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Culture over-process


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  • 1. Culture Consultant > Process Paris Scrum Gathering Keynote, Sep 23, 2013 Henrik Kniberg Father @HenrikKniberg Agile & Lean coach Author
  • 2. Boring but important practical info about these slides Usage Feel free to use slides & pictures as you wish, as long as you leave my name somewhere. For licensing details see Creative Commons ( Downloading the right font This presentation uses the ”Noteworthy” font. If you’re using Mac OSX 10.7 or later it should be preinstalled. If you’re on a Windows or older Mac OS then you need to download the font from here: •  On Windows right-click the font file and select ”install”. Then restart Powerpoint. •  On Mac, double-click the font file and press ”install font”. Then restart Powerpoint. The PDF version of these slides has the font embedded, so you don’t need to do anything. On the other hand you don’t get the fancy animations. Font test How the font is supposed to look: (screenshot from my computer) How the font shows up on your computer: The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog Henrik Kniberg Regardless of font appearance, if that text doesn’t fit nicely into the box then you’re going to need to download the right font, or switch to a new font and fiddle with the slides to make sure things fit.
  • 3. Culture stuff that people do without noticing it Henrik Kniberg
  • 4. Better products Agile Culture Happier employees Henrik Kniberg Better world!
  • 5. Problem: Agile is Fragile Agile Henrik Kniberg
  • 6. Failure story: How to burn €1 billion Henrik Kniberg 01:39
  • 7. Henrik Kniberg
  • 8. Pust Java – an agile/lean showcase •  •  •  •  •  •  Agile & Lean • Media Success Gradual rollout • Happy users Real users involved • Happy team CIO awards Project of the Year Bottom-up decision making Value-driven Suitable tech platform Henrik Kniberg
  • 9. Pust Siebel – train-wreck in slow motion •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Waterfall Big Bang rollout Inappropriate tech platform Real users not involved Top-down decision making Warnings ignored Cost-driven •  Media Disaster •  Furious users •  Furious team How to burn € 1 billion Henrik Kniberg
  • 10. Culture eats Process for breakfast! Agile Henrik Kniberg
  • 11. Success story: Revolutionizing the music industry Henrik Kniberg 01:39
  • 12. Once upon a time the music industry was broken There must be a better way…. Henrik Kniberg
  • 13. Play Everywhere! Like a magical music player in which you’ve bought every song in the world! Henrik Kniberg Let’s revolutionize the music industry!
  • 14. 20,000 tracks added every day 20 million tracks Henrik Kniberg
  • 15. 30M 24 million Free users 20M 6 million Paying users 10M 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
  • 16. 4 dev centers across 3 time zones Stockholm Gothenburg San Francisco New York 16 Henrik Kniberg
  • 17. Staff doubles every year 1000+ employees 28+ countries 1000 750 500 250 2006 Henrik Kniberg 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
  • 18. Happy employees (despite growth pain…) % of employees that would recommend this company to a friend Henrik Kniberg Source:
  • 19. Born Agile – and breaking all the rules! Henrik Kniberg 01:39
  • 20. 2006: small agile fish was born Henrik Kniberg
  • 21. Grew up to form an agile culture Henrik Kniberg
  • 22. Scrum practices started getting in the way Sprint planning Sprint burndown T ask breakdown Estimation Velocity Henrik Kniberg
  • 23. Shu Ha Ri Shu = Follow the rules Ha = Adapt the rules Ri = Ignore the rules Screw the rules! Scrumbutophobia (n) See also: Scrumdamentalism Fear of doing Scrum wrong Symptom: Stuck in Shu Henrik Kniberg Rules are a good start, then break them when needed.
  • 24. Agile > Scrum Scrum Scrum Master Henrik Kniberg Agile Agile Coach
  • 25. Principles > Practices Transparency Customer collaboration Deliver often Continuous Improvement Autonomous Teams Respond to change Servant leadership Courage Henrik Kniberg Iterative development Inspect & Adapt Trust Simplicity
  • 26. Autonomy Henrik Kniberg > 01:39 Consistency
  • 27. Autonomous Squad •  Small, co-located, self-organized •  End-to-end responsibility for the stuff they build – from design to commit to deploy to maintenance. •  Within the scope of its mission, a squad is empowered to decide what to build, how to build it, and how to work together while doing it. Reality check: Not all squads are this autonomous (yet) Henrik Kniberg
  • 28. Office optimized for autonomous squads Henrik Kniberg
  • 29. Broader mission = more autonomy Build radio Henrik Kniberg Increase monthly active users
  • 30. 30
  • 31. Why Autonomy matters so much •  Motivation •  Speed •  Scaling Henrik Kniberg
  • 32. Be autonomous. But don’t suboptimize. •  Be a good citizen in the Spotify ecosystem •  Spotify’s mission > Squad’s mission •  Collaborate & sync with other squads •  Follow agreed-upon standards Henrik Kniberg
  • 33. Office optimized for cross-squad collaboration
  • 34. Example: Sprint demo & open discussion
  • 35. Alignment & Autonomy Alignment Do what I say! Henrik Kniberg False dichotomy! Autonomy Do whatever
  • 36. Alignment enables Autonomy We need to cross the river High Alignment Build a bridge! Authoritative organization Conformist culture Micromanaging organization Low Alignment Henrik Kniberg Indifferent culture Low Autonomy We need to cross the river Figure out how! Innovative organization Collaborative culture Entrepreneurial organization Chaotic culture High Autonomy Hope someone is working on the river problem…
  • 37. Leader’s job: Explain what problem needs to be solved. And Why. Henrik Kniberg
  • 38. Measuring autonomy Henrik Kniberg
  • 39. How to measure dependencies Ask people! Henrik Kniberg
  • 40. Open-source model A Squad A Henrik Kniberg B Squad B
  • 41. Minimum standardization Typical conversation: How does Spotify X? Depends on the squad Henrik Kniberg
  • 42. Cross-pollenation Henrik Kniberg > Standardization
  • 43. So how do squads actually work? Have a mission Sit together Own quality All squads Have an agile approach Most squads Do sprints and/or kanban Do retrospectives Have taskboards on the wall Do demos Have an agile coach Some squads Measure velocity Do ”scrum of scrums” (daily sync) Henrik Kniberg Have a PO in the team Estimate Use burnup/ burndown charts Do daily standups
  • 44. People Henrik Kniberg > * 01:39
  • 45. Mutual respect My colleagues are awesome! Ego Henrik Kniberg
  • 46. Measure motivation & relentlessly focus on it Hi everyone,! ! Our employee satisfaction survey says
 91% enjoy working here,
 and 4% don’t enjoy it here.! ! This is of course not satisfactory,
 and we want to fix it.! ! If you’re one of those unhappy 4%,
 please contact us.! ! We’re here for your sake, and nothing else.! ! ! ! ! Henrik Kniberg
  • 47. Community Henrik Kniberg > 01:39 Structure
  • 48. Squads are grouped into Tribes Tribe Tribe Henrik Kniberg Tribe Tribe Tribe Tribe
  • 49. Each Tribe is a lightweight matrix Tribe PO PO PO Tribe PO PO Tribe lead Tribe lead Chapter Chapter Chapter Guild Chapter PO PO PO
  • 50. Guild unconferences
  • 51. Guild unconferences Henrik Kniberg
  • 52. Organic structure emergent, dynamic Henrik Kniberg If you need to know exactly who is making decisions, you are in the wrong place
  • 53. Making release easy Henrik Kniberg 01:39
  • 54. Vicious cycle Releasing is hard Release seldom Henrik Kniberg Virtuous cycle Releasing is easy Release often
  • 55. Decouple as much as possible First the Spotify client was a monolith… Now the client is a “container” Container squad Feature squads Henrik Kniberg
  • 56. “Self-service” model Infrastructure squads Container squads Enable & support IOS Android Feature squads Enable & support Henrik Kniberg Desktop Enable & support Web
  • 57. Release trains & Feature toggles Release! A B D E C C A B E Week 12 Henrik Kniberg Release! G F H C E F G D H Week 15
  • 58. Pushing for Continuous Delivery Automatic Build Test & integrate Manual Code & commit Deploy to staging Deploy to prod Manual test Continuous Delivery Guild Commit-to-Deploy squad Henrik Kniberg
  • 59. Trust > Control Henrik Kniberg 01:39
  • 60. We trust our people to make informed decisions about the way they work and what they work on Politics Agile culture demands that there are NO internal politics involved! Henrik Kniberg Fear Agile at scale requires Trust at scale! When you give people the freedom to create without fear of failure, amazing things happen!
  • 61. Fear kills motivation Even in “agile” companies Turnover is so quick that it's almost unnecessary to unpack your bag. The reward for doing a good job today is having a job tomorrow They love firing people for things that aren't under the employees entire control % of employees that would recommend this company to a friend Henrik Kniberg Source:
  • 62. Failing = Learning Henrik Kniberg Move fast and break things Screwing up is a great way to find out that your assumptions were wrong
  • 63. Internal blog: Celebrate failure How we shot ourselves in the foot Asdf asdf asdf ddhffdd asdfsdfasdf s dfs ei lkjsdfkjh dkd ie kkd kdsflk sdi elk sdfkjh sdfkjhasdflkj dk dj wi dm chsdfjh wlkjsdm WTF? Slkdfoi clk sdil wkdkdk dk dkiwlslkj dlkh slkj sdflkj dpijslkjdlldk slkdflk sdflk sdlk kjsdf Sdflk sdfsdfasdf Internal blog: Celebrate failure! Asdf asdf asdf ddhffdd asdfsdfasdf s dfs ei lkjsdfkjh dkd ie kkd kdsflk sdi elk sdfkjh sdfkjhasdflkj dk dj wi dm chsdfjh wlkjsdm dfkj dfjh slkkd dj dflkj sdfkjh sdf Slkdfoi clk sdil wkdkdk dk dkiwlslkj dlkh slkj sdflkj dpijslkjdlldk slkdflk sdflk sdlk kjsdf Sdflk sdfsdfasdf Henrik Kniberg
  • 64. Retrospectives & Post Mortems Driven from below Supported from above Who’s fault was it? What did we learn? Henrik Kniberg
  • 65. Failure Recovery is more important than Failure Avoidance Failure Avoidance Henrik Kniberg Failure Recovery
  • 66. “Limited Blast Radius” via decoupled architecture Henrik Kniberg
  • 67. ”Limited Blast Radius” via gradual rollout Henrik Kniberg
  • 68. 100% control = 0% motion If everything’s under control, you’re going too slow! - Mario Andretti Henrik Kniberg
  • 69. Servant leadership Manager’s job: •  Telling people what to do •  Having control •  •  •  •  Coaching Mentorship Enabling Solving impediments Henrik Kniberg How can I help?
  • 70. Henrik Kniberg
  • 71. Value & Impact Henrik Kniberg > 01:39 Velocity
  • 72. Idea/Problem Narrative & Prototype “Radio you can save!” Radio A/B stats Build MVP Deploy Tweak Analyze data Henrik Kniberg
  • 73. Impact-driven development Backlog Developing Released Impact achieved Impact A/B test Henrik Kniberg
  • 74. Flexibility & Innovation Henrik Kniberg > 01:39 Stability & Predictability
  • 75. 100% predictability = 0% innovation Do what you need. Story points! Velocity! Burndown chart! Sprint “commitment” T ask hours! Focus on Focus on Innovation Spotify Henrik Kniberg Requirements Doc! Change Control Board! Gannt Chart! Predictability Typical Scrum Typical Waterfall
  • 76. Unleash the innovation! Hackathon every few months Lab Day last Friday every month Henrik Kniberg 20% time Hack days Hack weeks 10%
  • 77. Experiments & Data Henrik Kniberg > 01:39 Arguments & Opinion
  • 78. Experiment-friendly culture Vertical or Horizontal UI layout? Let’s A/B test Tool A or Tool B? Let’s try both and compare Ego-driven … Opinion-driven … Authority-driven … Data-driven decisions! What’s the hypothesis? What did we learn? What will we try next? Do we really need scrum-of-scrums? Let’s skip it and see if we miss it Should we merge these two tribes? Let’s try. Henrik Kniberg
  • 79. Waste-repellant culture (= Lean) Keep •  •  •  •  •  Try Retrospectives Daily standup Google docs GIT Guild Unconferences Skip/Dump •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Henrik Kniberg Useless meetings PMO & PM role Timereporting Handoffs Acceptance test phase Task estimates Corporate BS If it works, keep it. Otherwise, dump it.
  • 80. Improvement boards & “definition of awesome” What would Awesome look like for your Guild/Tribe/Squad/Project What would take you One Step Closer to Awesome? Henrik Kniberg Awesome architecture I can build, test, and ship my feature in a week. I use data to learn from it and my improved version is live in week two. Awesome autonomy Fully empowered to decide what to build & how. Never blocked on other squads. Always get help when we need it.
  • 81. Henrik Kniberg
  • 82. What we’ve learned about Big Projects 1. Avoid Big Projects whenever possible. 2. When unavoidable, do: Daily sync Weekly demo (to resolve squad dependencies) (to evaluate the integrated product) Henrik Kniberg
  • 83. Big Experiment: Personal Bonus system Dan Pink was right... Henrik Kniberg
  • 84. Big Experiment: Tech-wide hackweek •  One whole week. •  Everyone in Tech (≈300 ppl) •  Build whatever you want…. •  With whoever you want… •  In however way you want. •  Demo & party on Friday! Next experiment Spotify-wide hack week! All departments. > 1200 ppl! Henrik Kniberg
  • 85. Spreading & reinforcing the culture Henrik Kniberg 01:39
  • 86. Roles dedicated to culture & improvement People Operations (Pops) Agile coach group Henrik Kniberg
  • 87. Story telling I mostly just go around talking to people - Chief Architect All-hands, demos, post-mortems Internal blog Henrik Kniberg
  • 88. Boot camp Henrik Kniberg
  • 89. We’re here to help you get to know each other better, and to make sure you have fun while doing it! Social group Board games Yoga Live bands Guitar lessons Parties ...etc... Henrik Kniberg Trips Movie nights
  • 90. Challenges & pain points Henrik Kniberg 01:39
  • 91. Growth pain •  Unstable squads •  Scaling breaks stuff all the time •  Yesterday’s “brilliant solution” is today’s impediment •  Cross-timezone collaboration •  50+ squads, 4 cities, 3 timezones •  Technical debt •  … etc, etc …. Henrik Kniberg
  • 92. Staying balanced Chaos Henrik Kniberg Agile Bureaucracy Culture
  • 93. Wrapup Henrik Kniberg 01:39
  • 94. Culture > Process Shu-level Scrum can get you out a ditch, but won’t make you fly. •  Learn the rules so you can break them Healthy Culture heals broken process. •  Hack the culture, and process will follow Agile is Fragile. •  It is only sustainable over the long term if all parts of the organization are committed to it. You are the culture. •  Model the behavior you want to see Henrik Kniberg
  • 95. Culture > Process Shu-level Scrum can get you out of a ditch, but won’t make you fly. •  Learn the rules so you can break them Healthy Culture heals broken process. •  Hack the culture, and process will follow Agile is Fragile. •  It is only sustainable over the long term if all parts of the organization are committed to it. You are the culture. •  Model the behavior you want to see Henrik Kniberg