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Concepts of radiologic science
 

Concepts of radiologic science

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    Concepts of radiologic science Concepts of radiologic science Presentation Transcript

    • CONCEPTS OF RADIOLOGIC SCIENCE
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science Man made radiation---60 mrem. Medical Nuclear medicine Occupational Nuclear power Industrial Consumer products
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • Discovery of X rays April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science During 1870s and 1880s Conduction of cathode rays through Crookes tube– invented by Sir William Crookes. Crookes tube—forerunner of modern fluorescent lamps & X rays tubes.
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science In 1895, Wilhelm Roentgen was working in his lab in Wuzburg Germany. Completely enclosed his Crookes tube in black photographic paper. Barium platinocyanide coated plate The plate glowed.
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science Intensity of the glow increased as plate was brought closer Glow—fluorescence Roentgen named the invisible light-- X light
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • Development of modern radiology April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science 2 types of X ray examinations Radiography—uses X ray films  X ray tube is mounted from ceiling on a track  X ray tube can be moved in any direction  Fixed images
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science Fluoroscopy  X ray tube usually located under examination table.  Moving images are provided to radiologist
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science X ray voltage is measured in kilovolt peak(kVp) X ray currents are measured in milliamperes(mA)
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science OTHER DEVELOPMENTS Radiographic intensifying screens—by Micheal Pupin in 1896 to reduce the exposure time. Double emulsion films in 1904—further reduced the exp. Time. Cellulose nitrate—substitute for glass plate Fluoroscope—1898 by Thomas A. Edison
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science In 1907, H.C.Snook—a high voltage power supply— interrupterless transformer. In 1913,William Coolidge---hot cathode x ray tube. A vacuum tube that allowed x ray intensity & energy to be selected separately & with accuracy.
    • Further developments… April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • Reports of radiation injury April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science The first x ray fatality– in 1904, Edison’s assistant & friend- Clarence Dally. Suffered severe X ray burns that eventually resulted in amputataions of both arms.
    • April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science In coming years—the frequency of injuries increased. Skin damage, loss of hair and anemia. Blood disorders; aplastic anemia and leukemia— more in radiologists. By introduction of Coolidge tube and Snook transf. – reduction in frequency of injuries.
    • Basic Radiation Protection April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science After 1910, biologic effects of x rays were scientifically investigated & reported. X ray workers were routinely investigated. Provided with personnel radiation monitoring devices.
    • Radiation protection devices April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science Filtration—Al or Cu filters—low energy x rays are absorbed. Collimation---restricts useful beam to the part of body to be imaged, reduces scatter radiation, improves image contrast. Intensifying screens—reduce exposure to x rays by more than 95%
    • Protective apparel—lead impregnated material used to make aprons & gloves Gonadal shielding—lead impregnated gonadal shields in persons of child bearing age. Protective barriers--Radiographic control console should be located behind a protective barrier-often lead-lined & a leaded glass window. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • Always practice ALARA; keep radiation exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • The Ten Commandments of Radiation Protection 1. Understand and apply the cardinal principles of radiation control: time, distance, and shielding. 2. Do not allow familiarity to result in false security. 3. Never stand in the primary beam. 4. Always wear protective apparel when not behind a protective barrier. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • 5. Always wear a radiation monitor and position it outside the protective apron at the collar. 6. Never hold a patient during radiographic examination. Use mechanical restraining devices when possible. Otherwise, have parents or friends hold the patient. 7. The person holding the patient must always wear a protective apron and, if possible, protective gloves. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • 8. Use gonadal shields on all people of childbearing age when such use will not interfere with the examination. 9. Examination of the pelvis and lower abdomen of a pregnant patient should be avoided whenever possible, especially during the first trimester. 10. Always collimate to the smallest field size appropriate for the examination. April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • THANKS April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • MCQ’s April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • X-rays voltage is measured in 1. milli ampere 2.milli joules 3.Electron volt 4.Kilo volt peak April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • Removal of an electron from atom is 1. Radiation 2.Ionization 3.X-rays 4.Amplification April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • Largest source of natural environmental radiation is 1. Cosmic rays 2.Radon 3.X-rays 4.Potassium 40 April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science
    • Which of these have the longest wavelenght? X rays Micro waves Infra red Gamma rays April 18, 2014concepts of radiological science