Concentrate Solar Power (CSP) has become an attractive alternative sourcefor electricity generation by using clean technology friendly to environment. Kingdom of Thailand not like many countries in the world suffering fromhigh insolation DNI 1,000 W/m2. Kingdom of Thailand has an average of DNI550 W/m2. Kingdom of Thailand locate near equator zone, hot and humidcountry with soft‐land. It is almost impossible to operate Solar Thermal in thisareas. With special designed from Thai’s engineer can proved in this region withmedium insolation could operate Solar Thermal very well. It must be designedto suit the environment and requirements of each area. The Solar Dish,Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector and Solar Trough, more than 85 % of powerplant locally made in country, work fine in this location. Kingdom of Thailand has an advantage of solar hours with an average of 325days per year with little cloud. Also Thai’s government has establish severalincentives, including Adder Tariff for ten years, to assist investors through theProvincial Electric Authority (PEA) on Very Small Power Producer (VSPP).
In year 2542 (1999), Department of Energy Development, Ministry ofEnergy and the Science Department of Silpakorn University, Kingdom ofThailand surveyors discovered that solar intensity vary by season(summer, rainy(monsoon), winter) and areas from the northeast andsouthwest. April and May are the highest insolation. • Northeastern provinces such as Nakhon Ratchasima, Buriram, Surin, Sri Saket, Roi Et, Yasothon, Ubon Ratchathani with an average of 20‐24 MJ/(m2day). • Central provinces such as Suphan Buri, Chainat, Ayudhya, Lopburi with an average of about 19‐20 MJ/(m2day). Both regions with a land area 14.3% of nationwide area, an averageinsolation of 18.2 MJ/m2‐day. In addition 50.2% area has an average insolation of 18‐19 MJ/(m2day). This shows Kingdom of Thailand has a high potential for ConcentratedSolar Power energy generation.
The map on the left shows the intensity of solar energy in the Kingdom of Thailand, which indicates the various zones in the western, northeastern, and central regions. The other areas still show a high incidence of solar energy with lower energy.National Daily Average ofSolar Energy by Area
The graph on the left shownpercent area of insolation, 14.3% hasinsolation 19‐20 MJ/(m2day), morethan 50% has insolation 18‐19MJ/(m2day), respectively on averagewith a small area of 0.5% with littlesunshine. This provides Kingdom ofThailand an average insolation of 18.2MJ/(m2day).
By Region Annual Average Energy Eff / Intensity 1,000 Tons MJ/(m2day) of OilNational 18.2 554,070.60Total
CLFR Chonburi, Thailand Steam Test 400 PSI 450 C Dish Phitsanulok, ThailandKarnchanaburi, Thailand Steam Test 150 PSI 180 C Real Time Energy Monitor
Generated electric can be sold directly to the Provincial ElectricityAuthority (PEA). These electric distributes through out the countryexclude Bangkok Metropolitan Area. The Government providesinvestment incentives including an Adder Tariff of 0.27 USD (8.0 THB)per Kilowatt for all powers generated by Solar Energy. PEA will purchasesit for ten years from first operation date.
For TOU electricity users the average rates follow the EGAT wholesale rate of 11‐33 kW based on the period of usage as follows. Distribution Rate USD/kW THB/kW Peak 0.098 2.94 Off Peak 0.037 1.11Peak Period : 09.00‐22.00, 13 hrs, Monday‐Friday and Ploughing Ceremony DayOff Peak : 22.00 ‐ 09.00, 11 hrs, Monday‐Friday and Ploughing Ceremony DayHolidays : 00.00‐24.00 Monday‐Friday, Labor Day and Regular (not including Ploughing Ceremony Day and Alternate Holidays).
USD/kW THB/kWStandard Rate Peak 0.0976 2.93 Off Peak 0.0372 1.12Ft Charge July 2009 0.0306 0.92Adder Tariff Solar 0.2667 8.00
Power Adder + + South 3 Years Generated Special ProvinceBiomass <= 1 MW 0.5 1.0 1.0 7 > 1 MW 0.3 1.0 1.0 7Biogas <= 1 MW 0.5 1.0 1.0 7All Types, sources > 1 MW 0.3 1.0 1.0 7Garbage and Waste Material from Community or Industry that are non‐toxicFermentaion, Landfill 2.5 1.0 1.0 7Thermal Process 3.5 1.0 1.0 7Wind Power <= 50 kW 4.5 1.5 1.5 10 > 50 kW 3.5 1.5 1.5 10Small Hydro 50 < 200 kW 0.8 1.0 1.0 7 < 50 kW 1.5 1.0 1.0 7Solar 8.0 1.5 1.5 10
Period Descriptions No of Days Remarks A Standard Year 365 B Standard Hours/Day 24 C No of Weeks/Year 52 D No of Official Holliday 117 E + F E Saturdays/Sundays 104 2 * C F Royal Holiday 13
No Day Descriptions Time to Generate Electric Working On Peak Off Peak Total Day hrs hrs Hours1 Week Hours per day ‐ 13 11 24 Hours for Generation 248 3,224 2,728 5,9512 Holiday Hours per day ‐ ‐ 24 24 Hours for Generation 117 ‐ 2,808 2,808Total 365 3,224 5,536 8,760
Strengths • No need to purchase fuel (gasoline, diesel, gas, coal, etc.) to generate electric any more. • Solar Power generation is environment friendly. • Kingdom of Thailand has plenty of appropriate areas for solar energy efficiency. • Latest Concentrated Solar Technology, needs few skilled people to operate. • Thai’s Government provides incentives for investment on renewable energy.
Weakness • Not reliable as it can operate only when the sun shine. • It depends on climate and season conditions.Opportunity • It is national energy policy to reduce dependence on fossil fuels to generate power and provides incentives for alternative energy generation. • The high world prices of fossil fuels is still in an upward trend which affects high local electricity rates. • The increased demand for Solar energy has started to reduce cost of solar materials with better efficiency. • The demand for electricity continues to rise due to economic development and increase in population. • The trend in fossil fuels is that they will soon run out if present increasing demand continues. • The Government provides an Adder Tariff of THB 8.00/kW for ten years as incentive for Solar Power generation.
Threat 1. There is lack of support from Banks for Concentrate Solar Power generation due to its new technology not many people understand it. 2. The process for licenses and permits is still long and tedious. 3. There are too many agencies involved to process the necessary approvals.
1 MW 12 hrs 300 days/yr @ 550 W/m2 THBElectric Sale 11.6 THB/kw‐hr 13 hrs 41,760,000Carbon Credit 4,130 / day 1,239,000Maintenance 10,000 / day ‐3,000,000Operation 20,000 / day ‐6,000,000Income per year 33,999,000 42,999,000 ‐9,000,000Plant Cost Return with in 4.3 Years 146,000,000Operation Cost : Salary, Interest, Insurance, Licenses, Other expenses
Analysis of Solar Thermal Technology in Thailand, CLFR, Trough Medium Insolation, Hot and Humid Country, Soft‐Land DNI 550 w/m2 DNI Mirror Area Operate Absorber Start End Manufactures Technologies MW eff W/m2 m 2 Rais hrs. Temp C Time Time 550 1.2 25,920.00 16.20 6 9:00 15:00 Theory 370 Thai 550 1.2 51,840.00 32.40 12 9:00 21:00 SSF Local Design 550 1.0 25,920.00 16.20 6 9:30 16:30 0.83 CLFR Local 550 2.0 51,840.00 32.40 6 9:30 16:30 0.83 Real 350 Fabrication 550 1.0 51,840.00 32.40 12 9:30 22:00 0.83 550 2.0 103,680.00 64.80 12 9:30 22:30 0.83 1,000 1.0 9,000.00 5.63 5 9:00 15:00 Theory 400SolLight Germany Local 1,000 5.0 45,000.00 28.13 5 9:00 15:00Trough Fabrication 550 0.5 9,000.00 5.63 5 10:00 15:00 0.50 Real 370 550 2.5 45,000.00 28.13 5 10:00 15:00 0.50 Theory Thai 1,000 0.01 50 6 850 9:00 15:00 SSF Local Design Dish Real Local 550 0.005 50 6 600 10:00 16:00 0.50 Fabrication
Suppliers Solar Engine Generator Controller Absorber Storage Mode XFUR Tracker HTF Dual ABB with SSF SSF SSF SSF Linear Phase Induction Steam Sensor TASCO CLFR Engine Software Absorber Molten Motor Boiler Salt Loop SolLight Mann Mann Siemens Steam Direct Schott Time TASCOTrough Turbine Generator Software Pressure Steam HTF Dual Mitsubishi SSF with SSF SSF SSF Phase Induction Tubular Steam Sensor none Dish Engine Software Molten Motor Absorber Boiler Salt Loop