beheld in 2016.Corruption
  7. 7. Uganda is rated among countries perceived as very corrupt by Transparency International. It israted at 2.4 on a scale from 0 (perceived as most corrupt) to 10 (perceived as clean). [21]GeographyMap of UgandaThe country is located on the East African plateau, lying mostly between latitudes 4°N and 2°S(a small area is north of 4°), and longitudes 29° and 35°E. It averages about 1,100 metres(3,609 ft) above sea level, and this slopes very steadily downwards to the Sudanese Plain to thenorth. However, much of the south is poorly drained, while the centre is dominated by LakeKyoga, which is also surrounded by extensive marshy areas. Uganda lies almost completelywithin the Nile basin. The Victoria Nile drains from the lake into Lake Kyoga and thence intoLake Albert on the Congolese border. It then runs northwards into South Sudan. One small areaon the eastern edge of Uganda is drained by the Turkwel River, part of the internal drainagebasin of Lake Turkana.Lake Kyoga serves as a rough boundary between Bantu speakers in the south and Nilotic andCentral Sudanic language speakers in the north. Despite the division between north and south inpolitical affairs, this linguistic boundary runs roughly from northwest to southeast, near thecourse of the Nile. However, many Ugandans live among people who speak different languages,especially in rural areas. Some sources describe regional variation in terms of physicalcharacteristics, clothing, bodily adornment, and mannerisms, but others claim that thosedifferences are disappearing.
  8. 8. Mount Kadam, UgandaAlthough generally equatorial, the climate is not uniform as the altitude modifies the climate.Southern Uganda is wetter with rain generally spread throughout the year. At Entebbe on thenorthern shore of Lake Victoria, most rain falls from March to June and in theNovember/December period. Further to the north a dry season gradually emerges; at Gulu about120 km from the South Sudanese border, November to February is much drier than the rest of theyear.The northeastern Karamoja region has the driest climate and is prone to droughts in some years.Rwenzori, a snowy peaked mountainous region on the southwest border with Congo (DRC),receives heavy rain all year round and is the source of the Nile. The south of the country isheavily influenced by one of the worlds biggest lakes, Lake Victoria, which contains manyislands. It prevents temperatures from varying significantly and increases cloudiness and rainfall.Most important cities are located in the south, near Lake Victoria, including the capital Kampalaand the nearby city of Entebbe.Although landlocked, Uganda contains many large lakes; besides Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga,there are Lake Albert, Lake Edward and the smaller Lake George.Districts, counties and kingdomsUganda is divided into districts, spread across four administrative regions: Northern, Eastern,Central (Kingdom of Buganda) and Western. The districts are subdivided into counties. Anumber of districts have been added in the past few years, and eight others were added on July 1,2006 plus others added in 2010. There are now over 100 districts.[22] Most districts are namedafter their main commercial and administrative towns. Each district is divided into sub-districts,counties, sub-counties, parishes and villages.Parallel with the state administration, six traditional Bantu kingdoms have remained, enjoyingsome degrees of mainly cultural autonomy. The kingdoms are Toro, Ankole, Busoga, Bunyoro,Buganda and Rwenzururu.A clickable map of Uganda exhibiting its 111 districts and Kampala.
  9. 9. EconomyMain articles: Economy of Uganda and Energy in UgandaDowntown Kampala
  10. 10. For decades, Ugandas economy suffered from devastating economic policies and instability,leaving Uganda as one of the worlds poorest countries. The country has commenced economicreforms and growth has been robust. In 2008, Uganda recorded 7% growth despite the globaldownturn and regional instability.[23]Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizablemineral deposits of copper and cobalt. The country has largely untapped reserves of both crudeoil and natural gas.[24] While agriculture accounted for 56% of the economy in 1986, with coffeeas its main export, it has now been surpassed by the services sector, which accounted for 52% ofpercent GDP in 2007.[25] In the 1950s the British Colonial regime encouraged some 500,000subsistence farmers to join co-operatives.[26] Since 1986, the government (with the support offoreign countries and international agencies) has acted to rehabilitate an economy devastatedduring the regime of Idi Amin and the subsequent civil war.[2] Inflation ran at 240% in 1987 and42% in June 1992, and was 5.1% in 2003.Suburban KampalaBetween 1990 and 2001, the economy grew because of continued investment in the rehabilitationof infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, reduced inflation andgradually improved domestic security. Ongoing Ugandan involvement in the war in theDemocratic Republic of the Congo, corruption within the government, and slippage in thegovernments determination to press reforms raise doubts about the continuation of stronggrowth.In 2000, Uganda was included in the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt reliefinitiative worth $1.3 billion and Paris Club debt relief worth $145 million. These amountscombined with the original HIPC debt relief added up to about $2 billion. In 2006 the UgandanGovernment successfully paid all their debts to the Paris Club, which meant that it was no longerin the (HIPC) list. Growth for 2001–2002 was solid despite continued decline in the price ofcoffee, Ugandas principal export.[2] According to IMF statistics, in 2004 Ugandas GDP percapita reached $300, a much higher level than in the 1980s but still at half the Sub-SaharanAfrican average income of $600 per year. Total GDP crossed the 8 billion dollar mark in thesame year.
  11. 11. An advertisement for a mobile phone carrier on a van in KampalaEconomic growth has not always led to poverty reduction. Despite an average annual growth of2.5% between 2000 and 2003, poverty levels increased by 3.8% during that time.[27] This hashighlighted the importance of avoiding jobless growth and is part of the rising awareness indevelopment circles of the need for equitable growth not just in Uganda, but across thedeveloping world.[27]With the Uganda securities exchanges established in 1996, several equities have been listed. TheGovernment has used the stock market as an avenue for privatisation. All Government treasuryissues are listed on the securities exchange. The Capital Markets Authority has licensed 18brokers, asset managers and investment advisors including names like: African AllianceInvestment Bank, Baroda Capital Markets Uganda Limited, Crane Financial Services UgandaLimited, Crested Stocks and Securities Limited, Dyer & Blair Investment Bank, Equity StockBrokers Uganda Limited, Renaissance Capital Investment Bank and UAP Financial ServicesLimited.[28] As one of the ways of increasing formal domestic savings, pension sector reform isthe centre of attention (2007).[29][30]Uganda traditionally depends on Kenya for access to the Indian Ocean port of Mombasa.Recently, efforts have intensified to establish a second access route to the sea via the lakesideports of Bukasa in Uganda, and Musoma in Tanzania, connected by railway to Arusha in theTanzanian interior and to the port of Tanga on the Indian Ocean.[31] Uganda is a member of theEast African Community and a potential member of the planned East African Federation.Uganda has a large diaspora – residing mainly in the United States and the United Kingdom.This diaspora has contributed enormously to Uganda’s economic growth through remittancesand other investments (especially property). According to the World Bank, in 2010/2011 Ugandagot $694 million in remittances from Ugandans abroad, the highest foreign exchange earner forthe country.[32] Uganda also serves as an economic hub for a number of neighbouring countrieslike the Democratic Republic of Congo,[33] South Sudan [34] and Rwanda.[35]PovertyUganda is one of the poorest nations in the world, with 37.7 per cent of its population livingbelow the international poverty line of US$1.25 per day in 2009 [36]. Despite making enormousprogress in reducing the countrywide poverty incidence from 56 per cent of the population in
  12. 12. 1992 to 31 per cent in 2005[37], poverty remains deep-rooted in the country’s rural areas, whichare home to more than 85 per cent of Ugandans. Among these poor, women are the poorest.Womens povertyPeople in rural areas of Uganda depend on farming as the main source of income and 90 per centof all rural women work in the agricultural sector [38]. In addition to agricultural work, ruralwomen also have the responsibility of caretaking within their families. The average Ugandanwoman spends 9 hours a day on domestic tasks, such as preparing food and clothing, fetchingwater and firewood, and caring for the elderly, the sick as well as orphans. As such, women onaverage work longer hours than men, between 12 and 18 hours per day, with a mean of 15 hours,as compared to men, who work between 8 and 10 hours a day [39].To supplement their income, rural women may engage in small-scale entrepreneurial activitiessuch as rearing and selling local breeds of animals. Nonetheless, because of their heavyworkload, they have little time for these income-generating activities. The poor cannot supporttheir children at school and in most cases, girls drop out of school to help out in domestic workor to get married. Other girls engage in sex work. As a result, young women tend to have olderand more sexually experienced partners and this puts women at a disproportionate risk of gettingaffected by HIV, accounting for about 57 per cent of all adults living with HIV. [40]Gender inequality is a main hindrance to reducing women’s poverty. Women must submit to anoverall lower social status than men. For many women, this reduces their power to actindependently, participate in community life, become educated and escape reliance upon abusivemen [41] .Uganda has realized that the lack of women’s rights is part of the major causes of poverty in thecountry. Results of the 1998/99 Uganda Participatory Poverty Assessment (UPPAP) – on whichthe revised Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) is based – and the UPPAP2 (2001/2002)demonstrate strong linkage between gender and poverty [42] . Key policies such as the NationalGender Policy in 1997 have also been enacted to mainstream gender in the national developmentprocess to improve the social, legal/civic, political, economic and cultural conditions of thepeople, especially of women. Also, the National Action Plan on Women (NAPW) wasimplemented in 1999 to identify five critical areas for action in order to advance women’s rights:legal and policy framework and leadership; social and economic empowerment of women;reproductive health, rights and responsibilities; girl child education; peace building conflictresolution and freedom from violence.DemographicsMain article: Demographics of UgandaSee also: Languages of Uganda and Religion in Uganda
  13. 13. Ethnolinguistic map of UgandaLira, UgandaUganda is home to many different ethnic groups, none of whom forms a majority of thepopulation. Around forty different languages are regularly and currently in use in the country.English became the official language of Uganda after independence. Ugandan English is a localvariant dialect.The most widely spoken local language in Uganda is Luganda, spoken predominantly by theGanda people (Baganda) in the urban concentrations of Kampala, the capital city, and in townsand localities in the Buganda region of Uganda which encompasses Kampala. The Lusoga andRunyankore-Rukiga languages follow, spoken predominantly in the southeastern andsouthwestern parts of Uganda respectively.Swahili, a widely used language throughout eastern and central East Africa, was approved as thecountrys second official national language in 2005,[43] though this is somewhat politicallysensitive. Though the language has not been favoured by the Bantu-speaking populations of thesouth and southwest of the country, it is an important lingua franca in the northern regions. It is
  14. 14. also widely used in the police and military forces, which may be a historical result of thedisproportionate recruitment of northerners into the security forces during the colonial period.The status of Swahili has thus alternated with the political group in power.[44] For example,Amin, who came from the northwest, declared Swahili to be the national language.[45]Uganda’s population has grown from 4.8 million people in 1950 to 24.3 million in 2002.[46] Thecurrent estimated population of Uganda is 32.4 million. Uganda has a very young population,with a median age of 15 years.[2]ReligionMain article: Religion in Uganda Religion in Uganda[2]Religion percentChristianity   84%Islam   12%Other or None   4%Church in EntebbeAccording to the census of 2002, Christians made up about 84% of Ugandas population.[47] TheRoman Catholic Church has the largest number of adherents (41.9%), followed by the AnglicanChurch of Uganda (35.9%). Evangelical and Pentecostal churches claim the rest of the Christianpopulation. The next most reported religion of Uganda is Islam, with Muslims representing 12%of the population.[47] The Muslim population is primarily Sunni; there is also a minoritybelonging to the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. The remainder of the population followtraditional religions (1%), Bahai (0.1%), other non-Christian religions (0.7%), or have noreligious affiliation (0.9%).[47]The northern and West Nile regions are predominantly Catholic, while the Iganga District ineastern Uganda has the highest percentage of Muslims. The rest of the country has a mix ofreligious affiliations.[48]Traditional indigenous beliefs are practiced in some rural areas and are sometimes blended withor practiced alongside Christianity or Islam. In addition to a small community of Jewishexpatriates centered in Kampala, Uganda is home to the Abayudaya, a native Jewish communitydating from the early 1900s. One of the worlds seven Baháí Houses of Worship is located on theoutskirts of Kampala. See also Baháí Faith in Uganda.
  15. 15. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugeesand Immigrants, Uganda hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering 235,800in 2007. The majority of this population came from Sudan (162,100 persons), but also includedrefugees and asylum seekers from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (41,800), Rwanda(21,200), Somalia (5,700) and Burundi (3,100).[49]Indian nationals are the most significant immigrant population; members of this community areprimarily Ismaili (Shia Muslim followers of the Aga Khan) or Hindu. More than 30 years ago,there were about 80,000 Indians in Uganda. After Idi Amin mandated the expulsion of theUgandan-Asians (mostly of Indian origin), the population was greatly reduced. Today there areabout 15,000.[50]HealthMain articles: Health in Uganda and HIV/AIDS in UgandaUganda has been among the rare HIV success stories, one of the reasons being openness.[51] Inthe 1980s, more than 30% of Ugandan residents had HIV; this had fallen to 6.4% by the end of2008, the most effective national response to AIDS of any African country.[52] This is supportedby the findings of a 2006 study that modern contraceptive use in Uganda is low.[53]Infant mortality rate was at 79 per 1,000 in 2005.[51] Life expectancy was at 50.2 for females, and49.1 for males in 2005.[51] There were 8 physicians per 100,000 persons in the early 2000s.[51]The 2006 Uganda Demographic Health Survey (UDHS)indicates that roughly 6000 women dieeach year due to pregnancy-related complications.[54] However, recent pilot studies by FutureHealth Systems have shown that this rate could be significantly reduced by implementing avoucher scheme for health services and transport to clinics.[55]Ugandas elimination of user fees at state health facilities in 2001 has resulted in an 80% increasein visits; over half of this increase is from the poorest 20% of the population.[56] This policy hasbeen cited as a key factor in helping Uganda achieve its Millennium Development Goals and asan example of the importance of equity in achieving those goals.[27] Despite this policy, manyusers are denied care if they dont provide their own medical equipment, as happened in thehighly publicised case of Jennifer Anguko.[57]Culture and sport This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2011)
  16. 16. Young boys playing football (soccer) in Arua District.Main articles: Culture of Uganda, Music of Uganda, Cuisine of Uganda, List of African writers(by country)#Uganda, and List of UgandansOwing to the large number of communities, culture within Uganda is diverse. Many Asians(mostly from India) who were expelled during the regime of Amin have returned to Uganda.[58]Football is the national sport in Uganda.[citation needed] Games involving the Ugandan nationalfootball team usually attract large crowds of Ugandans from all walks of life. The UgandanSuper League is the top division of Ugandan football contested by 16 clubs from across thecountry; it was created in 1968.[citation needed] Football in Uganda is managed by the Federation ofUganda Football Associations (FUFA). The association administers the national football team, aswell as the Super League. South African broadcaster DStv through its Super Sport networkbroadcasts the Ugandan League to 46 different countries in sub Saharan Africa. Football isplayed all over Uganda especially by children in schools and young people on a variety of pitchsurfaces. There is a strong following amongst Ugandans for European club football especiallythe English Premier League[citation needed] with London club Arsenal FC having the biggestfollowing closely followed by Manchester United; Liverpool and Chelsea come in at a distantthird and fourth respectively.[citation needed] Barcelona in Spain has also attracted a sizable followingin Uganda due to its recent run of success in La Liga and Uefa Champions League.[citation needed]Ugandas most famous footballers are David Obua of Scottish club Hearts and Ibrahim Sekagya,who is the captain of the national team, Austrias Red Bulls and Nestroy Kizito.[citation needed]Ugandas notable past greats of the game include Denis Obua, Majid Musisi, Fimbo Mukasa andPaul Kasule.Cricket has experienced rapid growth in Uganda, although football is the national sport.[citationneeded] Recently in the Quadrangular Tournament in Kenya, Uganda came in as the underdogs andwent on to register a historic win against archrivals Kenya.[citation needed] Uganda also won theWorld Cricket League (WCL) Division 3 and came in fourth place in the WCL Division 2. InFebruary 2009, Uganda finished as runner-up in the WCL Division 3 competition held inArgentina, thus gaining a place in the World Cup Qualifier held in South Africa in April2009.[citation needed]In 2007, the Uganda national rugby union team were victorious in the 2007 Africa Cup, beatingMadagascar in the final.[citation needed]Rallying is a popular sport in Uganda with the country having successfully staged a round of theAfrican Rally Championship (ARC), Pearl of Africa Rally since 1996, when it was a candidateevent. The country has gone on to produce African rally champions such as Charles Muhangi,who won the 1999 ARC crown.[citation needed] Other notable Ugandans on the African rally sceneinclude the late Riyaz Kurji, who was killed in a fatal accident while leading the 2009 edition,Emma Katto, Karim Hirji, Chipper Adams and Charles Lubega. Ugandans have also featuredprominently in the Safari Rally.[citation needed]
  17. 17. Ugandans have since the early 1920s enjoyed the fast-paced sport of hockey.[citation needed] It wasoriginally played by the Asians, but now it is widely played by people from other racialbackgrounds. Hockey is the only Ugandan field sport to date to have qualified for andrepresented the country at the Olympics; this was at the Summer Olympics in 1972. It is alsobelieved in Ugandan hockey circles that Ugandas first and only Olympic gold medal may havebeen achieved in part due to the cheers from the representative hockey team that urged JohnAkii-Bua forward.[citation needed]Also in July 2011 Kampala, Uganda qualified for the 2011 Little League World Series inWilliamsport, Pennsylvania for the first time, beating Dharan LL in Saudi Arabia.[59]EducationStudents in UgandaMain article: Education in UgandaIlliteracy is common in Uganda, particularly amongst females.[51] Public spending on educationwas at 5.2 % of the 2002–2005 GDP.[51] Much public education in primary and secondaryschools focuses upon repetition and memorization. There are also state exams that must be takenat every level of education. Uganda has both private and public universities. The largestuniversity in Uganda is Makerere University, located outside of Kampala. The system ofeducation in Uganda has a structure of 7 years of primary education, 6 years of secondaryeducation (divided into 4 years of lower secondary and 2 years of upper secondary school), and 3to 5 years of post-secondary education. The present system has existed since the early 1960s.Although some primary education is compulsory under law, in many rural communities this isnot observed as many families feel they cannot afford costs such as uniforms and equipment.State schools are usually run by the Church of Uganda and are built on land owned as such. Inprimary education, children sit exams at the end of each academic year in order to discernwhether they are to progress to the next class; this leads to some classes which include a largerange of ages. Upon completing P7 (The final year of primary education), many children frompoorer rural communities will return to their families for subsistence farming. Secondaryeducation is focused mainly in larger cities, with boarding optional. Children are usuallypresented with an equipment list which they are to obtain at the beginning of their time atsecondary school. This list classically includes items such as writing equipment, toilet roll andcleaning brushes, all of which the student must have upon admission to school.
  18. 18. CuisineMain article: Ugandan cuisineUganda Waragi is a common alcoholic beverage in UgandaUgandan cuisine consists of traditional cooking with English, Arab, Asian and especially Indianinfluences.[citation needed] Like the cuisines of most countries, it varies in complexity, from the mostbasic, a starchy filler with a sauce of beans or meat, to several-course meals served in upper-classhomes and high-end restaurants.[citation needed]Main dishes are usually centered on a sauce or stew of groundnuts, beans or meat. The starchtraditionally comes from ugali (maize meal) or matoke (boiled and mashed green banana) in theSouth, or an ugali made from millet in the North. Cassava, yam and African sweetpotato[clarification needed – Sweet potatoes are an American Indian crop] are also eaten; the more affluent includewhite (often called "Irish") potato and rice in their diets. Soybeans were promoted as a healthyfood staple in the 1970s and are also used especially for breakfast. Chapati, an Asian flatbread, isalso part of Ugandan cuisine.Human rightsMain article: Human rights in UgandaThere are many areas which continue to attract concern when it comes to human rights inUganda.Conflict in the northern parts of the country continues to generate reports of abuses by both therebel Lords Resistance Army (LRA) and the Ugandan Army. A UN official accused the LRA in
  19. 19. February 2009 of "appalling brutality" in the Democratic Republic of Congo.[60] The number ofinternally displaced persons is estimated at 1.4 million. Torture continues to be a widespreadpractice amongst security organisations. Attacks on political freedom in the country, includingthe arrest and beating of opposition Members of Parliament, have led to international criticism,culminating in May 2005 in a decision by the British government to withhold part of its aid tothe country. The arrest of the main opposition leader Kizza Besigye and the siege of the HighCourt during a hearing of Besigyes case by heavily armed security forces – before the February2006 elections – led to condemnation.[61]Recently, grassroots organisations have been attempting to raise awareness about children whowere kidnapped by the Lords Resistance Army to work as soldiers or be used as wives.Thousands of children as young as eight were captured and forced to kill. The documentary filmInvisible Children illustrates the terrible lives of the children, known as night commuters, whostill leave their villages and walk many miles each night to avoid abduction.[62]The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants reported several violations of refugee rights in2007, including forcible deportations by the Ugandan government and violence directed againstrefugees.[49]Homosexuality itself is not technically illegal in Uganda, but sodomy laws are still on the booksfrom colonial days and there is a strong social bias against homosexuality. Gays and lesbiansface discrimination and harassment at the hands of the media, police, teachers and other groups.In 2007, a Ugandan newspaper, The Red Pepper, published a list of allegedly gay men, many ofwhom suffered harassment as a result.[63] Also on October 9, 2010, the Ugandan newspaperRolling Stone published a front page article titled "100 Pictures of Ugandas Top Homos Leak"that listed the names, addresses, and photographs of 100 homosexuals alongside a yellow bannerthat read "Hang Them".[64] The paper also alleged that homosexuals aimed to "recruit" Ugandanchildren. This publication attracted international attention and criticism from human rightsorganisations, such as Amnesty International,[65] No Peace Without Justice[66] and theInternational Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association.[67] According to gay rightsactivists, many Ugandans have been attacked since the publication.[68] On January 27, 2011, gayrights activist David Kato was murdered.[69] Kato was on Rolling Stones hit list. Also a numberof other gays and lesbians are missing and are believed to have been murdered.Main article: Uganda Anti-Homosexuality BillThe Uganda parliament recently considered an Anti-Homosexuality Bill which, if enacted,would have broadened the criminalisation of homosexuality by introducing the death penalty forpeople who have previous convictions, or are HIV-positive, and engage in same-sex sexual acts.The bill also included provisions for Ugandans who engage in same-sex sexual relations outsideof Uganda, asserting that they may be extradited back to Uganda for punishment, and includedpenalties for individuals, companies, media organisations, or non-governmental organisationsthat support LGBT rights. The private members bill was submitted by MP David Bahati inUganda on 14 October 2009, and is believed to have had widespread support in the Ugandaparliament.[70] Debate of the bill was delayed in response to global condemnation.[71]