ByDr. Jack WongMarch 13, 2555
Concentrate Solar Power (CSP) has become an attractive alternative sourcefor electricity generation by using clean technol...
In year 2542 (1999), Department of Energy Development, Ministry ofEnergy and the Science Department of Silpakorn Universit...
The map on the left shows the                            intensity of solar energy in the Kingdom                         ...
The graph on the left shownpercent area of insolation, 14.3% hasinsolation 19‐20 MJ/(m2day), morethan 50% has insolation 1...
By Region   Annual Average  Energy Eff /              Intensity      1,000 Tons              MJ/(m2day)         of OilNati...
CLFR Chonburi, Thailand Steam Test 400 PSI 450 C Dish Phitsanulok, ThailandKarnchanaburi, Thailand Steam Test 150 PSI 180 ...
Steam Test                                  Out of Focus           Aug 25/2011                                    Cloudy  ...
Generated electric can be sold directly to the Provincial ElectricityAuthority (PEA). These electric distributes through o...
For  TOU electricity users the average rates follow the EGAT wholesale rate of 11‐33 kW based on the period of usage as fo...
2007                  2008                 2009      USD          THB      USD          THB     USD          THBJan    0.0...
USD/kW        THB/kWStandard Rate   Peak             0.0976            2.93                Off Peak         0.0372        ...
Power         Adder        +        + South 3  Years                        Generated                Special    ProvinceBi...
Period       Descriptions          No of Days    Remarks  A      Standard Year                    365  B      Standard Hou...
No       Day       Descriptions                Time to Generate Electric                                       Working  On...
Detail              On Peak                 Off Peak                         USD/kW     THB/kW      USD/kW      THB/kWStan...
Period     kW      Annual     Annual      USD/kW       Total       Total                       Hours       kW             ...
Strengths  • No need to purchase fuel (gasoline, diesel, gas, coal, etc.) to generate    electric any more.  • Solar Power...
Weakness • Not reliable as it can operate only when the sun shine. • It depends on climate and season conditions.Opportuni...
Threat  1. There is lack of support from Banks for Concentrate Solar Power     generation due to its new technology not ma...
1 MW 12 hrs 300 days/yr @ 550 W/m2                       THBElectric Sale               11.6 THB/kw‐hr 13 hrs    41,760,00...
Analysis of Solar Thermal Technology in                    Thailand, CLFR, Trough Medium Insolation, Hot and Humid Country...
Suppliers                                                                                  Solar             Engine     Ge...
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Solar Thermal VSPP Thailand

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Solar Thermal Technology in Thailand 2012
Solar Dish, Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector, Trough

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Solar Thermal VSPP Thailand

  1. 1. ByDr. Jack WongMarch 13, 2555
  2. 2. Concentrate Solar Power (CSP) has become an attractive alternative sourcefor electricity generation by using clean technology friendly to environment. Kingdom of Thailand not like many countries in the world suffering fromhigh insolation DNI 1,000 W/m2. Kingdom of Thailand has an average of DNI550 W/m2. Kingdom of Thailand locate near equator zone, hot and humidcountry with soft‐land. It is almost impossible to operate Solar Thermal in thisareas. With special designed from Thai’s engineer can proved in this region withmedium insolation could operate Solar Thermal very well. It must be designedto suit the environment and requirements of each area. The Solar Dish,Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector and Solar Trough, more than 85 % of powerplant locally made in country, work fine in this location. Kingdom of Thailand has an advantage of solar hours with an average of 325days per year with little cloud. Also Thai’s government has establish severalincentives, including Adder Tariff for ten years, to assist investors through theProvincial Electric Authority (PEA) on Very Small Power Producer (VSPP).
  3. 3. In year 2542 (1999), Department of Energy Development, Ministry ofEnergy and the Science Department of Silpakorn University, Kingdom ofThailand surveyors discovered that solar intensity vary by season(summer, rainy(monsoon), winter) and areas from the northeast andsouthwest. April and May are the highest insolation. • Northeastern provinces such as Nakhon Ratchasima, Buriram, Surin, Sri Saket, Roi Et, Yasothon, Ubon Ratchathani with an average of 20‐24 MJ/(m2day). • Central provinces such as Suphan Buri, Chainat, Ayudhya, Lopburi with an average of about 19‐20 MJ/(m2day). Both regions with a land area 14.3% of nationwide area, an averageinsolation of 18.2 MJ/m2‐day. In addition 50.2% area has an average insolation of 18‐19 MJ/(m2day). This shows Kingdom of Thailand has a high potential for ConcentratedSolar Power energy generation.
  4. 4. The map on the left shows the intensity of solar energy in the Kingdom of Thailand, which indicates the various zones in the western, northeastern, and central regions. The other areas still show a high incidence of solar energy with lower energy.National Daily Average ofSolar Energy by Area
  5. 5. The graph on the left shownpercent area of insolation, 14.3% hasinsolation 19‐20 MJ/(m2day), morethan 50% has insolation 18‐19MJ/(m2day), respectively on averagewith a small area of 0.5% with littlesunshine. This provides Kingdom ofThailand an average insolation of 18.2MJ/(m2day).
  6. 6. By Region Annual Average  Energy Eff / Intensity  1,000 Tons  MJ/(m2day) of OilNational  18.2 554,070.60Total
  7. 7. CLFR Chonburi, Thailand Steam Test 400 PSI 450 C Dish Phitsanulok, ThailandKarnchanaburi, Thailand Steam Test 150 PSI 180 C Real Time Energy Monitor
  8. 8. Steam Test Out of Focus Aug 25/2011 Cloudy Row No. 11.30 1 95 109 104 2 130 131 130 3 160 160 160 4 190 191 190 Row No. 13.30 1 135 135 140 2 151 150 155 3 165 165 163 4 173 175 172 In focusOct 4, 2011 11:45-12:00 Cloudy Row No. Zone1 Zone2 Zone3 1 150 180 190 2 170 210 210 3 210 270 300 4 290 350 380
  9. 9. Generated electric can be sold directly to the Provincial ElectricityAuthority (PEA). These electric distributes through out the countryexclude Bangkok Metropolitan Area. The Government providesinvestment incentives including an Adder Tariff of 0.27 USD (8.0 THB)per Kilowatt for all powers generated by Solar Energy. PEA will purchasesit for ten years from first operation date.
  10. 10. For  TOU electricity users the average rates follow the EGAT wholesale rate of 11‐33 kW based on the period of usage as follows. Distribution Rate USD/kW THB/kW Peak 0.098 2.94 Off Peak 0.037 1.11Peak Period : 09.00‐22.00, 13 hrs, Monday‐Friday and Ploughing Ceremony DayOff Peak : 22.00 ‐ 09.00, 11 hrs, Monday‐Friday and Ploughing Ceremony DayHolidays : 00.00‐24.00 Monday‐Friday, Labor Day and Regular (not including Ploughing Ceremony Day and Alternate Holidays).
  11. 11. 2007 2008 2009 USD THB USD THB USD THBJan 0.0260 0.780 0.0211 0.663 0.0303 0.909Feb 0.0244 0.732 0.0230 0.669 0.0303 0.909Mar 0.0244 0.732 0.0230 0.669 0.0303 0.909Apr 0.0244 0.732 0.0230 0.669 0.0303 0.909May 0.0244 0.732 0.0230 0.669 0.0306 0.918Jun 0.0228 0.684 0.0225 0.675 0.0306 0.918Jul 0.0228 0.684 0.0225 0.675 0.0306 0.918Aug 0.0228 0.684 0.0225 0.675 0.0306 0.918Sep 0.0028 0.684 0.0225 0.675 0.0309 0.927Oct 0.0221 0.663 0.0258 0.774 0.0309 0.927Nov 0.0221 0.663 0.0258 0.774 0.0309 0.927Dec 0.0221 0.663 0.0258 0.774 0.0309 0.927
  12. 12. USD/kW THB/kWStandard Rate Peak 0.0976 2.93 Off Peak 0.0372 1.12Ft Charge July 2009 0.0306 0.92Adder Tariff Solar 0.2667 8.00
  13. 13. Power  Adder +  + South 3  Years Generated  Special ProvinceBiomass <= 1 MW 0.5 1.0 1.0 7 > 1 MW 0.3 1.0 1.0 7Biogas <= 1 MW 0.5 1.0 1.0 7All Types, sources >   1 MW 0.3 1.0 1.0 7Garbage and Waste Material from Community or Industry that are non‐toxicFermentaion, Landfill 2.5 1.0 1.0 7Thermal Process 3.5 1.0 1.0 7Wind Power <= 50 kW 4.5 1.5 1.5 10 >   50 kW 3.5 1.5 1.5 10Small Hydro 50 < 200 kW 0.8 1.0 1.0 7 <   50 kW 1.5 1.0 1.0 7Solar  8.0 1.5 1.5 10
  14. 14. Period Descriptions No of Days Remarks A Standard Year 365 B Standard Hours/Day 24 C No of Weeks/Year 52 D No of Official Holliday 117 E + F E Saturdays/Sundays 104 2 * C F Royal Holiday 13
  15. 15. No Day Descriptions Time to Generate Electric Working  On Peak  Off Peak  Total  Day hrs hrs Hours1 Week Hours per day ‐ 13 11 24 Hours for Generation 248 3,224 2,728 5,9512 Holiday Hours per day ‐ ‐ 24 24 Hours for Generation 117 ‐ 2,808 2,808Total 365 3,224 5,536 8,760
  16. 16. Detail On Peak Off Peak USD/kW THB/kW USD/kW THB/kWStandard Rate 0.0976 2.93 0.0372 1.12Ft charged (July 2009) 0.0306 0.98 0.0306 0.98Adder Tariff 0.2667 8.00 0.2667 8.00Connecting Charged 2 % ‐0.0069 ‐0.21 ‐0.0057 ‐0.17Total 0.3869 11.61 0.3277 9.83
  17. 17. Period kW Annual  Annual  USD/kW Total  Total     Hours kW 100% Eff 75% EffOn Peak 6,000 3,224 19,344,000 0.3869 7,485,219 5,613,914Off Peak 6,000 5,536 33,216,000 0.3277 10,886,475 8,164,857 52,560,000 18,371,694 13,778,771
  18. 18. Strengths • No need to purchase fuel (gasoline, diesel, gas, coal, etc.) to generate electric any more. • Solar Power generation is environment friendly. • Kingdom of Thailand has plenty of appropriate areas for solar energy efficiency. • Latest Concentrated Solar Technology, needs few skilled people to operate. • Thai’s Government provides incentives for investment on renewable energy.
  19. 19. Weakness • Not reliable as it can operate only when the sun shine. • It depends on climate and season conditions.Opportunity • It is national energy policy to reduce dependence on fossil fuels to generate power and provides incentives for alternative energy generation. • The high world prices of fossil fuels is still in an upward trend which affects high local electricity rates. • The increased demand for Solar energy has started to reduce cost of solar materials with better efficiency. • The demand for electricity continues to rise due to economic development and increase in population. • The trend in fossil fuels is that they will soon run out if present increasing demand continues. • The Government provides an Adder Tariff of THB 8.00/kW for ten years as incentive for Solar Power generation.
  20. 20. Threat 1. There is lack of support from Banks for Concentrate Solar Power generation due to its new technology not many people understand it. 2. The process for licenses and permits is still long and tedious. 3. There are too many agencies involved to process the necessary approvals.
  21. 21. 1 MW 12 hrs 300 days/yr @ 550 W/m2 THBElectric Sale 11.6 THB/kw‐hr 13 hrs 41,760,000Carbon Credit  4,130 / day 1,239,000Maintenance 10,000 / day ‐3,000,000Operation 20,000 / day ‐6,000,000Income per year 33,999,000 42,999,000 ‐9,000,000Plant Cost Return with in  4.3 Years 146,000,000Operation Cost : Salary, Interest, Insurance, Licenses, Other expenses
  22. 22. Analysis of Solar Thermal Technology in  Thailand, CLFR, Trough Medium Insolation, Hot and Humid Country, Soft‐Land DNI 550 w/m2  DNI Mirror Area Operate  Absorber Start End  Manufactures  Technologies MW eff W/m2 m 2 Rais hrs. Temp C Time Time 550  1.2  25,920.00  16.20  6 9:00 15:00 Theory 370 Thai  550  1.2  51,840.00  32.40  12 9:00 21:00 SSF Local Design  550  1.0  25,920.00  16.20  6 9:30 16:30 0.83  CLFR Local  550  2.0  51,840.00  32.40  6 9:30 16:30 0.83  Real  350 Fabrication 550  1.0  51,840.00  32.40  12 9:30 22:00 0.83  550  2.0  103,680.00  64.80  12 9:30 22:30 0.83  1,000  1.0  9,000.00  5.63  5 9:00 15:00 Theory 400SolLight Germany Local  1,000  5.0  45,000.00  28.13  5 9:00 15:00Trough Fabrication 550  0.5  9,000.00  5.63  5 10:00 15:00 0.50  Real  370 550  2.5  45,000.00  28.13  5 10:00 15:00 0.50  Theory Thai 1,000 0.01 50 6 850 9:00 15:00 SSF Local Design Dish Real Local 550 0.005 50 6 600 10:00 16:00 0.50 Fabrication
  23. 23. Suppliers Solar  Engine Generator Controller Absorber Storage Mode XFUR Tracker HTF  Dual  ABB  with  SSF     SSF  SSF  SSF Linear  Phase  Induction  Steam  Sensor  TASCO CLFR Engine  Software  Absorber  Molten  Motor  Boiler  Salt  Loop SolLight Mann  Mann  Siemens  Steam  Direct  Schott  Time  TASCOTrough Turbine  Generator  Software  Pressure  Steam  HTF  Dual Mitsubishi SSF  with  SSF SSF SSF Phase Induction Tubular Steam  Sensor none Dish Engine Software Molten  Motor Absorber Boiler  Salt Loop

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