CONCEPTS OF RADIOLOGIC
SCIENCE
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
Man made radiation---60 mrem.
Medical
Nuclear medicine
Occupational
Nuc...
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
Discovery of X rays
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
During 1870s and 1880s
Conduction of cathode rays thr...
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
In 1895, Wilhelm Roentgen was working in his lab in
Wuzburg Germany.
Comp...
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
Intensity of the glow increased as plate was brought
closer
Glow—fluoresc...
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
Development of modern radiology
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
2 types of X ray examinations
Radiography...
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
Fluoroscopy
 X ray tube usually located under examination
table.
 Moving...
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
X ray voltage is measured in kilovolt peak(kVp)
X ray currents are measur...
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
OTHER DEVELOPMENTS
Radiographic intensifying screens—by Micheal
Pupin in 1...
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
In 1907, H.C.Snook—a high voltage power supply—
interrupterless transforme...
Further developments…
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
Reports of radiation injury
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
The first x ray fatality– in 1904, Edison’s as...
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
In coming years—the frequency of injuries increased.
Skin damage, loss of...
Basic Radiation Protection
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
After 1910, biologic effects of x rays were
sci...
Radiation protection devices
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
Filtration—Al or Cu filters—low energy x rays...
Protective apparel—lead impregnated material used
to make aprons & gloves
Gonadal shielding—lead impregnated gonadal
shi...
Always practice ALARA;
keep radiation exposures
As Low As Reasonably Achievable.
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological s...
The Ten Commandments of Radiation Protection
1. Understand and apply the cardinal principles of
radiation control: time, d...
5. Always wear a radiation monitor and position it
outside the protective apron at the collar.
6. Never hold a patient dur...
8. Use gonadal shields on all people of childbearing
age when such use will not interfere with the
examination.
9. Exami...
THANKS
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
MCQ’s
April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
X-rays voltage is measured in
1. milli ampere
2.milli joules
3.Electron volt
4.Kilo volt peak
April 18, 2014concepts of r...
Removal of an electron from atom is
1. Radiation
2.Ionization
3.X-rays
4.Amplification
April 18, 2014concepts of radiolog...
Largest source of natural environmental radiation is
1. Cosmic rays
2.Radon
3.X-rays
4.Potassium 40
April 18, 2014concept...
Which of these have the longest wavelenght?
X rays
Micro waves
Infra red
Gamma rays
April 18, 2014concepts of radiolo...
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Concepts of radiologic science

  1. 1. CONCEPTS OF RADIOLOGIC SCIENCE
  2. 2. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  3. 3. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  4. 4. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  5. 5. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  6. 6. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  7. 7. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  8. 8. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  9. 9. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  10. 10. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  11. 11. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  12. 12. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  13. 13. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  14. 14. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  15. 15. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  16. 16. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  17. 17. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  18. 18. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  19. 19. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  20. 20. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  21. 21. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  22. 22. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  23. 23. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  24. 24. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  25. 25. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  26. 26. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science Man made radiation---60 mrem. Medical Nuclear medicine Occupational Nuclear power Industrial Consumer products
  27. 27. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  28. 28. Discovery of X rays April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science During 1870s and 1880s Conduction of cathode rays through Crookes tube– invented by Sir William Crookes. Crookes tube—forerunner of modern fluorescent lamps & X rays tubes.
  29. 29. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  30. 30. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science In 1895, Wilhelm Roentgen was working in his lab in Wuzburg Germany. Completely enclosed his Crookes tube in black photographic paper. Barium platinocyanide coated plate The plate glowed.
  31. 31. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science Intensity of the glow increased as plate was brought closer Glow—fluorescence Roentgen named the invisible light-- X light
  32. 32. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  33. 33. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  34. 34. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  35. 35. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  36. 36. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  37. 37. Development of modern radiology April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science 2 types of X ray examinations Radiography—uses X ray films  X ray tube is mounted from ceiling on a track  X ray tube can be moved in any direction  Fixed images
  38. 38. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science Fluoroscopy  X ray tube usually located under examination table.  Moving images are provided to radiologist
  39. 39. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science X ray voltage is measured in kilovolt peak(kVp) X ray currents are measured in milliamperes(mA)
  40. 40. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science OTHER DEVELOPMENTS Radiographic intensifying screens—by Micheal Pupin in 1896 to reduce the exposure time. Double emulsion films in 1904—further reduced the exp. Time. Cellulose nitrate—substitute for glass plate Fluoroscope—1898 by Thomas A. Edison
  41. 41. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science In 1907, H.C.Snook—a high voltage power supply— interrupterless transformer. In 1913,William Coolidge---hot cathode x ray tube. A vacuum tube that allowed x ray intensity & energy to be selected separately & with accuracy.
  42. 42. Further developments… April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  43. 43. Reports of radiation injury April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science The first x ray fatality– in 1904, Edison’s assistant & friend- Clarence Dally. Suffered severe X ray burns that eventually resulted in amputataions of both arms.
  44. 44. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science In coming years—the frequency of injuries increased. Skin damage, loss of hair and anemia. Blood disorders; aplastic anemia and leukemia— more in radiologists. By introduction of Coolidge tube and Snook transf. – reduction in frequency of injuries.
  45. 45. Basic Radiation Protection April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science After 1910, biologic effects of x rays were scientifically investigated & reported. X ray workers were routinely investigated. Provided with personnel radiation monitoring devices.
  46. 46. Radiation protection devices April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science Filtration—Al or Cu filters—low energy x rays are absorbed. Collimation---restricts useful beam to the part of body to be imaged, reduces scatter radiation, improves image contrast. Intensifying screens—reduce exposure to x rays by more than 95%
  47. 47. Protective apparel—lead impregnated material used to make aprons & gloves Gonadal shielding—lead impregnated gonadal shields in persons of child bearing age. Protective barriers--Radiographic control console should be located behind a protective barrier-often lead-lined & a leaded glass window. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  48. 48. Always practice ALARA; keep radiation exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  49. 49. The Ten Commandments of Radiation Protection 1. Understand and apply the cardinal principles of radiation control: time, distance, and shielding. 2. Do not allow familiarity to result in false security. 3. Never stand in the primary beam. 4. Always wear protective apparel when not behind a protective barrier. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  50. 50. 5. Always wear a radiation monitor and position it outside the protective apron at the collar. 6. Never hold a patient during radiographic examination. Use mechanical restraining devices when possible. Otherwise, have parents or friends hold the patient. 7. The person holding the patient must always wear a protective apron and, if possible, protective gloves. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  51. 51. 8. Use gonadal shields on all people of childbearing age when such use will not interfere with the examination. 9. Examination of the pelvis and lower abdomen of a pregnant patient should be avoided whenever possible, especially during the first trimester. 10. Always collimate to the smallest field size appropriate for the examination. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  52. 52. THANKS April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  53. 53. MCQ’s April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  54. 54. X-rays voltage is measured in 1. milli ampere 2.milli joules 3.Electron volt 4.Kilo volt peak April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  55. 55. Removal of an electron from atom is 1. Radiation 2.Ionization 3.X-rays 4.Amplification April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  56. 56. Largest source of natural environmental radiation is 1. Cosmic rays 2.Radon 3.X-rays 4.Potassium 40 April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
  57. 57. Which of these have the longest wavelenght? X rays Micro waves Infra red Gamma rays April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
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