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Excretory urography

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  • the drug metformin has been required to stop 48 hours pre and post procedure, as it known to cause a reaction with the contrast agent. However the newest guidelines published by the Royal College of Radiologists suggests this is not as important for patients having <100mls of contrast, who have a normal renal function. If renal impairment is found before administration of the contrast, metformin should be stopped 48 hours before and after the procedure.[2]
  • No universally accepted sequence it is tailored and modified to answer clinical queries.
  • No universally accepted sequence it is tailored and modified to answer clinical queries.
  • 15 Minute film(On release if compression has been applied) to demonstrate the pelvicalyceal systems and the ureters.

Transcript

  • 1. FATIMA SHAH
  • 2. Structure and function of urinary system. Ascending Urography - Retrograde/Cystoscopic Descending Urography - Excretory/Intravenous
  • 3. Timed series of radiographic images of urinary system after administration of IV contrast.
  • 4. Suspected urinary tract pathology. Repeated infections -focus, damage Heamaturia Investigation of hypertension not controlled by medication in young adults. Renal colic. Trauma.
  • 5.  General contra indications to contrast agents. Diabetes, Thyrotoxicosis, Pregnancy Raised urea creat. urography unlikely to be successful. Metformin therapy
  • 6. Bowel prep. Basic psychological preparation with reassurance & explanation of technique Bladder emptied immediately before exam.  Hx of Previous I.V.U. Previous experience of iodinated contrast media. Abdominal surgery, Allergies, drugs Hx.
  • 7. Ionic or HOCM eg urograffin used. Iodine is main element which imparts radio-opacity. 300mg I/kg body wt. 15-25 gm of iodine given. 20ml of 76% urograffin Greatest single predictor of contrast reaction is previous reaction to contrast
  • 8.  MILD & TRANSIENT – NO Rx REQUIRED: -nausea,vomiting,sensation of heat, tingling, metallic taste,pain in arm,deire to urinate.  ANTI-HISTAMINE & STEROID Rx: -Skin rashes;urticaria ,diffuse erythema. Angioneurotic edema,pruritis,sneezing&rhinorrhea  ADRENALINE,AMINOPHYLLINE or SALBUTAMOL,O2 & STEROIDS Rx: -Broncho spasm and layryngeal edema particularly due to meglumine.
  • 9. Scout film  Administration of contrast  Early nephrogram  Tomograms  Excretory films
  • 10. Compression banding: Aim to produce better PC distension C/I: Recent abd surgery. Renal trauma. Large abd mass. Obstruction. If 5min film shows adequate distension.
  • 11. End of Injection, A.P. of the renal areas to show the nephrogram, i.e. the renal parenchyma opacified by the contrast medium in the renal tubules.
  • 12. Value of fluoroscopy. Fluoroscopic spot images demonstrate the entire luminal surface of the ureters.
  • 13. On a radiograph obtained during bladder filling, the contrast material is smoothly defined and the bladder wall has become less evident. A normal uterine impression on the superior margin is noted
  • 14. Post Micturition film to demonstrate the bladder emptying success, and the return of the previously distended lower ends of ureters to normal.
  • 15. Area: supra-renal - below symphysis. Assessment of Bones, stones, masses & gases. Oblique view helpful when pt symptomatic but no cause seen on KUB.
  • 16. Urethral calculus in pt with hx of severe right flank pain.Collimated Radiograph shows calcification centered behind symphysis . CT helped confirm presence of urethral calculus.This case shows importance of full coverage of anatomic structures at KUB.
  • 17. (a) Collimated preliminary radiograph of the pelvis shows no obvious stones
  • 18. Rt post oblique radiograph of pelvis shows 6mm ureteral calculus now projected onto iliac bone.urogram (not shown)helped confirm rt ureteral obstruction 2ndry to the stone. This case shows how a calculus can be obscured by the complex sacral anatomy.
  • 19. The plain KUB shows lumbar spondylosis with marked scoliosis and obvious asymmetrical thickness of the lateral abdominal wall musculatures.
  • 20. AP radiograph of pelvis shows parasymphyseal bone fragment along left pubis ,mild p. symphysis diastasis, &transverse fracture of rt transverse process .irregularity of rt SI joint space, suggestive of fracture.
  • 21. Preliminary image from excretory urography demonstrates a looped configuration of the distal transverse colon and splenic flexure (arrows).
  • 22. 50yrs female, known diabetic presented with lethargy, fever with chills and rigors. Urine examination shows multiple pus cells and ESR is elevatedabnor mal gas in the left renal region
  • 23. Another patient aged 45yr with similar history and marked suprapubic tendernessKUB radiograph showing air with in the bladder
  • 24. KIDNEYS: visualised if peri-renal fat. GUT GASES: may over lap. Change in shape & location displaced by compression. CALCIFICATION OVER RENAL AREA: -True lat/ips-ilateral post oblique views. -Displacement with ins/exp/upright films.
  • 25. EXTRA-RENAL CALCIFICATION: -Calcified Costal Cartilage, supra-RG. -Calcification in tail of pancreas, GB, liver, Splenic artery. -Phleboliths, chip fracture of TP.
  • 26. On a scout image obtained before excretory urography, a calculus fills nearly the entirety of a bifid right renal collecting system, giving it a branched appearance that resembles the antlers of a stag.
  • 27. Plain radiograph of the abdomen demonstrates extensive calcification in the left kidney, which was nonfunctional (the putty kidney), consistent with autonephrectomy from tuberculosis.
  • 28. URETERS: not visualized. OPACITIES: -Intra-Luminal: ureteral stones. -Intra-mural: schistosomiasis. GAS SHADOWS: conform to shape of ureter. EXTRA-URETERAL CALCIFICATION: -mesenteric LN(mobile) -phleboliths, calcification in arteries.
  • 29. U.BLADDER & URETHRA: - not visualised. - visualised if calculi or foreign body.
  • 30. Contrast in glomeruli & tubules.(1-3min) Four phases: SPONTANEOUS: Non-opacified, outlined by RP fat on plain film. VASCULAR: Opacification of intra-renal blood vessels. TOTAL BODY: “ of pre and retro renal soft tissue + vascular nephrogram INTRA-TUBULAR:” of intra-renal tubules.
  • 31. U=([P]xGFR)/Uvol a-extravasation of contrast b-absent blood flow : i-shock ii-no glomerular filteration : acute obstruction,infarction
  • 32. Non- Visualisation: - Insufficient dose of contrast. - Acute, chronic renal disease - End stage renal disease. - Acute tubular obstruction - Ureteral calculus. - Renal agenesis - Renal artery thrombosis,avulsion.
  • 33. Size - Normal range-height of three vertebra. Enlarged kidneys suggest -polycystic disease -acute pyelo or glomerulonephritis Small kidneys imply chronic disease. Shape –Cysts & tumors may cause distortion. Orientation - disorientation may be -intrinsic, e.g. horseshoe kidney, or -extrinsic, i.e. pressure effect of other organs
  • 34. image of a tomographic sequence demonstrates symmetric nephrograms and pyelograms. Renal size is normal.
  • 35. On a 10-minute image, no pyelogram is evident. The nephrograms are persistent, and the kidneys are smaller. With this imaging sequence alteration, the patient should be evaluated immediately for the development of hypotension related to the procedure or as a reaction to contrast material administration.
  • 36. One-minute image shows slight asymmetry of the nephrographic opacity, with less opacity in the right kidney than in the left
  • 37. Image obtained at 80 minutes shows a persistent, very dense right nephrogram, a typical finding in acute high- grade obstruction. A 2-mm stone was discovered at the right ureterovesical junction.
  • 38. Enlarged kidneys in a young patient with early, asymmetric findings of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Nephrotomogram shows enlarged kidneys, the left more so than the right. Note the multiple parenchymal defects (“Swiss cheese” nephrogram).
  • 39. Right renal artery stenosis for evaluation of renovascular hypertension shows a small right kidney with decreased nephrographic density and temporal asymmetry of filling of the right collecting system compared with the left
  • 40. Fifteen-minute urographic image helps confirm the asymmetric renal size. Note the hyperconcentra tion of contrast material in the right collecting system compared with the left.
  • 41. Opacification of pelvicalceal system &bladder Filling defects include: stone,tcc,blood clots,papillary necrosis with sloughing of infarcted papilla. Strictures due to : -Post inflammation,previous stone impaction -Post infection,TB, Shistosomiasis -Cancer, intrinsic-tcc extrinsic-cevical ca
  • 42. Tomogram from excretory urography demonstrates absence of the left kidney and deviation of the descending colon into the renal fossa.
  • 43. Common findings in bladder: -Filling defects , tumors -Trabeculated , thick walled bladder.
  • 44. different patterns of excavation that can be seen with papillary necrosis: normal (A), central excavation with ball-on-tee appearance (B), forniceal excavation (C), lobster claw appearance (D), signet ring appearance (E), and sloughed papilla with clubbed calix (F).
  • 45. Papillary necrosis. On an excretory urogram, contrast material fills central excavations (arrows) in the papilla of the interpolar region, Note the abnormal calices in the upper and lower poles as well.
  • 46. Papillary necrosis. Excavation extending from the caliceal fornices (arrows) produces the lobster claw deformity in another patient.
  • 47. Delayed tomographic image from excretory urography shows caliceal crescents (arrowheads) surrounding the dilated collecting system. Contrast material pools dependently